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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 193846 matches for " Graeme D Jackson "
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Conceptualizing Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome as a Secondary Network Epilepsy
John S. Archer,Aaron E. L. Warren,Graeme D. Jackson,David F. Abbott
Frontiers in Neurology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2014.00225
Abstract: Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) is a category of severe, disabling epilepsy, characterized by frequent, treatment-resistant seizures, and cognitive impairment. Electroencephalography (EEG) shows characteristic generalized epileptic activity that is similar in those with lesional, genetic, or unknown causes, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. The condition typically begins in young children, leaving many severely disabled with recurring seizures throughout their adult life. Scalp EEG of the tonic seizures of LGS is characterized by a diffuse high-voltage slow transient evolving into generalized low-voltage fast activity, likely reflecting sustained fast neuronal firing over a wide cortical area. The typical interictal discharges (runs of slow spike-and-wave and bursts of generalized paroxysmal fast activity) also have a “generalized” electrical field, suggesting widespread cortical involvement. Recent brain mapping studies have begun to reveal which cortical and subcortical regions are active during these “generalized” discharges. In this critical review, we examine findings from neuroimaging studies of LGS and place these in the context of the electrical and clinical features of the syndrome. We suggest that LGS can be conceptualized as “secondary network epilepsy,” where the epileptic activity is expressed through large-scale brain networks, particularly the attention and default-mode networks. Cortical lesions, when present, appear to chronically interact with these networks to produce network instability rather than triggering each individual epileptic discharge. LGS can be considered as “secondary” network epilepsy because the epileptic manifestations of the disorder reflect the networks being driven, rather than the specific initiating process. In this review, we begin with a summation of the clinical manifestations of LGS and what this has revealed about the underlying etiology of the condition. We then undertake a systematic review of the functional neuroimaging literature in LGS, which leads us to conclude that LGS can best be conceptualized as “secondary network epilepsy.”
INCITE: A randomised trial comparing constraint induced movement therapy and bimanual training in children with congenital hemiplegia
Roslyn Boyd, Leanne Sakzewski, Jenny Ziviani, David F Abbott, Radwa Badawy, Rose Gilmore, Kerry Provan, Jacques-Donald Tournier, Richard AL Macdonell, Graeme D Jackson
BMC Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-4
Abstract: A matched pairs randomised comparison design will be used with children matched by age, gender, side of hemiplegia and level of upper limb function. Based on power calculations a sample size of 52 children (26 matched pairs) will be recruited. Children will be randomised within pairs to receive either CIMT or BIM training. Both interventions will use an intensive activity based day camp model, with groups receiving the same dosage of intervention delivered in the same environment (total 60 hours over 10 days). A novel circus theme will be used to enhance motivation. Groups will be compared at baseline, then at 3, 26 and 52 weeks following intervention. Severity of congenital hemiplegia will be classified according to brain structure (MRI and white matter fibre tracking), cortical excitability using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), functional use of the hand in everyday tasks (Manual Ability Classification System) and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Outcomes will address neurovascular changes (functional MRI, functional connectivity), and brain (re)organisation (TMS), body structure and function (range of motion, spasticity, strength and sensation), activity limitations (upper limb unimanual capacity and bimanual motor coordination), participation restrictions (in home, school and recreation), environmental (barriers and facilitators to participation) and quality of life.This paper outlines the theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for a matched pairs randomised trial comparing CIMT and BIM training to improve outcomes across the ICF.ACTRN12609000912280Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood disability with an incidence of 1 in 500 live births[1]. Hemiplegia accounts for 35% (1 in 1300) of these children and upper limb (UL) involvement is usually more pronounced than the lower limb[2]. Management of long-term disability and the burden of care on both the health care system and families are substantial. Rece
Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study; a new resource for researching genes and heritability
Blair H Smith, Harry Campbell, Douglas Blackwood, John Connell, Mike Connor, Ian J Deary, Anna F Dominiczak, Bridie Fitzpatrick, Ian Ford, Cathy Jackson, Gillian Haddow, Shona Kerr, Robert Lindsay, Mark McGilchrist, Robin Morton, Graeme Murray, Colin NA Palmer, Jill P Pell, Stuart H Ralston, David St Clair, Frank Sullivan, Graham Watt, Roland Wolf, Alan Wright, David Porteous, Andrew D Morris
BMC Medical Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-7-74
Abstract: Generation Scotland will recruit a family-based cohort of up to 50,000 individuals (comprising siblings and parent-offspring groups) across Scotland. It will be a six-year programme, beginning in Glasgow and Tayside in the first two years (Phase 1) before extending to other parts of Scotland in the remaining four years (Phase 2). In Phase 1, individuals aged between 35 and 55 years, living in the East and West of Scotland will be invited to participate, along with at least one (and preferably more) siblings and any other first degree relatives aged 18 or over. The total initial sample size will be 15,000 and it is planned that this will increase to 50,000 in Phase 2. All participants will be asked to contribute blood samples from which DNA will be extracted and stored for future investigation. The information from the DNA, along with answers to a life-style and medical history questionnaire, clinical and biochemical measurements taken at the time of donation, and subsequent health developments over the life course (traced through electronic health records) will be stored and used for research purposes. In addition, a detailed public consultation process will begin that will allow respondents' views to shape and develop the study. This is an important aspect to the research, and forms the continuation of a long-term parallel engagement process.As well as gene identification, the family-based study design will allow measurement of the heritability and familial aggregation of relevant quantitative traits, and the study of how genetic effects may vary by parent-of-origin. Long-term potential outcomes of this research include the targeting of disease prevention and treatment, and the development of screening tools based on the new genetic information. This study approach is complementary to other population-based genetic epidemiology studies, such as UK Biobank, which are established primarily to characterise genes and genetic risk in the population.Most medical disorder
The Development of the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking Project within the Decade Long Census of Marine Life
George D. Jackson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018999
Knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff regarding the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in non-accredited obstetric units in Cape Town
L Daniels, D Jackson
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2011,
Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess nursing staff knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI); to assess the knowledge of maternity obstetric unit (MOU) managers regarding BFHI principles and their attitude towards BFHI implementation; and to describe the barriers and constraints to the implementation of BFHI principles. Study design: Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Setting: The study was done in eight non-BFHI-accredited primary care maternity obstetric units in Cape Town. Subjects: The subjects were eight MOU managers and a random sample of 45 nursing staff. Outcomes measures: Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding BFHI and barriers to BFHI implementation were assessed by an intervieweradministered questionnaire. Results: The study demonstrated acceptable awareness and knowledge of the recommended BFHI principles. A total of 56.6% of the staff could define rooming-in, 47.2% could define the components of the BFHI, and 52.8% could name three baby-friendly care practices and routines. Eighty-nine per cent of the nursing staff were able to demonstrate correct positioning of the baby for breastfeeding, and 91.1% could demonstrate the correct attachment of the baby to the breast. Only 8.9% of the nursing staff were able to adequately demonstrate the correct hand milk-expressing technique, 35.6% knew about the correct management of painful nipples and 22.2% knew how to manage engorgement. Only 40% could adequately describe the safe preparation of infant formula. The enrolled nursing assistants (ENA) were significantly less knowledgeable than the other cadres of nurses. The majority of the nurses had a positive attitude toward BFHI principles and practices.
Examples of the Zeroth Theorem of the History of Physics
J. D. Jackson
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1119/1.2904468
Abstract: The zeroth theorem of the history of science (enunciated by E. P. Fischer) and widely known in the mathematics community as Arnol'd's Principle (decreed by M. V. Berry), states that a discovery (rule, regularity, insight) named after someone (often) did not originate with that person. I present five examples from physics: the Lorentz condition defining the Lorentz gauge of the electromagnetic potentials; the Dirac delta function (x); the Schumann resonances of the earth-ionosphere cavity; the Weizsacker-Williams method of virtual quanta; the BMT equation of spin dynamics. I give illustrated thumbnail sketches of both the true and reputed discoverers and quote from their "discovery" publications.
Searches for, and Properties of, New Charmonium-like States
Paul D. Jackson
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: I review the recent $B$-factory measurements of new states which, in some cases, exhibit Charmonium-like properties, and in other cases suggest the existence of a new spectroscopy. Several theoretical interpretations of the new states have come to the fore although, at time of writing, we are no closer to untangling the nature of most of the particles making up the observed new zoo of states.
Semi-classical calculation of the number of photons emitted by a relativistic neutrino with mass and magnetic moment passing through a transverse magnetic field
J. D. Jackson
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: A classical calculation, modified by Compton-recoil kinematics, of the radiation emitted by a relativistic neutrino with mass and a magnetic moment passing through a transverse magnetic field. The calculation is performed in the neutrinos rest frame by the method of virtual quanta. The total number N of virtual quanta scattered by the neutrino is determined. The semi-classical result for the analog of the Klein-Nishina formula is compared with a QED calculation of the photon scattering cross section. The different angular distributions, both strongly peaked, lead to a factor of two difference between the QED and semi-classical results for N.
Criticism of "Necessity of simultaneous co-existence of instantaneous and retarded interactions in classical electrodynamics" by Andrew E. Chubykalo and Stoyan J. Vlaev
J. D. Jackson
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X02009916
Abstract: The demonstration that the electromagnetic fields derived from the Lienard-Wiechert potentials do not satisfy the Maxwell equations is proved to be false. Errors were made in the computation of the derivatives of retarded quantities. The subsequent inference of the necessity of both instantaneous and retarded electromagnetic interactions cannot be made. Different choices of gauge can lead to a variety of forms for the scalar and vector potentials, always with the same retarded fields. Classical electromagnetic theory is complete as usually expressed. One may choose to work in the Lorenz gauge in which all quantities are retarded.
From Lorenz to Coulomb and other explicit gauge transformations
J. D. Jackson
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1119/1.1491265
Abstract: The main purposes of this paper are (i) to illustrate explicitly by a number of examples the gauge functions chi(x, t) whose spatial and temporal derivatives transform one set of electromagnetic potentials into another equivalent set; and (ii) to show that, whatever propagation or non-propagation characteristics are exhibited by the potentials in a particular gauge, the electric and magnetic fields are always the same and display the experimentally verified properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light. The example of the transformation from the Lorenz gauge (retarded solutions for both scalar and vector potential) to the Coulomb gauge (instantaneous, action-at-a-distance, scalar potential) is treated in detail. A transparent expression is obtained for the vector potential in the Coulomb gauge, with a finite nonlocality in time replacing the expected spatial nonlocality of the transverse current. A class of gauges (v-gauge) is described in which the scalar potential propagates at an arbitrary speed v relative to the speed of light. The Lorenz and Coulomb gauges are special cases of the v-gauge. The last examples of gauges and explicit gauge transformation functions are the Hamiltonian or temporal gauge, the nonrelativistic Poincare or multipolar gauge, and the relativistic Fock-Schwinger gauge.
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