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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5620 matches for " Gregory "
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Unique Measure for the Time-Periodic Navier-Stokes on the Sphere Navier-Stokes on the Sphere  [PDF]
Gregory Varner
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.611160

This paper proves the existence and uniqueness of a time-invariant measure for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere under a random kick-force and a time-periodic deterministic force. Several examples of deterministic force satisfying the necessary conditions for a unique invariant measure to exist are given. The support of the measure is examined and given explicitly for several cases.

The Scaling Constant D in Item Response Theory  [PDF]
Gregory Camilli
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2017.75055
Abstract: In item response theory (IRT), the scaling constant D = 1.7 is used to scale a discrimination coefficient a estimated with the logistic model to the normal metric. Empirical verification is provided that Savalei’s[1] proposed a scaling constant of D = 1.749 based on Kullback-Leibler divergence appears to give the best empirical approximation. However, the understanding of this issue as one of the accuracy of the approximation is incorrect for two reasons. First, scaling does not affect the fit of the logistic model to the data. Second, the best scaling constant to the normal metric varies with item difficulty, and the constant D = 1.749 is best thought of as the average of scaling transformations across items. The reason why the traditional scaling with D = 1.7 is used is simply because it preserves historical interpretation of the metric of item discrimination parameters.
An Exploratory Survey of Sound Levels in New York City Restaurants and Bars  [PDF]
Gregory Scott
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.68005
Abstract: For several decades, there has been a significant need to better educate the public about noise pollution. A small number of small-scale studies have focused on the sound levels of restaurants and their impact on health and hearing. There have also been an increasing number of media articles stating that eating and drinking venues are getting increasingly loud making it more difficult for people to connect with others in conversation. This study reports on an exploratory large-scale noise survey of sound levels of 2376 restaurants and bars in New York City using a novel smart-phone application and categorized them based on how quiet or loud they were. The results suggest that: 1) A significant number of venues have high sound levels that are not conducive to conversation and may be endangering the health of patrons and employees, 2) that the reported sound levels by the venue managers on their online public business pages generally underestimated actual sound levels, and 3) the average sound levels in restaurants and bars are correlated by neighborhood and type of cuisine.
Algebras of Hamieh and Abbas Used in the Dirac Equation  [PDF]
Gregory Peter Wene
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.39120
Abstract: Hamieh and Abbas [1] propose using a 3-dimensional real algebra in a solution of the Dirac equation. We show that this algebra, denoted by , belongs to a large class of quadratic Jordan algebras with subalgebras isomorphic to the complex numbers and that the spinor matrices associated with the solution of the Dirac equation generate a six-dimensional real noncommutative Jordan algebra.
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Identification and Estimation of Phthalates in Sewer Waste and a Receiving River in Ibadan City, Southwestern Nigeria  [PDF]
Gregory O. Adewuyi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.410099
Abstract: Medical wastes have been implicated in river pollution in developing countries and most often people depend on water from such rivers for sources of livelihood. Phthalates (endocrine disruptors) are major components in medical wastes and are commonly found contaminants in aquatic environment. Most sewage treatment facilities handling medical waste are inefficient due to overuse and poor maintenance and discharge directly into rivers. This study aimed to investigate the identity and estimates the concentration of phthalates in supposed treated medical wastes from a hospital sewer and water from a receiving river. Samples were randomly collected before and after treatment by the sewer plants, while samples were randomly collected along the course of the river starting from point of discharge. Control samples were taken from upstream about 500 m along the river course. The samples were extracted by liquid-liquid chroma- tographic process using dichloromethane, after which they were cleaned up in a column of silica gel using hexane as the mobile solvent. The cleaned extracts were analyzed by HPLC. The concentrations (μg/L) of dimethyl-, diethyl-, diphenyl-, dibutyl- and di-(2-ethyl)hexyl phthalates ranged from 62.81 ± 18.53; 4.74 ± 3.57; 2.05 ± 1.80; 11.40 ± 5.58 to 141.92 ± 35.8 respectively in the sewer waste. The receiving river had a concentration (μg/L) of 9.17 ± 14.02; 0.18 ± 0.31; 0.48 ± 0.84; 2.84 ± 1.21; 61.72 ± 38.35 respectively for dimethyl-, diethyl-, diphenyl-, dibutyl- and di-(2-ethyl) hexyl phthalates. These concentrations were higher than control and far exceeded the USEPA limits of 3 μg/l recom- mended for phthalates in water. Contaminants of aquatic environment by untreated wastes from hospitals has serious implications on public health and environment as human risks for phthalate esters downstream are high and this calls for urgent need to develop strategy to build incentives for compliance in treatment and discharge of wastes into river waters.
Implications of apoptosis in cancer immunotherapy  [PDF]
Gregory Lee, Bixia Ge
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.326088
Abstract: Inhibitions or blockages of ligand-receptor interactions on cancer cell surfaces by exogenous competetors or antibodies often result in apoptosis or “programmed cell death.” The underlying mechanisms of action for cellular apoptosis depend greatly on the molecular nature of specific ligand-receptor interactions and the signal transduction pathways involved. Two such unrelated systems which are potentially involved in apoptosis of cancer cells are described in this review. They are, respectively, gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) receptor and cancerous immunoglobulins, or CA215, both of which are widely expressed on the surface of cancer cells from diversified tissue origins. Bindings of GnRH or its decapeptide analogs as ligands to GnRH receptor were known to induce apoptosis of several extrapituitary cell types in gonadal tissues, as well as different cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies against the GnRH receptor of cancer cells were shown to induce apoptosis, similar to the action of GnRH analogs. In contrast, RP215 monoclonal antibody reacts specifically with the carbohydrate-associated epitope of cancerous immunoglobulins and is known to induce apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro. It also causes growth inhibition of tumor cells in nude mouse experimental models. Elucidations of the specific mechanisms of apoptosis in cancer cells of these two molecular interaction systems will not only lead to a better understanding of cancer biology but also benefit patients in cancer monitoring and therapy.
Tylor vs. Westermarck: Explaining the Incest Taboo  [PDF]
Gregory C. Leavitt
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31008

In the late 19th century arguments explaining incest avoidance were framed separately by Edward Tylor and Edward Westermarck. Tylor offered an environmental theory asserting that people have to marry outside of their own kin and communities or die out from the detrimental effects of isolation. Westermarck turned to Darwin’s theory to explain that harmful inbreeding had been selected against in the human genome. By the late 20th and early 21st centuries explanations of human behaviors have become increasingly encompassed by natural selection theory. The debate concerning the productiveness of evolutionary biology for explaining complex human behaviors is highly contentious and continues unabated. Although human evolutionists repeatedly say that environment is important for understanding human behavior they often do not develop this part of the equation. Behind the prestige of evolutionary biology selection models of human behavior have passed into popular science and the public psyche. Often heard today from a wide range of highly visible media sources is an assortment of topics on human behaviors which are framed by Darwinian assumptions. Contemplations about incest and inbreeding avoidance fall into this category and are presented by Darwinian social science as the best case example demonstrating evolutionary suppositions about human behavior. In the article that follows these issues are framed and examined. The argument is offered that evolutionary approaches are not always the most compelling and that convincing environmental explanations are overlooked.

The Value of Beauty in Theory Pursuit: Kuhn, Duhem, and Decision Theory  [PDF]
Gregory J. Morgan
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31003

Should judgments of beauty play a guiding role in theoretical science even if beauty is not a sign of truth? In this paper I argue that they should in certain cases. If we analyze the rationality of theoretical pursuit using decision theory, a theory’s beauty can influence the utilities of the various options confronting the researcher. After considering the views of Pierre Duhem and Thomas Kuhn on aesthetics in science, I suggest that because we value freedom of inquiry we rightly allow scientists some choice in how they value aesthetic properties of theories and thus some freedom to use beauty to guide their research program.

Protocol for the management of oral surgery patients on warfarin utilizing a Point-of-Care In-Office international normalized ratio monitoring device  [PDF]
Gregory P. Hatzis
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.34044
Abstract: Purpose: This study was performed to assess the utility and safety of an In-Office INR Monitoring Device and present a safe and efficient protocol for the management of patients on oral anticoagulants and/or antithrombolytics requiring routine office oral and maxillofacial surgery. Patients and Methods: Sixty-one patients requiring “minor” oral and maxillofacial surgery being treated chronically with oral anticoagulation (warfarin) were entered into the study and compared in 2 groups. The control group (n = 29) was managed by discontinuing warfarin and any anti-platelet medication(s) prior to surgery. In the study group (n = 30), the decision to continue or withhold warfarin was determined by a protocol in which patients are 1) stratified based on risk for thromboembolism, and 2) classified as requiring “major” or “minor” surgery. Procedures categorized as “minor” surgery included dental extraction(s), dental implants, soft tissue and bone biopsies, and preprosthetic bone surgery, and incision and drainage. Warfarin and antiplatelet medication were not withheld in these patients, and a Point-of-Care In-Office INR Monitoring Device was used to obtain INR levels on the day of consultation and surgery. Local measures including removal of granulation tissue, packing, suturing, etc. were utilized for hemostasis. Results: The 30 patients in the study group maintained on warfarin readily achieved hemostasis using intraoperative local measures. The mean INR measured by the In-Office INR Monitoring Device was 2.36 with a range from 1.3 to 3.2. Study group patients underwent a total of 131 separate procedures including 108 dental extractions (impactions), placement of dental implants, preprosthetic bony surgery, bone cyst removal, soft tissue biopsies, facial skin cancer repair, and incision and drainage. One patient (3%) required “minor” intervention with removal of a “liver clot” on postop day 2 with repacking and suturing. The 29 patients in the control group discontinued off of war farin underwent a total of 99 procedures. One patient (3%) also required a “minor” intervention (repacking of extraction site). There were no “major” complications in either group. Conclusions: This study supports previous studies that minor oral surgery procedures can be safely performed while maintaining patients on warfarin minimizing the risk of a potentially devastating thromboembolic event. When deciding whether or not to withhold warfarin, this study supports the
Roles of antigen receptors and CA215 in the innate immunity of cancer cells  [PDF]
Gregory Lee, Suefay Liu
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2013.33018

Antigen receptors, including immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors, are known to be widely expressed by cancer cells through unconfirmed mechanisms and for unknown purposes. Recently, a monoclonal antibody, designated as RP215, was generated against the ovarian cancer cell line, OC-3-VGH, and was shown to react with CA215, which consisted mainly of these cancer cell-expressed antigen receptors. Experimental evidence has clearly indicated that cancerous immunoglobulins play significant roles in the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. RP215 and anti-antigen receptor antibodies were equally effective in inducing apoptosis and complement-dependent cytotoxicity reactions to cultured cancer cells. Through gene regulation studies, both RP215 and antibodies against antigen-receptors were shown to affect more than a dozen of genes involved in cell proliferation (such as NFκB-1, IgG, P21, cyclin D1, ribosomal P1, and c-fos). Furthermore, selected toll-like receptor genes (TLR- 2, -3, -4, and -9) were also found to be highly regulated by both RP215 and anti-antigen receptor antibodies. For example, RP215 and anti-antigen receptor antibodies were found to both up-regulate TLR-2 and/or TLR-3 and down- regulate TLR-4 and TLR-9 intwo types of cancer cells. Based on these studies, it is reasonable to postulate that cancerous immunoglobulins play important roles in the modulation of the innate immune system to allow the growth and survival of cancer cells within the human body. Consequently, RP215 inits humanized forms may be utilized to target cancer cells for potential therapeutic purposes.

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