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Studies on the in Vitro Dissolution of Insoluble Volatile Drug from Su-Anxin Nasal Inhalant and Its Correlation on the Nose Steady Self-Controllable Expiration and Inspiration at Night  [PDF]
Xiaodong Li, Guoxiang Xie, Suyun Li, Chao Hou
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2011.22008
Abstract: In the paper, the in vitro dissolution of borneol in 12 hours from 6 batches of optimized inhalant samples were investigated. As a new dosage form, the in vitro release apparatus of nasal inhalant was invented and a pushing bump was used according to the simulation of the nose expiration and inspiration. Based on the data of r2 in the profile and similar factor f2 from 6 linear release tendencies, a good controlled release and a zero order tendency were observed. It can be suggested that there is a good correlation between the in vitro controlled release and the nose steady self-controllable expiration and inspiration, which will contribute to the trend of insoluble volatile drug controlled release and the effect of quick absorption in nasal pulmonary delivery to cure severe or acute cardiovascular or lung diseases at patients' sleeping, such as angina or breathing obstruction. Also, it was concluded that the prescription composed of insoluble volatile drugs can be prepared to be nasal inhalant from which drugs can be absorbed through nose steady self-controllable inspiration to the lung then into the blood and have a great effectiveness improvement of bioavailability at night timing drug delivery system.
Towards Polypharmacokinetics: Pharmacokinetics of Multicomponent Drugs and Herbal Medicines Using a Metabolomics Approach
Ke Lan,Guoxiang Xie,Wei Jia
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/819147
Abstract:
A Metabolomics-Based Strategy for the Quality Control of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Shengmai Injection as a Case Study
Xiaodong Li,Huiyuan Chen,Wei Jia,Guoxiang Xie
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/836179
Abstract:
Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy by Traditional Chinese Medicine
Chun Yao,Nong Tang,Guoxiang Xie,Xiaojiao Zheng,Ping Liu,Lei Fu,Wu Xie,Fan Yao,Houkai Li,Wei Jia
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/835686
Abstract: In spite of the impressive progress in the investigation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), the complex mechanisms underlying the onset and deterioration of HE are still not fully understood. Currently, none of the existing theories provide conclusive explanations on the symptoms that link liver dysfunction to nervous system disorders and clinical manifestations. This paper summarized the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used for HE in modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine and provided future perspective in HE therapies from the viewpoint of holistic and personalized Chinese medicine.
A Lipoprotein Lipase–Promoting Agent, NO-1886, Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in High Fat, High Sucrose–Fed New Zealand White Rabbits
Weidong Yin,Zhonghua Yuan,Kazuhiko Tsutsumi,Yuxiang Xie,Qiuju Zhang,Zongbao Wang,Guoxiang fu,Guang Long,Yongzong Yang
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1080/15438600303732
Abstract: The synthetic compound NO-1886 is a lipoprotein lipase activator that lowers plasma triglycerides and elevates high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Recently, the authors found that NO-1886 also had an action of reducing plasma glucose in high-fat/high-sucrose diet–induced diabetic rabbits. In the current study, we investigated the effects of NO-1886 on insulin resistance and β-cell function in rabbits. Our results showed that high-fat/high-sucrose feeding increased plasma triglyceride, free fatty acid (FFA), and glucose levels and decreased HDL-C level. This diet also induced insulin resistance and impairment of acute insulin response to glucose loading. Supplementing 1% NO-1886 into the high-fat/high-sucrose diet resulted in decreased plasma triglyceride, FFA, and glucose levels and increased HDL-C level. The authors also found a clear increased glucose clearance and a protected acute insulin response to intravenous glucose loading by NO-1886 supplementation. These data suggest that NO-1886 suppresses the elevation of blood glucose in rabbits induced by feeding a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, probably through controlling lipid metabolism and improving insulin resistance.
Metabolic profiling reveals therapeutic effects of Herba Cistanches in an animal model of hydrocortisone-induced 'kidney-deficiency syndrome'
Yunping Qiu, Minjun Chen, Mingming Su, Guoxiang Xie, Xin Li, Mingmei Zhou, Aihua Zhao, Jian Jiang, Wei Jia
Chinese Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8546-3-3
Abstract: Using GC-MS-based metabolic profiling, we investigated the metabolic responses to Herba Cistanches intervention in a rat model of the hydrocortisone-induced 'kidney-deficiency syndrome'.The metabolic profiles of the rats after hydrocortisone injection deviated from the pre-dose metabolic state at different time points, ranging from day 1 to day 10, whereas the metabolic profiles of the rats treated with both hydrocortisone and water extract of Herba Cistanches returned to the pre-dose state on day 10.The intervention of Herba Cistanches caused a systemic recovery from the hydrocortisone-induced metabolic perturbation in rats. This study also demonstrates that metabolic profiling is useful in studying therapeutic mechanisms of herbal medicines.Through modulation of biochemical reactions, control mechanisms, and enzyme activities, many drugs or chemicals cause fluctuation of metabolites present in single cells, tissues or body fluids [1]. Metabolic profiling, i.e. probing metabolites of low molecular weight (MW < 1000 Da) by means of advanced analytical instrument coupled with multivariate statistics, can show systemic responses of living systems to xenobiotics. It is also technically feasible to catalogue all the multifactorial heritable and environmentally influenced metabolic profiles of an organism, including the physiopathological consequences of toxin and/or disease-induced disturbances or disequilibria in metabolic regulatory network on a systemic level. To date, metabolic profiling has been established in screening, diagnosis, prognosis of diseases [2-4], and safety evaluation of certain drugs and chemicals [5-11].Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [12] and mass spectrometry (MS) [13], applied alone or in combination, have been used in profiling and characterizing metabolic consequences of toxin and/or disease-induced disturbances. NMR, which does not require tedious sample preprocessing, is a fast and simple method to obtain intrinsic information from complex a
High Fat Diet Feeding Exaggerates Perfluorooctanoic Acid-Induced Liver Injury in Mice via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways
Xiaobing Tan, Guoxiang Xie, Xiuhua Sun, Qiong Li, Wei Zhong, Peter Qiao, Xinguo Sun, Wei Jia, Zhanxiang Zhou
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061409
Abstract: High fat diet (HFD) is closely linked to a variety of health issues including fatty liver. Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid, also causes liver injury. The present study investigated the possible interactions between high fat diet and PFOA in induction of liver injury. Mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low fat control with or without PFOA administration at 5 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Exposure to PFOA alone caused elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels and increased liver weight along with reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass. HFD alone did not cause liver damage, but exaggerated PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by higher plasma ALT and AST levels, and more severe pathological changes including hepatocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplet accumulation and necrosis as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. These additive effects of HFD on PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity correlated with metabolic disturbance in liver and blood as well as up-regulation of hepatic proinflammatory cytokine genes. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that both serum and hepatic metabolite profiles of PFOA, HFD, or HFD-PFOA group were clearly differentiated from that of controls. PFOA affected more hepatic metabolites than HFD, but HFD showed positive interaction with PFOA on fatty acid metabolites including long chain fatty acids and acylcarnitines. Taken together, dietary high fat potentiates PFOA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and necrotic cell death by disturbing hepatic metabolism and inducing inflammation. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that HFD increases the risk of PFOA in induction of hepatotoxicity.
Catastrophic Health Expenditure and Rural Household Impoverishment in China: What Role Does the New Cooperative Health Insurance Scheme Play?
Ye Li, Qunhong Wu, Chaojie Liu, Zheng Kang, Xin Xie, Hui Yin, Mingli Jiao, Guoxiang Liu, Yanhua Hao, Ning Ning
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093253
Abstract: Objective To determine whether the New Cooperative Medical Insurance Scheme (NCMS) is associated with decreased levels of catastrophic health expenditure and reduced impoverishment due to medical expenses in rural households of China. Methods An analysis of a national representative sample of 38,945 rural households (129,635 people) from the 2008 National Health Service Survey was performed. Logistic regression models used binary indicator of catastrophic health expenditure as dependent variable, with household consumption, demographic characteristics, health insurance schemes, and chronic illness as independent variables. Results Higher percentage of households experiencing catastrophic health expenditure and medical impoverishment correlates to increased health care need. While the higher socio-economic status households had similar levels of catastrophic health expenditure as compared with the lowest. Households covered by the NCMS had similar levels of catastrophic health expenditure and medical impoverishment as those without health insurance. Conclusion Despite over 95% of coverage, the NCMS has failed to prevent catastrophic health expenditure and medical impoverishment. An upgrade of benefit packages is needed, and effective cost control mechanisms on the provider side needs to be considered.
Signal Detection Based on Walsh Transform for Spectrum Sensing  [PDF]
Guoxiang Yang, Guangliang Ren, Kun Wu
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53B2070
Abstract: Spectrum sensing is a key technology to improve spectrum efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel signal detection method based on Walsh transform for spectrum sensing. The main idea behind is that the received signal is transformed into another domain by Walsh transform and the test statistic is obtained by exploiting the feature of the useful signal in the new domain. The new method can perform well at low signal-to-noise rate (SNR). Simulation results show that the proposed method has better performance than the spectral feature detection based on power spectrum.
The Metabolic Responses to Aerial Diffusion of Essential Oils
Yani Wu, Yinan Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Aihua Zhao, Xiaolan Pan, Tianlu Chen, Yixue Hu, Yumin Liu, Yu Cheng, Yi Chi, Lei Yao, Wei Jia
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044830
Abstract: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and affect a great number of people worldwide. Essential oils, take effects through inhalation or topical application, are believed to enhance physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Although clinical studies suggest that the use of essential oils may have therapeutic potential, evidence for the efficacy of essential oils in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous analytical methods that capture its identifiable impact on human biology. Here, we report a comprehensive gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) based metabonomics study that reveals the aromas-induced metabolic changes and the anxiolytic effect of aromas in elevated plus maze (EPM) induced anxiety model rats. The significant alteration of metabolites in the EPM group was attenuated by aromas treatment, concurrent with the behavioral improvement with significantly increased open arms time and open arms entries. Brain tissue and urinary metabonomic analysis identified a number of altered metabolites in response to aromas intervention. These metabolic changes included the increased carbohydrates and lowered levels of neurotransmitters (tryptophan, serine, glycine, aspartate, tyrosine, cysteine, phenylalanine, hypotaurine, histidine, and asparagine), amino acids, and fatty acids in the brain. Elevated aspartate, carbohydrates (sucrose, maltose, fructose, and glucose), nucleosides and organic acids such as lactate and pyruvate were also observed in the urine. The EPM induced metabolic differences observed in urine or brain tissue was significantly reduced after 10 days of aroma inhalation, as noted with the loss of statistical significance on many of the metabolites in the aroma-EPM group. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the metabonomics approach can capture the subtle metabolic changes resulting from exposure to essential oils and provide the basis for pinpointing affected pathways in anxiety-related behavior, which will lead to an improved mechanistic understanding of anxiolytic effect of essential oils.
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