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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18110 matches for " Grain Growth "
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Prediction of the Microstructural Variations of Cold-Worked Pure Aluminum during Annealing Process  [PDF]
Hamid Reza Rezaei Ashtiani, Peyman Karami
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science (MNSMS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/mnsms.2015.51001
Abstract: The mechanical properties such as hardness and ultimate tensile strength of metals depend on the grain size, which have to be properly controlled and optimized to ensure the better economy and desirable mechanical characteristics of the metals. In order to study the microstructure evolution of AA1070, many experimental tests were conducted at different cold working and annealing conditions. Utilizing the experimental results, the static recrystallization and grain growth behavior of AA1070 have been investigated and the developed equations that can be used to the FEM of the annealing process have been obtained. The agreement between numerical modeling and experimental results is reasonably good for this material. The results showed that the recrystallization and grain growth behavior of AA1070 was evidently affected by both the annealing temperature and plastic strain.
Analysis of μ-Czochralski Technique Using Two-Dimensional Crystallization Simulator  [PDF]
Kuniaki Matsuki, Ryusuke Saito, Shuji Tsukamoto, Mutsumi Kimura, Ryoichi Ishihara
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2012.21002
Abstract: μ-Czochralski technique has been analyzed using two-dimensional crystallization simulator. It is observed that the temperature is relatively uniform in the entire Si region after the laser irradiation because the heat conductivity of the Si region is much higher than that of the underneath SiO2. Grain growth advances from the grain filter to the channel region and continues until it collides with what advances from random nucleation in the channel region. When the initial temperature is high, the random nucleation rarely occurs even under the supercooling condition, and the grain size becomes large. Moreover, it is qualitatively reproduced that the grain size increases as the irradiated energy of the laser irradiation increases.
Changing the Growth Behavior of a NiSn-Solder Using Gold  [PDF]
Mathias Wendt, Andreas Weimar, Marcus Zenger, Klaus Dilger
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2016.44004
Abstract: In this investigation, the influence of a thin gold (Au) layer on the growth behavior of the intermetallic compound (IMC) in a Nickel-Tin-Solder (NiSn-Solder) was studied. The reaction kinetics was studied in the temperature range of 232 to 330 using cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The kinetics of the reaction was determined using the empirical power law and the research showed that the introduction of an Au layer changes the reaction kinetics of the solder significantly. Furthermore, the change in reaction kinetics was accompanied by a change in morphology of the developing grains. The grain morphology of the IMC was studied for samples annealed at 290using cross-sectional and top-view samples and compared to Au free NiSn-Solder.
RETRACTED: Genetic Dissection of Pre-Flowering Growth and Development in Sorghum bicolor L. Moench under Well-Watered and Drought Stress Conditions  [PDF]
Nguyen Phuong, Gloria Afolayan, Mohamed El Soda, Hartmut Stützel, Willy Wenzel, Ralf Uptmoor
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.511100

Short Retraction Notice

The paper does not meet the standards of \"Agricultural Sciences\".

This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. The aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.

Editor guiding this retraction: Prof. Daniele De Wrachien (EiC of AS).

The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper which is marked \"RETRACTED\".

Topological and metrical aspects of normal and abnormal grain growth
Rios, Paulo Rangel;Glicksman, Martin Eden;
Materials Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-14392007000400009
Abstract: grain growth theories normally describe a grain using the concept of ?grain radius?. however, this assumption bypasses all topological information relating to the grain, viz., the number of its faces, edges, etc. this study, by contrast, introduces a new methodology, treating normal and abnormal grain growth in three dimensions in terms of both metrical and topological properties of the grains.
Effect of the low temperature annealing on primary and secondary structures and magnetic properties of Fe-3% Si
Cesar, Maria das Gra?as Melo Moreira;Paolinelli, Sebasti?o da Costa;Alcantara, Fabrício Luiz;Cota, André Barros;
Materials Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-14392011005000103
Abstract: the processing of 3% si steel is characterized by the use of mns particles as a normal grain growth inhibitor. experiments were carried out to investigate the grain growth in this material during heat treatments at low temperature. industrial decarburized samples were annealed in the range 825-845 °c and a detailed study of grain size and texture was made by ebsd measurements. the primary grain size and texture were related to the secondary structure obtained after high temperature final annealing. the heat treatments for grain growth led to an increase in the mean grain size by 1.2 to 3 times, depending on the stability of mns particles distribution. the increase of the primary grain size increased the core loss and decreased the magnetic induction of the fully processed material.
Dilatometry of ball milled nickel nano powder during non-isothermal sintering
Panigrahi B.B.,Das K.,Godkhindi M.M.
Science of Sintering , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/sos0701025p
Abstract: This work attempts to evaluate the sintering mechanisms of ball milled nanocrystalline nickel during nonisothermal heating. Samples showed a sintered density of 91.2% (theoretical) and grain growth up to 414 nm at 1273K. The activation energies of 12.4, 32.0 and 51.6 kJ/mol were found for viscous flow, lattice diffusion and grain boundary diffusion mechanisms respectively. Sintering was found to be controlled by interface reactions involving surface and grain boundary diffusions.
Effect of minor Sc and Zr addition on grain refi nement of as-cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys
He Yongdong,Zhang Xinming,Cao Zhiqiang
China Foundry , 2009,
Abstract: The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to investigate the infl uence of joint addition of Sc and Zr on grain refi nement of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys.Results show that the addition of 0.20% Sc has a little effect on grain refi nement because Sc is mainly dissolved into the matrix and hardly any primary Al3Sc particles are precipitated. The alloy with addition of 0.30% Sc and 0.16% Zr has more equiaxed grains than that of others, giving cast grain sizes as fi ne as 13 μm. This is because the Sc substitutes for Al atom in the Al-Zr crystal cell and forms Al-Sc-Zr unit cell, which grows and becomes Al3(Scx,Zr1-x) particle, acting as a nucleus for the formation of α-Al. The addition of 0.04% Ti and 0.008% B makes the grain size drop from 250 μm to 50 μm. Its refi nement effect is less than the 13 μm achieved by the alloy including 0.30% Sc and 0.16% Zr.
Responsiveness of Wheat Cultivars to Nitrogen Fertilizer
G. Fathi
Journal of Agronomy , 2006,
Abstract: Genotypic differences in responses to nitrogen (N) fertilizer of 6 cultivar of wheat (Atrak, Falat, Fong, Star, Showa, Atila) grown at 6 different rates of N (0, 50, 00, 50, 200 and 250 kg N ha-1) were examined. Measurements of vegetative growth, N content, grain yield (GY), grain protein concentration (GPC) and yield components were taken to identify traits that may contribute to high yield responsiveness. The optimum rates of N for dry matter production at ear emergance (DMee) were greater than 80 kg N ha-1 for all cultivar and often growth increased up to 105 kg N ha-1. Optimum rates of N for grain yield (Nopt) were lower and ranged, on average, from 50 kg N ha-1 for Clipper to 96 kg N ha-1 for Showa. The initial response to N varied from 13-14 kg kg-1 N in Showa, Fong and Star, to 36 kg kg-1 N in Atila. The Nopt for Atila was 71 kg N ha-1 and it tended to show the greatest yield response to N. It produced 19 kernels/g DMee, compared with 15-17 kernels/g DMee in the other cultivars. Unlike most other cultivars, Atila`s yield was consistently and positively correlated with ears m2, Falat was the only cultivar to show a similar relationship. However, the average kernel weight of Atlia was up to 5 mg lower than that of Atrak, Fong and Star and varied more than these cultivars between sites, suggesting that consistent grain size may be a problem in this cultivar. Atrak and Star had lower Nopt (51 kg ha-1) and a less variable kernel weight. There were no signs of differences in GPC of the 6 cultivars used at 3 N-responsive sites. Adding N increased GPC up to the highest rate of N and the responses were generally linear. Average N rates of between 38 kg N ha-1 (Star) and 58 kg N ha-1 (Atila) were sufficient to raise GPC above 11.8%. The experiments showed that the N rates for optimum yields varied considerably among cultivars, but applying rates to achieve maximum yields may cause GPC to exceed the maximum value.
Enhancement of ductility and improvement of abnormal Goss grain growth of magnetostrictive Fe–Ga rolled alloys
Ji-heng Li,Chao Yuan,Xing Mu,Xiao-qian Bao,Xue-xu Gao
- , 2018, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-018-1590-y
Abstract: The influences of initial microstructures on the mechanical properties and the recrystallization texture of magnetostrictive 0.1at% NbC-doped Fe83Ga17 alloys were investigated. The directionally solidified columnar-grained structure substantially enhanced the tensile elongation at intermediate temperatures by suppressing fracture along the transverse boundaries. Compared with tensile elongations of 1.0% at 300°C and 12.0% at 500°C of the hot-forged equiaxed-grained alloys, the columnar-grained alloys exhibited substantially increased tensile elongations of 21.6% at 300°C and 46.6% at 500°C. In the slabs for rolling, the introduction of <001>-oriented columnar grains also promotes the secondary recrystallization of Goss grains in the finally annealed sheets, resulting in an improvement of the saturation magnetostriction. For the columnar-grained specimens, the inhomogeneous microstructure and disadvantage in number and size of Goss grains are improved in the primarily annealed sheets, which is beneficial to the abnormal growth of Goss grains during the final annealing process.
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