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Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Resorbing Magnesium Implants  [PDF]
Olga Charyeva, Jessica Neilands, Gunnel Svenster, Ann Wennerberg
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2015.51001
Abstract: Background: Implant-associated infections are a result of bacterial adhesion to an implant surface and subsequent biofilm formation at the implantation site. This study compares different magnesium materials based on their ability to resist bacterial adhesion as well as further biofilm formation. Material and Methods: The surfaces of four magnesium-based materials (Mg2Ag, Mg10Gd, WE43 and 99.99% pure Mg) were characterized using atomic force microscope. In addition, the samples were tested for their ability to resist biofilm formation. Planktonic bacteria of either S. epidermidis or E. faecalis were allowed to adhere to the magnesium surfaces for two hour followed by rinsing and, for S. epidermidis, further incubation of 24, 72 and 168 h was carried out. Results: E. faecalis had a significantly stronger adhesion to all magnesium surfaces compared to S. epidermidis (p = 0.001). Biofilm growth of S. epidermidis was different on various magnesium materials: the amount of bacteria increased up to 72 h but interestingly a significant decrease was seen at 168 h on Mg2Ag and WE43 surfaces. For pure Mg and Mg10Gd the biofilm formation reached plateau at 72 h. Surface characteristics of resorbable magnesium materials were changing over time, and the surface was generally less rough at 168 h compared to earlier time points. No correlation was found between the surface topology and the amount of adherent bacteria. Conclusion: In early stages of biofilm adhesion, no differences between magnesium materials were observed. However, after 72 h Mg2Ag and WE43 had the best ability to suppress S. epidermidis’ biofilm formation. Also, bacterial adhesion to magnesium materials was not dependent on samples’ surface topology.
Structural and Functional Analysis of the N-terminal Domain of the Streptococcus gordonii Adhesin Sgo0707
?sa Nylander, Gunnel Svenster, Dilani B. Senadheera, Dennis G. Cvitkovitch, Julia R. Davies, Karina Persson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063768
Abstract: The commensal Streptococcus gordonii expresses numerous surface adhesins with which it interacts with other microorganisms, host cells and salivary proteins to initiate dental plaque formation. However, this Gram-positive bacterium can also spread to non-oral sites such as the heart valves and cause infective endocarditis. One of its surface adhesins, Sgo0707, is a large protein composed of a non-repetitive N-terminal region followed by several C-terminal repeat domains and a cell wall sorting motif. Here we present the crystal structure of the Sgo0707 N-terminal domains, refined to 2.1 ? resolution. The model consists of two domains, N1 and N2. The largest domain, N1, comprises a putative binding cleft with a single cysteine located in its centre and exhibits an unexpected structural similarity to the variable domains of the streptococcal Antigen I/II adhesins. The N2-domain has an IgG-like fold commonly found among Gram-positive surface adhesins. Binding studies performed on S. gordonii wild-type and a Sgo0707 deficient mutant show that the Sgo0707 adhesin is involved in binding to type-1 collagen and to oral keratinocytes.
Effect of nanoporous TiO2 coating and anodized Ca2+ modification of titanium surfaces on early microbial biofilm formation
Victoria Fr?jd, Paula Linderb?ck, Ann Wennerberg, Luis Chávez de Paz, Gunnel Svenster, Julia R Davies
BMC Oral Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-11-8
Abstract: We have investigated how the properties of surfaces that may be used on abutments: turned titanium, sol-gel nanoporous TiO2 coated surfaces and anodized Ca2+ modified surfaces, affect biofilm formation by two early colonizers of the oral cavity: Streptococcus sanguinis and Actinomyces naeslundii. The bacteria were detected using 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization together with confocal laser scanning microscopy.Interferometry and atomic force microscopy revealed all the surfaces to be smooth (Sa ≤ 0.22 μm). Incubation with a consortium of S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii showed no differences in adhesion between the surfaces over 2 hours. After 14 hours, the level of biofilm growth was low and again, no differences between the surfaces were seen. The presence of saliva increased the biofilm biovolume of S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii ten-fold compared to when saliva was absent and this was due to increased adhesion rather than biofilm growth.Nano-topographical modification of smooth titanium surfaces had no effect on adhesion or early biofilm formation by S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii as compared to turned surfaces or those treated with anodic oxidation in the presence of Ca2+. The presence of saliva led to a significantly greater biofilm biovolume but no significant differences were seen between the test surfaces. These data thus suggest that modification with sol-gel derived nanoporous TiO2, which has been shown to improve osseointegration and soft-tissue healing in vivo, does not cause greater biofilm formation by the two oral commensal species tested than the other surfaces.Titanium dental implants are commonly used to replace lost teeth and much work has been focused on the optimization of the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of implant materials to improve their integration with host bone and soft-tissues. The soft tissue barrier around dental implants serves as a protective seal between the oral environment and the underlying peri-implant bo
Nel Noddings och omsorgsetiken
Gunnel Colnerud
Utbildning & Demokrati : Tidsskrift f?r Didaktik och Utbildningspolitik , 2006,
Abstract: NEL NODDINGS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE. Nel Noddings is one of the premierphilosophers of the ethics of care. Her elaboration of this ethics has resul-ted in a complex relation-based theory. Noddings defines care as a conti-nuing, reciprocal relationship between the carer and the cared-for. Thecaring relation is complete only if the cared-for confirms the value of thecare. The ethics of care attaches no importance to principles, since thecarer looks for guidance to the needs of the cared-for, rather than toprinciples of justice. Local and particular ethical decisions are seen as morevalid than universal principles. In this article I discuss a number of pro-blems by applying the ethics of care to all levels and aspects of schooling,from policy to the teacher–student relationship. More recently, Noddingsand philosophers who defend an ethics of justice, e.g. Strike, have agreedthat these theories are complementary. Noddings still argues, though, thatcare is the most adequate ethical theory for moral events in schools. Theconclusion drawn here is that neither the ethics of care nor the ethics ofjustice may be enough to guide teachers in their ethically demanding andcomplex practice.
The measurements of sickness absence – a theoretical perspective
Gunnel Hensing
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2010,
Abstract: The assessment of sickness absence is a challenge in spite of accessible numbers of spells, persons, and days of absence in public and employer registers. Concepts and their definitions are still to a small extent standardized, and clear and explicit definitions need to be provided. In epidemiological studies, the definition of the study base is important, and in sickness absence research a prerequisite is that an individual belongs to a sickness absence insurance scheme. Population at risk can be identified at three levels: the general population, the sickness insured population, and the sickness absent population. Cases in sickness absence studies can be quantified in terms of spell-, person-, or time based measurements. Each of these ways reflects different contents of sickness absence as a phenomenon, and the choice of measurement should be guided by the purpose of the study as well as the target area. Five different measurements (frequency, length, cumulative incidence, incidence rate, and duration) are suggested and their application is discussed. These five measurements can be seen as a summary of measurements used in different studies and an application of epidemiologic methods into sickness absence research. There are opportunities to increase the quality of sickness absence research, with an increased awareness of the importance of the measurements used.
Goodall, H. and A. Cadzow. Rivers and Resilience: Aboriginal People on Sydney′s Georges River
Cederl?f Gunnel
Conservation & Society , 2010,
Abstract:
Predicaments of power and nature in India: An introduction
Cederlof Gunnel,Rangarajan Mahesh
Conservation & Society , 2009,
Abstract:
Health Workers’ Assessment of the Frequency of and Caring for Urinary and Fecal Incontinence among Female Victims of Sexual Violence in the Eastern Congo: An Exploratory Study  [PDF]
Gunnel Andersson, Berthollet Bwira Kaboru, Annsofie Adolfsson, Edmond Ntabe Namegabe
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.54038
Abstract: Background: Throughout the long war that the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has endured, women and children have been depicted as the primary victims of widespread sexual violence. In some settings women have been raped in entire villages, with devastating physical and psychological consequences, which include sexually transmitted infections such as HIV, trauma and fistulas, as well as social isolation and involuntary pregnancies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalent perceptions of health professionals on the magnitude of urine and/or fecal incontinence among assaulted women, caused by sexual violence, as well as the opinions regarding the type of care provided to affected women. Methods: The study was part of a larger pilot study that had a cross-sectional design and a descriptive approach, which explored health professionals’ views regarding their own levels of competence at responding to the health needs of victims of sexual violence, in the form of a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: 104 health workers responded to the questionnaire. Nurses reported seeing raped women more frequently on a day-to-day basis (69.2%), in comparison to medical doctors and social workers (11.5%). Urinary incontinence was common according to 79% of health workers, who estimated that up to 15% of the women affected experienced huge amounts of urine leakage. Only 30% of the care seekers underwent in depth investigations, but the majority of the victims were not offered any further examination or appropriate treatments. Conclusion: Urinary and fecal incontinence due to urogenital or colorectal fistulas among women exposed to sexual violence is a common in the specified setting, but lack of systematic investigation and appropriate treatment means that the quality of life of the victims may be negatively affected. An improvement in the ability of health workers to manage these complex diagnoses is urgently needed, as well as adequately equipping health services in the affected settings.
Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications
Pontus Svens,Johan Lindstrom,Olle Gelin,Marten Behm,Goran Lindbergh
Energies , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/en4050741
Abstract: Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.
Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution
Gunnel Hensing, Lena Andersson, S?ren Brage
BMC Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-4-19
Abstract: The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000). All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country.Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years). Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant.Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women. Few regional differences were found. That the increase pervaded all stratification groups supports general explanations of the increase, such as changes in attitudes to psychiatric disorders in both patients and doctors, and increased mental distress probably associated with societal chang
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