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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1708 matches for " Gunnar Schulte "
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Heterotrimeric G protein-dependent WNT-5A signaling to ERK1/2 mediates distinct aspects of microglia proinflammatory transformation
Carina Halleskog, Jacomijn P Dijksterhuis, Michaela BC Kilander, Javier Becerril-Ortega, Carlos J Villaescusa, Eva Lindgren, Ernest Arenas, Gunnar Schulte
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-111
Abstract: Mouse brain sections were used for immunohistochemistry. Primary isolated microglia and astrocytes were employed to characterize the WNT-induced inflammatory transformation and underlying intracellular signaling pathways by immunoblotting, quantitative mRNA analysis, proliferation and invasion assays. Further, measurements of G protein activation by [γ-35?S]GTP binding, examination of calcium fluxes and cyclic AMP production were used to define intracellular signaling pathways.Astrocytes in the adult mouse brain express high levels of WNT-5A, which could serve as a novel astroglia-microglia communication pathway. The WNT-5A-induced proinflammatory microglia response is characterized by increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, cytokines, chemokines, enhanced invasive capacity and proliferation. Mapping of intracellular transduction pathways reveals that WNT-5A activates heterotrimeric Gi/o proteins to reduce cyclic AMP levels and to activate a Gi/o protein/phospholipase C/calcium-dependent protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) axis. We show further that WNT-5A-induced ERK1/2 signaling is responsible for distinct aspects of the proinflammatory transformation, such as matrix metalloprotease 9/13 expression, invasion and proliferation.Thus, WNT-5A-induced and G protein-dependent signaling to ERK1/2 is important for the regulation of proinflammatory responses in mouse primary microglia cells. We show for the first time that WNT-5A/G protein signaling mediates physiologically important processes in primary mammalian cells with natural receptor and G protein stochiometry. Consequently, WNT-5A emerges as an important means of astrocyte-microglia communication and we, therefore, suggest WNT-5A as a new player in neuroinflammatory conditions, such as neurodegenerative disease, hypoxia, stroke, injury and infection.
Peroxiredoxin 4: a multifunctional biomarker worthy of further exploration
Janin Schulte
BMC Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-9-137
Abstract: Physiologically important processes such as redox signaling and host defense depend on balanced amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including free radicals and stable oxidizing molecules, for example, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In conditions of oxidative stress, increased ROS levels overwhelm antioxidant protection mechanisms, resulting in the development and progression of various diseases [1].Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4; synonyms: AOE372, TRANK) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the peroxiredoxin family that is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and extracellular space [2,3], with highest expression in the pancreas, liver and heart, and lowest expression in blood leukocytes and the brain [2,4]. The enzyme diminishes oxidative stress by reducing hydrogen peroxide to water in a thiol-dependent catalytic cycle [5] and has been linked to the regulation of the key pro-inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) [2,4,6]. In addition, redox-dependent and reversible conversion of homologous Prx1-4 from disulfide-linked homodimers to higher-order multimers and back provides a versatile mechanism to switch between peroxidase and chaperone activity, enabling interaction with binding partners including stress-responsive kinases, membrane proteins and immune-modulators, fine-tuning of H2O2 signaling [7] and, as published most recently, circadian clock oscillations [8]. Disturbances in the aforementioned fundamental processes clearly result in numerous pathological conditions that could potentially be reflected by the measurement of involved Prx.Among the six Prx isoforms in mammals, Prx4 emerges as the most attractive, easily accessible biomarker candidate as it was initially designated as a secretable peroxidase [2,9], has recently been identified in the circulation of healthy and diseased individuals [10,11] and, finally, has been linked to morbidity and mortality in patients with sepsis in the intensive care unit and patients with non-speci
Faculty Perceptions of Technology Distance Education Transactions:
Marthann Schulte
Journal of Educators Online , 2010,
Abstract: Understanding instructors’ perceptions of distance education transactions is becoming increasingly important as the mode of distance learning has become not only accepted, but preferred by many students. A need for more empirical qualitative data was evident as anecdotal information still dominates the research literature. The study focused on the faculty of an established distance learning program at a small Midwestern university. Qualitative interviews were gathered, coded and analyzed. Faculty who used technology in their distance education courses were targeted. Faculty perceptions on course context, students, interpersonal and procedural transactions, learning and teaching transactions, and assessment transactions were gathered. The qualitative analysis provided rich data to further inform distance education programs’ administrative, technological, and andragogical needs. Recommendations for future study, including a model for transactional hierarchy, were proffered.
Den Beruf der rztin langfristig planen Woman’s Long Term Planning for a Medical Career
Erika Schulte
querelles-net , 2007,
Abstract: Im vorliegenden Buch werden erfolgreiche Medizinerinnen anhand von Interviews vorgestellt. Exemplarisch erf hrt die Leserin, auf welche Weise sie in den verschiedenen Arbeitsfeldern der Medizin ihren beruflichen Werdegang jeweils mitgestalten kann. Umrahmt wird der Hauptteil von einer historischen Einführung zum Thema, einer Analyse der Gründe, warum der Anteil der erfolgreichen Frauen in der Medizin so gering ist, und einem praktischen Anhang mit wichtigen Fakten und Kontaktadressen zur Berufsplanung als rztin. The book at hand presents interviews with successful female doctors. The female reader is led to discover how she can shape her career in the different fields of medical work through examples. The book is framed by a historical introduction to the theme, an analysis of the reasons why the numbers of women in medicine are so low, and a practical appendix with important facts and addresses for further contact on career planning for women considering a career as a doctor.
Teachers in the UK Prefer Research Evidence that is Synthesized, Practical, and Locally Available. A Review of: Williams, Dorothy and Louisa Coles. “Evidence-Based Practice in Teaching: An Information Perspective.” Journal of Documentation 63.6 (2007): 812-35.
Stephanie Schulte
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2008,
Abstract: Objective – The objective of the study was to explore how teachers in the United Kingdom use research literature to inform their practice. Special emphasis was given to the effect of the teachers’ information literacy and their level of ready access to research information. Design – This study was primarily a qualitative study utilizing mixed methods, including individual interviews, focus groups (“literature review groups”), and an online discussion forum. Qualitative data was supplemented by a questionnaire survey. Setting – The qualitative portions of the study took place in the United Kingdom across five education authorities; however, it is unclear where these authorities were geographically. The survey was distributed across Scotland, England, and Wales. The study was conducted during 2002 to 2003. Subjects – Nursery, primary, and secondary teachers, school librarians, school library systems, and education authority advisors (EA) in the United Kingdom. Methods – The 28 interviews (54% primary teachers, 39% secondary teachers, 7% special education) and four focus groups (each with three to five participants; 15 participants in total, including teachers at various levels from primary, secondary, and nursery schools) were conducted with volunteers from a random sample across five education authorities. Recruitment was done by sending written materials to schools. Those interviewed represented five authorities. Focus groups were conducted in just four authorities. It is not clear when the individual and group interviews were conducted (time of day and year). Volunteers were given the option to receive funding for a substitute teacher in order to participate, though none took advantage of this offer. The interview process used a vignette technique to elicit teachers’ attitudes to a situation in a non-threatening way. Interviewees were asked to comment on two situations that might make them seek information. One was adding a new subject or new aspect of an existing subject into the classroom. The second dealt with a “new pedagogical challenge.” Though the topics of the vignettes were provided, the exact way the topics were presented was not. They were asked how they would advise another teacher in these situations then relate their thoughts to a real situation they had faced. Interviews were about one hour in length. Twenty-five of the 28 interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. Extensive notes were made for the other three. Transcripts and notes were analyzed using QSR N4 Classic content analysis software. Themes related to information literacy a
Emerging Routes to Environmental Activism: Lake Erie Sportsmen and the League of Women Voters
Terrianne Schulte
Excursions , 2012,
Abstract: This paper comparatively examines how the League of Women Voters and Lake Erie sportsmen emerged to awaken the public to the pollution crisis affecting the Lake Erie watershed in the mid-twentieth century. Recognizing the degradation of the smallest of the Great Lakes due to the explosion of wartime industrial development and population growth, the League and the sportsmen commenced a decades-long struggle to clean up the lake and its tributaries through direct action in urban areas throughout the Lake Erie watershed. Disgusted by a fall in the number of fish, caused by cyanide poisoning, and the effect of oil on waterfowl, the sportsmen pressed for pollution control. The League members’ approach to water resources, on the other hand, was based on a broad and academic perspective regarding water quality and quantity in response to a series of regionally severe droughts that plagued the United States in the late 1940s and mid-1950s, and led to a national debate on water shortages and supplies. Ultimately, this paper examines two distinctly different approaches to an environmental emergency in the immediate postwar era.
Shifting Spaces in the Critical Regionalist Fiction of New England
Schulte, Marleen
COPAS : Current Objectives of Postgraduate American Studies , 2011,
Abstract: At the turn of the twenty-first century, a critical regionalist fiction is emerging. Like its architectural counterpart, this fiction fuses the local with the global by situating current issues in a particular place, simultaneously exerting an emancipatory action. Whether North Dakota, Newfoundland, or Maine, these are places off the literary map. This article explores how critical regionalist fiction is shifting the physical, imagined, and lived spaces of New England.
Beam Dynamics Simulation for the CTF3 Drive-Beam Accelerator
D. Schulte
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: A new CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN will serve to study the drive beam generation for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). CTF3 has to accelerate a 3.5 A electron beam in almost fully-loaded structures. The pulse contains more than 2000 bunches, one in every second RF bucket, and has a length of more than one microsecond. Different options for the lattice of the drive-beam accelerator are presented, based on FODO-cells and triplets as well as solenoids. The transverse stability is simulated, including the effects of beam jitter, alignment and beam-based correction.
Simulation of an Intra-Pulse Interaction Point Feedback for Future Linear Colliders
D. Schulte
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: In future normal-conducting linear colliders, the beams will be delivered in short bursts with a length of the order of 100 ns. The pulses will be separated by several ms. In order to maintain high luminosity, feedback is necessary on a pulse-to-pulse basis. In addition, intra-pulse feedback that can correct beam positions and angles within one pulse seem technically feasible. The likely performances of different feedback options are simulated for the NLC (Next Linear Collider) and CLIC (Compact Linear Collider).
Chiral polyhedra in ordinary space, II
Egon Schulte
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: A chiral polyhedron has a geometric symmetry group with two orbits on the flags, such that adjacent flags are in distinct orbits. Part I of the paper described the discrete chiral polyhedra in ordinary Euclidean 3-space with finite skew faces and finite skew vertex-figures; they occur in infinite families and are of types {4,6}, {6,4} and {6,6}. Part II completes the enumeration of all discrete chiral polyhedra in 3-space. There exist several families of chiral polyhedra with infinite, helical faces. In particular, there are no discrete chiral polyhedra with finite faces in addition to those described in Part I.
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