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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 127002 matches for " Guangwen Li "
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Fast Reliability-based Algorithm of Finding Minimum-weight Codewords for LDPC Codes
Guangwen Li,Guangzeng Feng
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Despite the NP hardness of acquiring minimum distance $d_m$ for linear codes theoretically, in this paper we propose one experimental method of finding minimum-weight codewords, the weight of which is equal to $d_m$ for LDPC codes. One existing syndrome decoding method, called serial belief propagation (BP) with ordered statistic decoding (OSD), is adapted to serve our purpose. We hold the conjecture that among many candidate error patterns in OSD reprocessing, modulo 2 addition of the lightest error pattern with one of the left error patterns may generate a light codeword. When the decoding syndrome changes to all-zero state, the lightest error pattern reduces to all-zero, the lightest non-zero error pattern is a valid codeword to update lightest codeword list. Given sufficient codewords sending, the survived lightest codewords are likely to be the target. Compared with existing techniques, our method demonstrates its efficiency in the simulation of several interested LDPC codes.
Generalized reliability-based syndrome decoding for LDPC codes
Guangwen Li,Guangzeng Feng
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Aiming at bridging the gap between the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) and the suboptimal iterative decodings for short or medium length LDPC codes, we present a generalized ordered statistic decoding (OSD) in the form of syndrome decoding, to cascade with the belief propagation (BP) or enhanced min-sum decoding. The OSD is invoked only when the decoding failures are obtained for the preceded iterative decoding method. With respect to the existing OSD which is based on the accumulated log-likelihood ratio (LLR) metric, we extend the accumulative metric to the situation where the BP decoding is in the probability domain. Moreover, after generalizing the accumulative metric to the context of the normalized or offset min-sum decoding, the OSD shows appealing tradeoff between performance and complexity. In the OSD implementation, when deciding the true error pattern among many candidates, an alternative proposed proves to be effective to reduce the number of real additions without performance loss. Simulation results demonstrate that the cascade connection of enhanced min-sum and OSD decodings outperforms the BP alone significantly, in terms of either performance or complexity.
Health Risk Assessment on Drinking Water in Shenzhen, China  [PDF]
Guohong Liu, Ziqian Xu, Jin Li, Guangwen Huang, Wei Wang
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine (ODEM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/odem.2018.63006
Abstract: Objectives: To conduct health risk assessment on drinking water in 2012 in Shenzhen of China. Methods: The water quality monitoring data on product water and pipe water in 2012 were collected and analyzed, and the risk evaluation models recommended by the U.S. environmental protection agency (US EPA) were employed, to perform adults and children’s health risk assessments on the three kinds of genetic toxic substances such as hexavalent chromium, cadmium and arsenic and the 12 non-carcinogenic materials such as iron, manganese, lead, fluoride, volatile phenol, cyanide, mercury, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, copper, zinc and selenium. Results: The results about water quality from the 150 factory samples and 207 peripheral water samples showed that the measured indicators in other water samples were accord with the National Health Standards (GB5749-2006) released by Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China, except manganese level in one factory sample and the same index in one peripheral sample, and nitrate concentration in another water sample were out of limit, respectively. Namely, the total of 3 samples was disqualification. The adults and children’s health risks (HI) on the 12 non-carcinogenic materials were 178.04 × 10-8 and 249.96 × 10-8 in the factor water samples, and 363.02 × 10-8 and 509.66 × 10-8 in the pipe samples, respectively. Lead in factory water and fluoride in peripheral water samples were the most serious harm in the all measured non-carcinogenic indicators. The adults and children’s cancer risks (R) on the 3 genetic toxic substances were 25.60 × 10-6 and 28.51 × 10-6 in the factor water samples, and 23.47 × 10-6 and 26.08 × 10-6 in the pipe samples, respectively. Hexavalent chromium was the most damage among the three detected carcinogenic indicators. Therefore, the total adults and children’s health hazard risks including the 3 carcinogenic and 12 non-carcinogenic substances were 27.38 × 10-6 and 31.00 × 10-6 in the factor water samples, and 27.10 × 10-6 and 31.17 × 10-6 in the pipe samples, respectively. Genetic toxic matters in drinking water are the main hazard and more children’s health risk than adults’ risk. Conclusions: The health risk (R) on the 15 kinds of chemicals in Shenzhen’s municipal water supply was in the range of maximum acceptable risk levels (5.0 × 10-5/a) recommended by the International
Health Risk Assessment on Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water in Shenzhen  [PDF]
Guohong Liu, Ziqian Xu, Xinyun Xu, Zhaoqiong Peng, Jin Li, Guangwen Huang, Wei Wang
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine (ODEM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/odem.2018.64010
Abstract: Objectives: To conduct health risk assessment of drinking water pesticide residues and its annual trend analysis in Shenzhen City. Methods: The samples of product water, pipe water and secondary supply water from 2011 to 2013 were collected and analyzed. The evaluation models of health risk assessments for children and adults on the 12 non-carcinogenic materials (namely heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, malathion, glyphosate, dimethoate, bentazone, atrazine, chlorothalonil, furadan) were recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Results: The results showed that the maximums of the measured indicators in the above were controlled in accordance with the National Health Standards (GB5749-2006) published by Ministry of Health in China. The adults and children’s health indices (HIs) of the 12 non-carcinogenic materials were greater than 1 (2.323 - 6.312). Dimethoate residue in factory and peripheral water was the largest risks of harm among the non-carcinogenic pollutants measured. And its HIi (Its Hli) was also greater than 1 (1.995 - 5.094) and followed by hexachlorobenzene and heptachlor. Annual rising trend on health risk of the 12 pesticide residues indicated that their HIT on adults was 2323. 18 × 10-3 in 2011, 2340. 18 × 10-3 in 2012 and 2431. 97 × 10-3 in 2013, and HIT on children was 2965. 07 × 10-3 in 2011, 2986. 77 × 10-3 in 2012 and 3103. 93 × 10-3 in 2013, respectively. This study also suggested that the average risk of peripheral water samples (HIT was equal to 2619. 64 × 10-3) was greater than the factory samples’ (HIT was the same as 2366. 92 × 10-3), and the children’s health risk was greater than the adults’. Conclusions: Health risks of drinking water pesticide residues in Shenzhen have exceeded the threshold values. The dimethoate was the main hazard and had been rising annually, and the children’s health risk was greater than the adults’.
Effects of controlled-release urea application on the growth, yield and nitrogen recovery efficiency of cotton  [PDF]
Suping Wang, Xiaokun Li, Jianwei Lu, Juan Hong, Gang Chen, Xinxin Xue, Jifu Li, Yunxia Wei, Jialong Zou, Guangwen Liu
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.412A003
Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of the controlled release urea (CRU) application on growth yield and nitrogen recovery efficiency of cotton in the main cotton zone of the Yangtze River basin in 2010. Different nitrogen levels were set in order to determine the suitable dosage of CRU on cotton. The special purpose was to provide evidence for the CRU application in cotton fields. The results show that the application of CRU promotes the growth of cotton significantly and enhances the nitrogen supply in the whole period. Compared to the treatment with total N as base fertilizer (UB), the bod, flower, little bolls and total bolls are increased significantly. There are no significant differences in the yield between the CRU treatment and the treatment of controlled release urea and urea combined application (60%CRU + 40%U), but an increase by 12.38%-22.67% compared to the UB treatment, and an increase by 4.49%-7.23% compared to the treatments of total N split application (UD). The nitrogen uptake of CRU treatment was significantly increased by 13.01%-48.32% and 30.27%-13.01% than UB treatment and UD treatment, respectively. The nutrient recovery efficiency of CRU treatment is increased by 16.42-20.59, 5.92-11.29 and 4.22-12.59 percentage points compared to the UB treatment, UD treatment and 60%CRU + 40%U treatment, respectively. In this study, there was a good linearity relationship between the cotton yield and amount of CRU in Wuxue site. The yield of cotton response to amount of CRU could be described by the model of linear plus plateau in Jingzhou site.

P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons
Yong Chen, Guangwen Li, Li-Yen Huang
Molecular Pain , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-8-9
Abstract: We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations.These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.The DRG neuron is the first (primary) neuron in the somatosensory pathway relaying nociceptive (pain), itch and other sensory information from the skin or internal organs to the brain. The cell bodies (somata) of DRG neurons are densely packed in a DRG. Each neuronal soma is tightly wrapped by a layer of SGCs, which are often coupled with one another through gap junctions [1,2]. A neuronal soma with its surrounding SGCs is frequently enclosed by a connective tissue sheath and forms a distinct morphological unit [3]. There is no evidence that classical synaptic contacts exist between neuronal somata in DRGs [2]. We and others have shown that neuronal somata communicate bidirectionally with their surrounding SGCs in DRGs [4,5] and trigeminal ganglia [6]. The communication modulates the activity of somata thus affecting the afferent inputs into the spinal cord [4].Purinergic ionotr
Hybrid Decoding of Finite Geometry LDPC Codes
Guangwen Li,Dashe Li,Yuling Wang,Wenyan Sun
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: For finite geometry low-density parity-check codes, heavy row and column weights in their parity check matrix make the decoding with even Min-Sum (MS) variants computationally expensive. To alleviate it, we present a class of hybrid schemes by concatenating a parallel bit flipping (BF) variant with an Min-Sum (MS) variant. In most SNR region of interest, without compromising performance or convergence rate, simulation results show that the proposed hybrid schemes can save substantial computational complexity with respect to MS variant decoding alone. Specifically, the BF variant, with much less computational complexity, bears most decoding load before resorting to MS variant. Computational and hardware complexity is also elaborated to justify the feasibility of the hybrid schemes.
The Prototype Analysis of Ren: A Study on College Students’Implicit Theories of Ren
Meiting Liu,Zhaoxu Li,Guangwen Song,Fang Kong
International Journal of Psychological Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijps.v1n2p41
Abstract: This paper reports a preliminary descriptive approach to the representation of the concept of Ren. According to the prototype theory, researchers collected items (words or phrases) including features and implications of Ren from 172 college students, after which the items were simplified and combined, then 145 prototypes were obtained. After that 78 prototypes with high frequency above 7 were selected and arranged randomly to make a questionnaire, then another 300 college students were made to rate centrality of every prototypes to the meaning of Ren in Likert-typed 5 point scale. A factor analysis was made based on the rate. In terms of the result of factor analysis together with content analysis, the prototypes were classified and coded. The result shows that there are 6 facets of the representation of Ren in college students’ mind:(1) righteousness and keeping faith; (2) wisdom and self-cultivation; (3) filial piety, fraternal duty, and treat others well; (4) policy of benevolence; (5) universal love and clemency; (6)political pioneers and righteous men. The result is helpful for moral education of college students from the microscopic aspect and also can be used for reference to develop China's spiritual civilization from macroscopic perspective.
Mechanisms underlying purinergic P2X3 receptor-mediated mechanical allodynia induced in diabetic rats
Guang-Yin Xu, Guangwen Li, Ningang Liu, Li-Yen Huang
Molecular Pain , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-7-60
Abstract: Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). We showed that mechanical allodynia was induced two weeks after a STZ injection and lasted for at least another seven weeks. The mechanical allodynia was significantly attenuated by peripheral administration of the P2X receptor antagonists, PPADS or TNP-ATP. DiI was subcutaneously injected into the rat hindpaw to label hindpaw-innervated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. ATP activated fast-inactivating P2X3 receptor-mediated currents in the labeled DRG neurons were studied. ATP responses in STZ-treated rats were ~2-fold larger than those in control rats. Furthermore, the expression of P2X3 receptor proteins in the plasma membrane of L4-6 DRGs of STZ rats was significantly enhanced while the total expression of P2X3 receptors remained unaltered.These results indicate that a large enhancement of P2X3 receptor activity and an increase in the membrane expression of P2X3 receptors contribute to the development of chronic pain in STZ-induced diabetic rats and suggest a possible target for the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain.Diabetics mellitus is a debilitating chronic disease that affects ~8% of the population in the US. About ~70% of diabetic patients are reported to have various forms of nerve damage (neuropathy). The most common type of diabetic neuropathy is nerve damages in the periphery, e.g., hands, toes and feet. Peripheral neuropathy patients often experience aberrant pain sensation, including spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia (severe pain with mild painful stimuli) and allodynia (pain with innocuous stimuli, e.g. light touch) [1-6]. Treatment options for these abnormal sensations have been limited, partly because of our poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the diabetes-induced neuropathic pain.Sensitization of dorsal root ganglion neurons and their associated nerve fibers has been suggested to be a major cause of diabetes-induced abnormal pain [4,7]. Changes
Concomitant pulmonary and thyroid tumors identified by FDG PET/CT and immunohistochemical techniques
Guangwen Zhu, Hong Li, Yanjun Zhang, Yaming Li, Shujun Liang, Jia Liu
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-9-119
Abstract: A 56-year-old man with coughing three months. FDG PET/CT was performed, and resection specimens of lung and thyroid were detected by hematoxylin eosin staining (HE) and IHC. PET/CT: lung tumor SUVmax: 3.69, delay: 5.17; and thyroid tumor SUVmax 19.97. HE reveal papillary adenocarcinoma, but histological differentiation of primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma from metastatic adenocarcinoma is sometimes difficult because of their phenotypic similarities. So IHC was performed, the IHC of lung tumor: cytokeratin 20 (CK20)(-), thyroglobulin(Tg)(-), cytokeratin7(CK7)(+), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)(+); thyroid tumor: CK7(+), TTF-1(+), thyroglobulin (+), CK20(-). Therefore, the final diagnosis was double primary adenocarcinomas of thyroid and lung.FDG PET/CT has preliminary diagnostic capacity of multiple primary tumors; the final diagnosis should be adopted for specimens after tumor-specific markers IHC to obtain. Consequently, effective therapeutic approaches can be designed and conducted.Early detection and correct diagnosis are essential for definite treatment and better outcome of cancer patients. FDG PET/CT scans can detect thyroid incidentalomas of which 33.2%-63.6% are found with malignant phenotypes, and a body of evidences has shown the effectiveness of PET/CT in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors [1-3]. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to distinguish multiple primary tumors from the metastatic ones with this approach and, therefore, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and cytological examination have to be employed in the final diagnosis. Malhotra G et al [4] found bronchoalveolar carcinoma of lung masquerading as iodine avid metastasis in a patient with minimally invasive follicular thyroid cancer. However, their conclusion just only based on the IHC of CT-guided biopsy, and the diagnostic accuracy of core biopsy is lower than surgical excision specimen. Eloy JA et al [1] reported that incidental FDG uptake in the thyroid gland of the patie
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