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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 112960 matches for " Grace O'Maille "
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Mobilization of pro-inflammatory lipids in obese Plscr3-deficient mice
David M Mutch, Grace O'Maille, William R Wikoff, Therese Wiedmer, Peter J Sims, Gary Siuzdak
Genome Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-3-r38
Abstract: Nineteen metabolites were differentially and similarly regulated in both Plscr3-/- and Plscr1&3-/- animals, of which five were characterized from accurate mass, tandem mass spectrometry data and their correlation to the Metlin database as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) species enriched with C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C20:5 and C22:5 fatty acids. No significant changes in the plasma metabolome were detected upon elimination of PLSCR1, indicating that increases in pro-inflammatory lipids are specifically associated with the obese state of Plscr3-deficient animals. Correspondingly, increases in white adipose lipogenic gene expression confirm a role for PLSCR3 in adipose lipid metabolism.The untargeted profiling of circulating metabolites suggests no detectable functional redundancies between PLSCR proteins; however, this approach simultaneously identified previously unrecognized lipid metabolites that suggest a novel molecular link between obesity, inflammation and the downstream consequences associated with PLSCR3-deficiency.Despite the overt recognition of the taxing effects of obesity on both medical and social programs throughout the world, the estimated 300 million adults currently considered clinically obese in addition to the universal increase in childhood obesity indicates we are still succumbing to this global epidemic. Indeed, the poorly understood gene-environment interactions have revealed the complexity of this metabolic disease; however, with each passing year an increasing number of genetic candidates are discovered that help to further unravel the perturbed metabolism underlying the obese phenotype [1,2]. Recently, phospholipid scramblase (Plscr) 3 was identified as a genetic candidate capable of influencing adipose function and, ultimately, the obese phenotype. Mice deficient in PLSCR3 were found to accumulate lipid in abdominal fat pads and were characterized with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance, classic tell-tale markers for metab
Metabolomics relative quantitation with mass spectrometry using chemical derivatization and isotope labeling
Grace O'Maille,Eden P. Go,Linh Hoang,Elizabeth J. Want,Colin Smith,Paul O'Maille,Anders Nordstr m,Hirotoshi Morita,Chuan Qin,Wilasinee Uritboonthai,Junefredo Apon,Richard Moore,James Garrett,Gary Siuzdak
Spectroscopy: An International Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.3233/spe-2008-0361
Abstract: Comprehensive detection and quantitation of metabolites from a biological source constitute the major challenges of current metabolomics research. Two chemical derivatization methodologies, butylation and amination, were applied to human serum for ionization enhancement of a broad spectrum of metabolite classes, including steroids and amino acids. LC-ESI-MS analysis of the derivatized serum samples provided a significant signal elevation across the total ion chromatogram to over a 100-fold increase in ionization efficiency. It was also demonstrated that derivatization combined with isotopically labeled reagents facilitated the relative quantitation of derivatized metabolites from individual as well as pooled samples.
Social Participation after Stroke: One-Year Follow-Up of Stroke Survivors in Nigeria
Grace O. Vincent-Onabajo
ISRN Stroke , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/532518
Abstract: Background. Stroke may negatively affect social participation in survivors. Aims. This study assessed the pattern of social participation in a sample of Nigerian stroke survivors across the first 12 months after stroke. Methods. Stroke survivors were consecutively recruited while on admission at a tertiary health institution. The London handicap scale was used to assess social participation at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at the homes of the stroke survivors. Overall and domain-specific patterns of social participation were examined independently and also in relation to initial stroke severity. Results. Overall social participation significantly improved over 12 months ( ), while significant improvements were observed only in the mobility, physical independence, and work and leisure domains at P equals 0.04, 0.04, and 0.05, respectively. In spite of the improvement in the work and leisure domain, the domain recorded the lowest level of participation. Social participation also differed by initial stroke severity with severe stroke survivors having the lowest level of participation across 12 months after stroke. Conclusions. The poor outcome in the work and leisure domain of social participation and in individuals with initial severe stroke has implications for planning and provision of appropriate long-term stroke rehabilitation. 1. Introduction Social participation is a component of human functioning that reflects the complexity of a person’s roles beyond the performance of activities of daily life [1]. Defined as an individual’s involvement in life situations [2], social participation is increasingly being recognized as an important aspect of life. Furthermore, appropriateness in the dimensions of social participation such as community life, leisure, educational and occupational activities, social integration, and economic self-sufficiency have been linked with improved well-being and quality of life in general populations [3, 4] as well as in those with chronic diseases such as stroke [5, 6]. Stroke is a life changing disease that often entails lifelong consequences including social ones [7]. With increasing rates of survival after stroke, there is a growing need for evidence-based interventions that will enhance social functioning and participation in survivors. However, devising, planning, and provision of appropriate interventions may require adequate data on patterns of social participation after stroke. Existing studies from Western and Asian countries are varied with reports on improvement [8, 9], deterioration [10, 11], and stability [12, 13] in
Heat transfer in packed beds: experimental evaluation of one-phase water flow
Thoméo, J. C.;Grace, J. R.;
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322004000100003
Abstract: experimental heat transfer studies were carried out in 50.8 mm diameter packed beds of glass beads percolated by water and heated from the wall. the tube-to-particle diameter ratio (d/dp) ranged from 1.72 to 13.7 and the water flow rate from 1.1 to 9.9 l/min. bed heights ranged from 100 mm to 700 mm. the radial temperature was measured above the bed surface by five aligned sheathed thermocouples. variations in angular temperature were observed, independent of both radial position and particle diameter. results of repeated tests with the same packing and with repacking did not differ statistically. the radial temperature profile at the bed entrance, measured by a ring-shaped sensor, was uniform except very close to the tube wall.
Trace Element Supplementation of Livestock in New Zealand: Meeting the Challenges of Free-Range Grazing Systems
Neville D. Grace,Scott O. Knowles
Veterinary Medicine International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/639472
Abstract:
Heat transfer in packed beds: experimental evaluation of one-phase water flow
Thoméo J. C.,Grace J. R.
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2004,
Abstract: Experimental heat transfer studies were carried out in 50.8 mm diameter packed beds of glass beads percolated by water and heated from the wall. The tube-to-particle diameter ratio (D/d p) ranged from 1.72 to 13.7 and the water flow rate from 1.1 to 9.9 l/min. Bed heights ranged from 100 mm to 700 mm. The radial temperature was measured above the bed surface by five aligned sheathed thermocouples. Variations in angular temperature were observed, independent of both radial position and particle diameter. Results of repeated tests with the same packing and with repacking did not differ statistically. The radial temperature profile at the bed entrance, measured by a ring-shaped sensor, was uniform except very close to the tube wall.
Trace Element Supplementation of Livestock in New Zealand: Meeting the Challenges of Free-Range Grazing Systems
Neville D. Grace,Scott O. Knowles
Veterinary Medicine International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/639472
Abstract: Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms. 1. Introduction Grazing land for livestock has expanded sixfold since 1800 and now covers more than 25% of the earth’s ice-free land surface (about 3400 million ha [1]). This includes large areas where previously there has been little grazing, such as North and South America and Australia. Extensive (on marginal drylands) and intensive (on improved pasture) grazing supports 400 million cattle and 600 million sheep and goats [2]. The latter system delivers about one-fifth of the world’s supply of beef, sheep, and goat meat, which is many times greater production than from industrialised farming systems characterised by feedlots. Managing the mineral nutrition of grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. Livestock farming in New Zealand is pastoral, based on ryegrass and clover swards that thrive in a temperate environment with substantial rainfall. Grazing management is efficient and low cost [3], in part because animals remain outdoors throughout the year. The industry currently comprises about 6 million dairy cows, 4 million beef cattle, 32 million sheep, and 1 million deer grazed on 9.3 million hectares of grassland across flat, rolling, and steep hill country [4]. Some feed supplements such as grass and maize silages and palm kernel expeller (PKE) are provided for the dairy herds but contribute less than 15% of their annualised energy intake. Routine management of sheep and beef cattle requires only infrequent mustering and yarding, in order to carry out husbandry tasks such as the establishment of mating groups, pregnancy diagnosis, tailing or marking, shearing, and weaning. While pasture and forages generally provide sufficient mineral intakes for livestock, deficiencies can occur. The elemental composition of
A Study to Examine the Relationship between Social Support and Perception of Being Institutionalized among the Elderly Aged 65 Years and Above Who Are in Institutions in Bulawayo Urban, Zimbabwe  [PDF]
Sifisokuhle I. Dhlamini-Sibanda, Virgininia Dube-Mawerewere, Grace Nkhoma, Clara O. Haruzivishe
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.78067
Abstract: Policies on the elderly in Zimbabwe are based on social networks and social capital in which the care of the elderly rests with the adult children and other relatives including the community. It is argued that social networks and social capital are informal and the weakness in these informal types of social support is that they are difficult to maintain in cases of urbanization, migration and socio-economic hardships. The study sought to examine the relationship between social support and the perception of being institutionalized among the elderly aged 65 years and above who were in institutions in Bulawayo urban. A descriptive quantitative cross-sectional correlational survey method was used. A simple random sampling method was used to recruit respondents. The sample size in this study was 81 respondents. Data was collected using the interview schedule. Analysis was done using the Statistical Package Social for Sciences (SPSS) package, descriptive and inferential statistics. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed the relationship between social support and perception of being institutionalized as follows; r = 0.181, p = 0.107. This shows that there is no relationship between social support and perception of being institutionalized among the elderly aged 65 years and above who are in institutions in Bulawayo urban, Zimbabwe.
Knowledge and Utilisation of Emergency Contraception Pills among Female Undergraduate Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Mwaniki Grace Nyambura, James N. Kiarie, Omenge Orang’o, Okubatsion Tekeste Okube
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.79100
Abstract: Background: Emergency Contraception (EC) is used after unprotected sexual intercourse, following sexual abuse, misuse of regular contraception or non-use of contraception. Seventeen percent of pregnancies in Kenya are unintended, potentially leading to unsafe abortion that contributes to the high maternal mortality rate in Country. According to 2016 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), the maternal mortality ratio was 362 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Female students in University or College are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and illegal abortions resulting in mortality, morbidity and psychosocial problems. Knowledge on EC is very important for students as they are not in stable relationships and not using regular contraception. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and use of Emergency Contraception among female undergraduate students in the University of Nairobi. Materials and Methods: We used an institution-based cross sectional, quantitative study to sample was employed among 383 female undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi. The University of Nairobi has six colleges and systematic random sampling was used to select study participants from each college. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and analysed using SPSS Version 16. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to determine sample characteristics significantly associated with knowledge and utilisation of Emergency Contraception. Results: Most (53%) of the respondents were sexually active, and only 20% of the sexually active female students had ever used Emergency Contraception. Emergency Contraception awareness was high at 86.4%. However, based on a predefined criterion, accurate knowledge of Emergency Contraception was low at 42.6%.The majority (82.5%) of the
Strategies for Preventing and Managing Overweight and Obesity
Elvis I. Agbonlahor,Grace O. Ikhioya,Richard O. Okaka
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to reveal the various strategies for preventing and managing overweight and obesity in relation to reducing morbidity and mortality due to overweight and obesity. Thus, overweight and obesity are defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and > 30.0 kg/m2 respectively. Overweight and obesity are complex multifactorial chronic diseases that develop from an interaction of genotype and the environment. It was therefore concluded that overweight and obesity involve the interaction of social, behavioural, cultural, physiological, metabolic and genetic factors. Thus, it was recommended that multi-component intervention which include nutrition and physical activities and strategies such as providing nutrition education or dietary prescription, physical activity, pharmacological and behavioural skills development and training could help to prevent and manage overweight and obesity.
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