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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 149778 matches for " H Asmah "
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Processing Malaysian Indigenous Languages: A Focus on Phonology and Grammar  [PDF]
Asmah Haji Omar
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.45063
Abstract: Malaysian indigenous languages are of two entirely different families: Austronesian and Austroasiatic. The former consists of Malay and all the languages of Sabah and Sarawak, while the latter the aboriginal languages found only in Peninsular Malaysia. Except for Malay and a few more in Sabah and Sarawak, most of these languages have not been put into writing. This means that no writing system has been ascribed to them, despite the fact that quite a number have been described in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax. From the descriptions available, one gets a picture of their typologies and systems for processing purposes. Concerning typology, there is not much difference between the two families as far as phonemic inventories go, but there are differences in the phonological structures of the syllable and the word. As for morphology, the Austronesian languages are agglutinative, while the Austroasiatic ones are isolative. There is also a difference in the syntactical status of the word, where the former has the two categories of the full word and the particle, and the latter only the full word. This last mentioned difference leads to a divergence between them in the types of phrase, the clause, and the complex sentence. Natural language processing (NLP) is a methodology which is now being applied in the analysis of various aspects of languages. This paper discusses the constraints faced by most of the Malaysian indigenous languages in the application of this methodology.
Surveillance of viral haemorrhagic fevers in Ghana: entomological assessment of the risk of transmission in the northern regions
M Appawu, S Dadzie, H Abdul, H Asmah, D Boakye, M Wilson, D Ofori-adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Objectives: To assess the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers in northern Ghana. Design: A two-year cross-sectional entomological study was carried out in four communities in the northern part of Ghana. Standard WHO methods were used to collect adult and larvae of Aedes mosquitoes to estimate man-vector contact rates and larval indices. Results: A total of 2804 households were surveyed to estimate larval indices and man-vector contacts of potential vectors of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Yellow fever and Dengue. Over 56% households in each study site were positive for Aedes larvae. Relatively higher Breteaux index (BI) and Container index (CI) were estimated in Damongo (BI: 180 and CI: 44.8) and Jirapa (BI: 149.7 and CI: 41.5) compared to Tumu (BI: 76.1 and CI: 19.5) and Bolgatanga (BI: 72.4 and CI: 20.6). Man-biting rates of 9.8 and 18.5 bites /man/hour were estimated for Damongo and Jirapa respectively whilst Bolgatanga recorded 10 B/M/H. Generally, man-vector contact rates in all the study sites were higher during the dry season than the wet season. Larval indices showed seasonal variations and the dry season was identified as the high-risk period for transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and possible disease outbreaks. No flavivirus was detected in the 2034 Aedes mosquitoes from the study sites by RTPCR. Conclusions: Aedes mosquito larval densities and adult biting rates, in all the study areas were sufficient to promote outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers.
Comparing of the Cytotoxicity Properties and Mechanism of Lawsonia inermis and Strobilanthes crispus Extract Against Several Cancer Cell Lines
Susi Endrini,Asmah Rahmat,Patimah Ismail,Y.H. Taufiq-Yap
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This research was conducted to study and compare the cytotoxic effect of the extracts of two plants, henna (Lawsonia inermis) and kejibeling (Strobilanthes crispus) on several kinds of cancer cell lines. The mechanism of the effect was also studied through the expression of cancer-caused gene, c-myc. This research was done in vitro using several kinds of cancer cell lines such as human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2), liver cancer cell lines (HepG2), hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and hormone-independent breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) and Chang Liver cell lines. The cytotoxic effect was measured through MTT assay and the potential cytotoxic value was calculated by determining the toxic concentration which may kill up to 50% of the total cell used (IC50). Meanwhile, the cytotoxic mechanism was studied by determining the effect of adding both extracts to the c-myc gene expression. The methods for determination were RT-PCR and sequencing process. The results showed that chloroform extract from henna can be used against human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2) and liver cancer cell lines (HepG2) with an IC50-value of 25.1 and 28 μg mLG1, respectively. Kejibeling was also found to be cytotoxic against human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2) and hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) with an IC50-value of 0.3 and 24.8 μg mLG1, respectively. However, the extract was not cytotoxic against human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2). The smallest value of IC50 was seen when the kejibeling extract was compared with henna. The cytotoxic effect of both plant extracts may be mediated by the down-regulation of c-myc expression.
Aetiology of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections among Children Under Five Years in Accra, Ghana
Theophilus K. Adiku,Richard H. Asmah,Onike Rodrigues,Bamenla Goka,Evangeline Obodai,Andrew A. Adjei,Eric S. Donkor,George Armah
Pathogens , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/pathogens4010022
Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the aetiological agents and clinical presentations associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) among children under five years old at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. This was a cross-sectional study carried from February to December 2001. Nasopharyngeal aspirates and venous blood specimens obtained from 108 children with features suggestive of ALRI, were cultured and the isolated bacterial organisms were identified biochemically. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were also tested for Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV) antigen using a commercial kit (Becton Dickinson Directigen RSV test kit). A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was also used to detect and characterize RSV using extracted RNA. Socio-demographic and clinical data were also obtained from the study subjects. Bronchopneumonia (55.5%), bronchiolitis (25%), lobar pneumonia (10.2), non-specific ALRI (4.6%), TB, bronchitis and respiratory distress (0.67%) were diagnosed. The prevalence of septicaemia was 10% and bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and enteric bacteria, including Salmonella spp., Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp, were isolated. Out of the 108 cases, 18% tested positive for RSV, with two cases having RSV as the only aetiological pathogen detected. The subtyping analysis of RSV strains by a multiplex RT-PCR showed that subgroups A and B circulated in the season of analysis.
Contact of Dialect Clusters: The Malay Peninsula and Sumatera  [PDF]
Asmah Haji Omar, Salinah Jaafar, Siti Ruhaizah Che Mat
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.55040
Abstract: Contact between speakers of clusters of Malay dialects of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatera has been going on from historical times until today. This study discusses contacts as reflected in the literary genres of the syair and the hikayat. A research was conducted on a real life situation of the contact of the Bengkulu dialect cluster of Sumatera and that of the southern peninsula Malay dialect in a Bengkulu settler community in the latter region, to assess the receptivity of the speakers of the minority settler community of the norms of the host region. The findings showed that although there was adaptation on the part of the minority community, it did not come readily. Norms that determine the preferred use and usage of language, as well as the social pragmatics of adaptation are the motivating factors for acceptance. Stability of the minority as part of a larger community leads to uninhibited awareness of the traditions of the (former’s) parent community, which in turn motivates a regeneration of erstwhile practices.
Measuring Factors Influencing Progression across the Stages of Readiness to Lose Weight among Overweight and Obese Adolescents  [PDF]
Rosnah Sutan, Asmah Johari, Rozita Hod, M. T. Azmi
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.91011
Abstract: Epidemic incidence of obesity has become one of the public health priorities in disease control prevention. The study aims to determine the prevalence of readiness stages to lose weight among the overweight and obese adolescents and its influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 631 adolescents of body mass index for age with z-score > 1 SD based on World Health Organization growth reference chart. The stages of readiness to lose weight were assessed using Trans-Theoretical Model. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors were collected using self-administered questionnaire. Majority of the respondents were in the action stage (40.3%) followed by contemplation (26.5%), preparation (15.5%), maintenance (11.4%) and pre-contemplation (6.3%). Ordinal regression analysis identified significant factors influencing progression across the stages of readiness to lose weight: no junk foods sold in school canteens (p = 0.005), TV viewing time ≤2 hours (p = 0.001), high physical activity means score (p < 0.001) and family encouragement on healthy eating (p = 0.010). Majority of adolescents who were overweight and obese were at the action stage of weight reduction. Focusing on extrinsic factors help to improve the effectiveness of weight management intervention.
Sachet drinking water in accra: the potential threats of transmission of enteric pathogenic protozoan organisms
G Kwakye-nuako, P.B Borketey, I Mensah-attipoe, R.H Asmah, P.F Ayeh-kumi
Ghana Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: The recent introduction of sachet water to consumers was to provide safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public. Although this is a laudable idea current trends seem to suggest that sachet drinking water could be a route of transmission of enteric pathogens. Objective: To assess the safety of sachet drinking water. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven different brands of 500ml sachet water samples randomly selected and purchased from various vendors in Accra were subjected to microscopic examinations to determine the presence of parasitic protozoa. The study was carried out between January and May 2005. Results: Seventy-seven percent of the samples contained infective stages of pathogenic parasitic organisms. Common pathogens identified include, Microsporidia sp 14/27 (51.2%), Cryptosporidium parvum 17/27 (63.0%), Cyclospora cayetenensis 16/27 (59.3%), Sarcocystis sp. 18/27 (66.7%). Rotifers 5/27 (18.5%), and Charcoat Leyden crystals 12/27 (44.4%). Ninety-three percent of the samples contained unidentified impurities/artifacts. 29.6% of the samples contained at least one type of parasite, 14.8% contained at least 2 types of parasites, 25.9% contained at least three types of parasites, while 29.6% contained four types of parasites. Conclusion: The study indicated the presence of contaminants of feacal and zoonotic origin in some of the sachet water examined. This has grim public health implications as the organisms identified can cause water related diseases which have serious complications in children and adults particularly immunocompromised individuals. Sachet water should be constantly monitored for its microbial quality.
Trace Metal Levels in Water and Sediment from the Sakumo II and Muni Lagoons, Ghana
CK Tay, R Asmah, CA Biney
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2010,
Abstract: Trace metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe and Cd) levels were determined in water and sediment from the Sakumo II and Muni lagoons and the Mamahuma and Gbagbla Ankonu feeder streams, which feed the Sakumo II lagoon over a 1-year period, and their occurrences compared. Some physical parameters (temperature, pH and electrical conductivity) were also investigated. The aim of the study was to establish the pollution status of the two lagoons, as well as investigate whether the feeder streams of the Sakumo II lagoon have any influence (in terms of trace metal pollution) on the Sakumo II lagoon. Results showed that upper mean values in water and sediment were Zn ( 0.160 ± 0.01 mg/l, 48.7 ± 0.93 mg/kg), Pb (0.057 ± 0.03 mg/l, 29.2 ± 3.2 mg/kg), Mn (0.798 ± 0.07 mg/l, 668.2 ± 6.3 mg/kg), Cu (0.158 ± 0.01 mg/l), Fe (1.32 ± 0.73 mg/l, 3075 ± 14.7 mg/kg), respectively, for Sakumo II lagoon. Cd levels in water and sediment ranged from 0.004 ± 0.001 to 0.009 ± 0.001 mg/l and < 0.002 to 0.88 ± 0.05 mg/kg respectively, in the Sakumo II lagoon. Compared to the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/l, the Cd levels in water from the Sakumo II lagoon may be detrimental to the ‘health’ of the aquatic ecosystem and, consequently, consumers of fish products from the Sakumo II lagoon. Water and sediment in the Muni lagoon had trace metal concentrations with upper mean values as Cd (< 0.002 mg/l, 0.325 ± 0.01 mg/kg), Pb (0.033 ± 0.01 mg/l, 1.46 ± 0.18 mg/kg), Mn (0.434 ± 0.02 mg/l, 63.8 ± 1.50 mg/kg), Zn (0.077 ± 0.001 mg/l, 13.7 ± 0.18 mg/kg), Cu (0.013 ± 0.001 mg/l) and Fe (1.085 ± 0.26 mg/l, 3198.4 ± 3.51 mg/kg), respectively. Generally, trace metal levels detected in sediment from the Mamahuma ( Zn: 10.4 ± 4.10 mg/kg, Pb: 10.6 ± 1.84 mg/kg, Mn: 63.7 ± 4.5 mg/kg, Fe: 7487 ± 23.5 mg/kg, Cd: < 0.002), and from the Gbagbla Ankonu ( Zn: 155 ± 13.9 mg/kg, Pb: 37.4 ± 3.07 mg/kg, Mn: 298.2 ± 2.5 mg/kg, Fe: 3209 ± 50.5 mg/kg, Cd: 0.70 ± 0.05 mg/kg) feeder streams were relatively higher than those in the Sakumo II lagoon. Sediment from the feeder streams, therefore, provided a deeper insight into the long- term pollution state of the feeder streams and, consequently, the Sakumo II lagoon. The streams could, thus, be described as potential sources of trace metal pollution to the Sakumo II lagoon. Trace metal levels were also found to be more concentrated in sediment from the mid-section of the Muni lagoon than those from the northern and southern sections, while the northern section had more trace metal concentrations in water than those from the mid- and southern sections. The study also showed that trace metal levels detected in both water and sediment from the Sakumo II lagoon were higher relative to those from the Muni lagoon. The Sakumo II lagoon could be described as relatively more polluted with trace metal load.
Trace Metal Concentrations in Commercially Important Fishes from some Coastal and Inland Waters in Ghana
C Tay, R Asmah, CA Biney
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2008,
Abstract: An assessment was conducted on the concentrations of zinc, copper, manganese, iron, lead and cadmium in 10 different fish species caught from some coastal and inland waters in Ghana, as part of a project on monitoring of pollution in water bodies in Ghana. Shellfish species (Egeria paradoxa galanata and Atya gabonensis) caught from inland waters had higher elemental concentrations than those caught from coastal waters. Mean concentrations of Fe and Mn were higher in E. paradoxa galanata, A. gabonensis and Trachiurus trachiurus, while Panulirus regius and Sardinella eba had higher mean concentrations of Cu. T. trachiurus, Dentex congoensis and T. ovatus had higher mean concentrations of Pb, while T. trachiurus and S. eba had higher mean concentrations of Zn. Mean Cd concentrations in the fish species were relatively low, with mean concentrations of Cynoglossus cadenati, D. congoensis and T. ovatus below detection limits. The mean concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd for shell fishes were comparable to those obtained from previous studies in Ghana. However, they were lower than those reported in other areas of the sub-region. The mean concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in fin fishes were higher than those obtained from previous studies in Ghana. However, these values were comparable to those obtained from other areas in the sub-region. Compared to WHO limits, the levels of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in the fish species were lower, and, therefore, safe for human consumption. The study also showed that all the fish species except S. eba, Solar crumophthalmus and P. regius are safe for human consumption with respect to Zn, Cu and Fe. West African Journal of Applied Ecology Vol. 13 2008: pp. 27-38
Peralihan Demografi Dan Kesejahteraan Sosial Masyarakat Melayu : Suatu Perbandingan Antara Malaysia Dan Kemboja
Asmah Ahmad,Rosniza Aznie Che Rose
e-BANGI : Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities , 2011,
Abstract: Ciri kependudukan sesuatu masyarakat berkait rapat dengan tingkat kesejahteraan sosial yang dinikmatinya. Suatu aspek sifat kependudukan tersebut ialah tinggi rendahnya tingkat kesuburan dan kematian yang dialami. Tingkat pembangunan sebagai suatu ukuran kemajuan atau tingkat kesejahteraan pernah dikaitkan dengan ciri kependudukan sedemikian melalui hubungan songsang. Masyarakat yang bercirikan kadar kelahiran dan kematian rendah dilihat sebagai mempunyai tingkat pembangunan relatif tinggi, justeru kesejahteraan tinggi, berbanding masyarakat yang bercirikan kadar kelahiran dan kematian tinggi pula mempunyai pembangunan relatif rendah, justeru kesejahteraan juga rendah. Dengan berlatar belakangkan hujah sedemikian, makalah ini cuba merungkai keadaan kesejahteraan sosial penduduk Melayu Malaysia dan Kemboja dengan menyusuri prestasi evolusi peralihan demografi masing-masing melalui pembangunan kesihatan dan pelajaran, iaitu dua daripada komponen kesejahteraan sosial. Kedua-dua komponen kesejahteraan ini memainkan peranan unggul dalam mempengaruhi tingkat kelahiran dan kematian. Analisis daripada data sedia ada menunjukkan Malaysia berada di akhir peralihan demografinya dengan kadar kelahiran dan kematian rendah pada tahun 2000 (masing-masing 25 kelahiran dan 5 kematian per 1000 penduduk) sementara Kemboja masih berada di peringkat awal peralihan dengan kadar kelahiran dan kematian yang masih tinggi (34 kelahiran dan 11 kematian per 1000 penduduk). Kadar ini terjelma daripada tingkat kadar kematian bayi (IMR) yang rendah dan jangkaan hayat yang tinggi (indikator kesihatan relatif baik) di Malaysia, sebaliknya kadar kematian bayi yang tinggi dan jangkaan hayat yang rendah (indikator kesihatan relatif rendah) bagi Kemboja. Kesejahteraan yang lebih baik di Malaysia juga digambarkan melalui kadar celek huruf dan Keluaran Dalam Negara Kasar yang jauh lebih tinggi berbanding Kemboja. Kedua-dua indikator akhir ini mempengaruhi taraf kesihatan berbeza yang dialami Malaysia dan Kemboja.
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