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This paper proves the existence and uniqueness of a time-invariant measure for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere under a random kick-force and a time-periodic deterministic force. Several examples of deterministic force satisfying the necessary conditions for a unique invariant measure to exist are given. The support of the measure is examined and given explicitly for several cases.
In the late 19th century arguments explaining incest avoidance were framed separately by Edward Tylor and Edward Westermarck. Tylor offered an environmental theory asserting that people have to marry outside of their own kin and communities or die out from the detrimental effects of isolation. Westermarck turned to Darwin’s theory to explain that harmful inbreeding had been selected against in the human genome. By the late 20th and early 21st centuries explanations of human behaviors have become increasingly encompassed by natural selection theory. The debate concerning the productiveness of evolutionary biology for explaining complex human behaviors is highly contentious and continues unabated. Although human evolutionists repeatedly say that environment is important for understanding human behavior they often do not develop this part of the equation. Behind the prestige of evolutionary biology selection models of human behavior have passed into popular science and the public psyche. Often heard today from a wide range of highly visible media sources is an assortment of topics on human behaviors which are framed by Darwinian assumptions. Contemplations about incest and inbreeding avoidance fall into this category and are presented by Darwinian social science as the best case example demonstrating evolutionary suppositions about human behavior. In the article that follows these issues are framed and examined. The argument is offered that evolutionary approaches are not always the most compelling and that convincing environmental explanations are overlooked.
Should judgments of beauty play a guiding role in theoretical science even if beauty is not a sign of truth? In this paper I argue that they should in certain cases. If we analyze the rationality of theoretical pursuit using decision theory, a theory’s beauty can influence the utilities of the various options confronting the researcher. After considering the views of Pierre Duhem and Thomas Kuhn on aesthetics in science, I suggest that because we value freedom of inquiry we rightly allow scientists some choice in how they value aesthetic properties of theories and thus some freedom to use beauty to guide their research program.
Antigen receptors, including
immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors, are known to be widely expressed by
cancer cells through unconfirmed mechanisms and for unknown purposes. Recently,
a monoclonal antibody, designated as RP215, was generated against the ovarian
cancer cell line, OC-3-VGH, and was shown to react with CA215, which consisted
mainly of these cancer cell-expressed antigen receptors. Experimental evidence
has clearly indicated that cancerous immunoglobulins play significant roles in
the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
RP215 and anti-antigen receptor antibodies were equally effective in inducing
apoptosis and complement-dependent cytotoxicity reactions to cultured cancer
cells. Through gene regulation studies, both RP215 and antibodies against
antigen-receptors were shown to affect more than a dozen of genes involved in
cell proliferation (such as NFκB-1, IgG, P21, cyclin D1, ribosomal P1, and c-fos). Furthermore, selected toll-like receptor genes (TLR- 2, -3, -4, and -9)
were also found to be highly regulated by both RP215 and anti-antigen receptor
antibodies. For example, RP215 and anti-antigen receptor
antibodies were found to both up-regulate TLR-2 and/or TLR-3 and down- regulate
TLR-4 and TLR-9 intwo types of cancer cells. Based on these studies, it is reasonable to
postulate that cancerous immunoglobulins play important roles in the modulation
of the innate immune system to allow the growth and survival of cancer cells
within the human body. Consequently, RP215
inits humanized forms may be utilized to target cancer cells
for potential therapeutic purposes.