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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1217 matches for " Grace Callagy "
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Malignant Phyllodes Tumour with Liposarcomatous Differentiation, Invasive Tubular Carcinoma, and Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Mardiana Abdul Aziz,Frank Sullivan,Michael J. Kerin,Grace Callagy
Pathology Research International , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/501274
Abstract: A 43-year-old woman presented with a right breast lump that had enlarged over 5 months. She had chemoradiotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in 1989. Histology revealed a malignant phyllodes tumour (PT) with liposarcomatous differentiation and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within the tumour with invasive tubular carcinoma, DCIS, and lobular carcinoma in situ in the surrounding breast. She had surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. One year follow-up showed no recurrence or metastatic disease. Liposarcomatous differentiation is uncommon in PTs, and coexisting carcinoma is rare with 38 cases in 31 reports in the literature. Carcinoma is reported in malignant ( ), benign ( ) and in borderline PTs ( ) with invasive carcinoma ( ) and pure in situ carcinoma ( ) recorded in equal frequency. Carcinoma is more commonly found within the confines of benign PTs; whereas it is more often found surrounding the PT or in the contralateral breast in malignant PTs. Previous radiotherapy treatment is reported in only two cases. The aetiology of co-existing carcinoma is unclear but the rarity of previous radiotherapy treatment suggests that it is incidental. This case highlights the diverse pathology that can occur with PTs, which should be considered when evaluating pathology specimens as they may impact on patient management. 1. Introduction Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are uncommon biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms that account for <1% of all breast tumours. Most PTs are benign and carry a risk of local recurrence whereas malignant PTs have a 13% risk of haematogenous metastasis [1].The distinction between benign, borderline and malignant PT is based on the assessment of a number of histological features including infiltrative margin, stromal overgrowth, stromal atypia, cellularity, and mitotic activity.However,while histological features are helpful, they are not accurate predictors of tumour behavior, and no single parameter is reliable in all cases [2]. PTs are believed to arise from intralobular or periductal stroma and may arise de novo or from pre-existing fibroadenomas [2]. Up to 30% of PTs show malignant transformation, most often in the form of malignant transformation of the stroma, which usually shows fibrosarcomatous differentiation and rarely heterologous sarcomatous elements. Malignant transformation of epithelial elements is very rare with only 38 cases reported in the literature. We present a case of a malignant PT that contained heterologous liposarcomatous stromal differentiation and exhibited a range of epithelial pathology. Ductal carcinoma in
Meta-analysis confirms BCL2 is an independent prognostic marker in breast cancer
Grace M Callagy, Mark J Webber, Paul DP Pharoah, Carlos Caldas
BMC Cancer , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-8-153
Abstract: Reports published in 1994–2006 were selected for the meta-analysis using a search of PubMed. Studies that investigated the role of BCL2 expression by immunohistochemistry with a sample size greater than 100 were included. Seventeen papers reported the results of 18 different series including 5,892 cases with an average median follow-up of 92.1 months.Eight studies investigated DFS unadjusted for other variables in 2,285 cases. The relative hazard estimates ranged from 0.85 – 3.03 with a combined random effects estimate of 1.66 (95%CI 1.25 – 2.22). The effect of BCL2 on DFS adjusted for other prognostic factors was reported in 11 studies and the pooled random effects hazard ratio estimate was 1.58 (95%CI 1.29–1.94). OS was investigated unadjusted for other variables in eight studies incorporating 3,910 cases. The hazard estimates ranged from 0.99–4.31 with a pooled estimate of risk of 1.64 (95%CI 1.36–2.0). OS adjusted for other parameters was evaluated in nine series comprising 3,624 cases and the estimates for these studies ranged from 1.10 to 2.49 with a pooled estimate of 1.37 (95%CI 1.19–1.58).The meta-analysis strongly supports the prognostic role of BCL2 as assessed by immunohistochemistry in breast cancer and shows that this effect is independent of lymph node status, tumour size and tumour grade as well as a range of other biological variables on multi-variate analysis. Large prospective studies are now needed to establish the clinical utility of BCL2 as an independent prognostic marker.Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease whose behaviour is determined by the molecular characteristics of the tumour. In clinical practice, we rely on clinico-pathological features to predict tumour behaviour and patient outcome. These are powerful independent prognosticators [1,2] but are imperfect and represent only crude measures of the biological behaviour of a tumour. The power of these factors can be increased when they are used in combination e.g. the Nottingham Progno
Prognostic Significance of Deregulated Dicer Expression in Breast Cancer
Emer Caffrey, Helen Ingoldsby, Deirdre Wall, Mark Webber, Kate Dinneen, Laura S. Murillo, Celine Inderhaug, John Newell, Sanjeev Gupta, Grace Callagy
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083724
Abstract: Background Dicer, an RNase III-type endonuclease, is the key enzyme involved in RNA interference and microRNA pathways. Aberrant expression of Dicer is reported in several human cancers. Our aim was to assess the prognostic role of Dicer in breast cancer. Methods The entire series comprised 666 invasive breast cancers (IBCs), 480 DCIS cases (397 associated with IBC and 83 pure DCIS) and 305 lymph node metastases. Cytoplasmic Dicer expression by immunohistochemistry was scored as negative (no staining) and positive (weak, moderate or strong staining). Results Dicer staining was assessable in 446 IBC, 128 DCIS and 101 lymph node metastases. Expression of Dicer was observed in 33% (145/446) of IBCs, 34% (44/128) of DCIS and 57% (58/101) of lymph node metastases. Dicer expression was increased in nodal metastases compared to primary tumours (p<0.001); and was associated with ER negativity (p<0.001), HER2 positivity (p<0.001), high Ki67 labeling index (p<0.001) and expression of basal-like biomarkers (p = 0.002). Dicer positivity was more frequent in the HER2 overexpressing (p<0.001) and basal-like (p = 0.002) subtypes compared to luminal A subtype. Dicer expression was associated with reduced overall survival (OS) on univariate analysis (p = 0.058) and remained an independent predictor of OS on multivariate analysis (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.43–5.62, p = 0.003), with nodal status (HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.18–5.80, p = 0.018) and PR (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13–0.59, p = 0.001). Further, moderate or strong expression of Dicer was associated with improved disease-free survival in the HER2-overexpressing subtype compared to negative or weak expression (p = 0.038). Conclusion Deregulated Dicer expression is associated with aggressive tumour characteristics and is an independent prognostic factor for OS. Our findings suggest that Dicer is an important prognostic marker in breast cancer and that its prognostic role may be subtype specific.
Does Reactive Adaptation Exist? Using the Ecosystem Service Governance Approach to Evaluate Post-Drought Rural Food Security in Kenya  [PDF]
Grace W. Ngaruiya
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.58037
Controversial climate change studies purport that predicted food insecurity and resource scarcity will intensify resource conflicts in developing nations. This belief is based on a prevalent assumption that African agricultural production systems are rigid and that their respective governments lack comprehensive adaptation ability. Therefore, I investigate whether and how effective post- drought adaptation activity is sustaining food production and livelihoods at Loitoktok district in Kenya. This study uses the theoretical three-step ecosystem service governance approach that analyzes both natural resources attributes and relational data. Results confirm a substantial decline in productivity and huge monetary losses in the agricultural sector of Loitoktok following the 2009 drought. Post-drought analysis reveals high diversification in crops and livestock that are drought-tolerant, fast maturing and high income generating such as camels, rabbits and dairy goats, horticultural and fruit production that sustain food security, income and local livelihoods. These reactive adaptation activities originate from an active public-private cooperation that promotes knowledge exchange among Loitoktok stakeholders. This cooperation is also seen in the efficient resource conflict resolution network. In conclusion, rural communities seem to be efficiently adapting to changing environmental conditions but require more financial and technical support from the government. Unfortunately, appraisal of national planned adaptation reveals effort-duplication that may divert much needed adaptation funds from being invested in research projects with multiple benefits to Kenyan food producers.
Testing the Effect of Soil Heterogeneity on Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF) Contribution to Plant Productivity  [PDF]
Samuel Ayesu, Grace Gyabaah
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.46028

Most natural soils are heterogeneous and nutrient availability and soil structure change greatly over small distances. It is still unclear whether AMF are advantageous for plants under such heterogeneous soil conditions. The objective of this study was to determine whether diverse AMF community support host plant community productivity in heterogeneous soil. It was also tested whether soil heterogeneity affects plant productivity. This was carried out in a greenhouse experiment made up of two factors: soil heterogeneity and AMF richness. Soil heterogeneity was simulated by mixing three soil types (sand, field soil and organic soil) together (homogenous soil (HM)), mixing them partly (semi homogenous (SH)) or keeping the three soil types separate in three compartments within one pot (heterogeneous (HT)). AMF richness was simulated by adding no AMF, one of four different AMF species separately, or all four different AMF together. The pots were planted with a mixture of Trifolium pratense and Lolium multiflorum. There was no effect of soil heterogeneity on total plant biomass. However, the biomass of the individual plant species was greatly affected by soil heterogeneity with Lolium being the most abundant in the heterogeneous soil and Trifolium being the most abundant in the homogenous soil. Total plant biomass did not increase with AMF richness. Moreover, opposite to the hypothesis, AMF richness was not beneficial for plant productivity in a heterogenous soil environment. However, there were significant differences in plant biomass with different AMF treatments in the SH and HT treatment indicating that effects of AMF on plant productivity are influenced by soil type. These effects on yield and AMF reflect a combination of local responses to growing conditions. The results show that AMF influence on plant yield may not always be positive but is strongly dependent on ecological elasticity and environmental condition.

The Universality of the Portrayal of Gender in Television Advertisements: An East-West Comparison  [PDF]
Grace Lim, Adrian Furnham
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.713154
Abstract: This study compared portrayals of gender in Malaysian and British television advertisements regarding the portrayal of men and women across these two countries. A total of 236 advertisements were content analyzed for nine variables relating to the primary character of the advertisement. The findings provide evidence of gender stereotyping in both countries for types of products advertised, credibility and role of the primary characters. The results suggest that portrayals in British advertisements are similar to those in Malaysian advertisements despite the cultural gap. These findings are discussed in relation to implications and the limitations of the study are noted.
Virtues in Clinical Practice: Teaching Students about the Complexities and Depth of Professional Practice  [PDF]
Sandra Grace, Airdre Grant
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.813143
Abstract: This paper investigates the integration of virtues into teaching programs for allied health students. It explores the notion that practitioners’ effectiveness is enhanced when they practice virtues along with their technical expertise. These virtues include wisdom and love and they imbue the practitioner’s role with a meaning that extends beyond efficient diagnosis and competent case management. Practicing virtues can deepen the clinical relationship. Allied health students may feel cautious and uncertain about what it actually means to be a virtuous practitioner. Reflexive practice and dialogic encounters are presented as teaching activities that can cultivate virtuous practice.
Telomeres and Telomerase: Molecular Views and Perspectives  [PDF]
Kumar Arvind, Tony Grace
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2018.75008
Abstract: Telomere, the nucleoprotein structure at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes is indispensable for maintaining the genome stability. Telomeric DNA loss is apparent with each cell division, which marks an endpoint to the indefinite replication of the cell by causing replicative senescence that may lead to the programmed cell death. The loss of telomere is normal in cell division and as such after 20 - 40 divisions, telomere becomes too short to facilitate the capping function. Telomere uncapping or chromosomal free end causes a potential threat to the genomic stability and thus leads to the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities that have been known to play a role in aging and cancer. Telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein complex, and its accessory proteins are required to maintain the telomere sequence. Telomerase plays a key role in maintaining the length of telomere by adding G-rich repeat sequences. Its activity has been found to be quite high in the gametes, stem cells and most importantly tumor cells. Almost 85% of tumor cells compensate for telomere loss aided by telomerase-associated protein complex and shelter in complex or telosome. However, 5% - 10% of the cells undergo telomerase-independent mechanism. This review presents the molecular view of the telomere and telomerase along with its associated complex structures. It also discusses its contrasting role in causing cellular senescence and promoting tumorigenesis.
Early Exposure to Environmental Toxin Contributes to Neuronal Vulnerability and Axonal Pathology in a Model of Familial ALS  [PDF]
Grace Lee, Christopher A. Shaw
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.34050
Abstract: Adult onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) arises due to progressive and irreversible functional deficits to the central nervous system, specifically the loss of motor neurons. Sporadic ALS causality is not well understood, but is almost certainly of multifactorial origin involving a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The discovery of endemic ALS in the native Chamorro population of Guam during the 1950s and the co-occurrence of Parkinsonism and dementia in some patients led to searches for environmental toxins that could be responsible. In the present paper, we report that an environmental neurotoxin enhances mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD)-induced spinal motor neuron death and pathology and induces motor axon abnormalities. These results cumulatively confirm earlier findings that exposure to an environmental toxin is sufficient to produce the disease phenotype and indicate a role for gene-environment interaction in some forms of the disease.
Identification of a Highly Expressed 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Gene in the Root Tissue of Taraxacum kok-saghyz  [PDF]
Grisel Ponciano, Grace Q. Chen
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.524376
Kazakh dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz, Tk) is a rubber-producing plant currently being investigated as a source of natural rubber for industrial applications. Like many other isoprenoids, rubber is a downstream product of the mevalonate pathway. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) enzyme catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, a key regulatory step in the MVA pathway. Such regulated steps provide targets for increases in isoprenoid and rubber contents via genetic engineering to increase enzyme activities. In this study, we identify a TkHMGR1 gene that is highly expressed in the roots of Kazakh dandelion, the main tissue where rubber is synthesized and stored. This finding paves the way for further molecular and genetic studies of the TkHMGR1 gene, and its role in rubber biosynthesis in Tk and other rubber-producing plants.
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