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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 271506 matches for " Gordon G. Liu "
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Financing Innovative Medicines in Mainland China: The Role of Commercial Health Insurance  [PDF]
Hong Li, Gordon G. Liu, Christoph Glaetzer
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2013.23020
Abstract: The National Reimbursement Drug List (NRDL) is a key component of the current government-led insurance policy to provide access to basic medicines in mainland China; yet NRDL coverage is limited due to public budgetary constraints and new, innovative medicines are often excluded. This paper explores the potential role of commercial health insurance as an optional approach to financing medicines excluded by the NRDL. The current status of commercial health insurance (CHI) in Mainland China is reviewed and we discuss proposed changes that may be needed to develop an effective and sustainable commercial insurance program to provide the Chinese population with better access to innovative medicines not covered by NRDL.
The Influence of the Number of Employees on the Quality Management in Pharmaceutical Production  [PDF]
Jingjing Luo, Gordon G. Liu, Weijun Tian
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.73005
Abstract: Based on the survey data from the questionnaire of Quality Management of Pharmaceutical Production Enterprises in Anhui Province, this research examines the relationship between the number of employees and inspection for GMP of pharmaceutical manufacturers by adopting OLS model and Logit model. We find that the more employees there are, the better their inspection results are. Enterprises with large number of employees generally have plenty people to deal with the problems of quality supervision in the production of pharmaceuticals and have a good knowledge of GMP. They can produce high quality medicines. Therefore, small companies should be supervised frequently. In daily supervision, through the number of employees, it can quickly judge the pros and cons of the quality management level of the company, which is beneficial to allocate regulatory resources rationally.
Riemannian Space-Time, de Donder Conditions and Gravitational Field in Flat Space-Time  [PDF]
Gordon Liu
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.31002

Let the coordinate system xi of flat space-time to absorb a second rank tensor field Φij of the flat space-time deforming into a Riemannian space-time, namely, the tensor field Φuv is regarded as a metric tensor with respect to the coordinate system xu. After done this, xu is not the coordinate system of flat space-time anymore, but is the coordinate system of the new Riemannian space-time. The inverse operation also can be done. According to these notions, the concepts of the absorption operation and the desorption operation are proposed. These notions are actually compatible with Einstein’s equivalence principle. By using these concepts, the relationships of the Riemannian space-time, the de Donder conditions and the gravitational field in flat space-time are analyzed and elaborated. The essential significance of the de Donder conditions (the harmonic conditions or gauge) is to desorb the tensor field of gravitation from the Riemannian space-time to the Minkowski space-time with the Cartesian coordinates. Einstein equations with de Donder conditions can be solved in flat space-time. Base on Fock’s works, the equations of gravitational field in flat space-time are

Hospital Costs of Adverse Events in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer  [PDF]
Alex Z. Fu, Zhongyun Zhao, Song Wang, Beth Barber, Gordon G. Liu
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.41021

Background: Monoclonal antibody treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) have distinct treatment-related safety profiles. This study aimed to elucidate the hospitalisation costs of adverse events (AEs) commonly associated with monoclonal antibodies when administered to patients with mCRC. Methods: This study extracted data for patients newly diagnosed with mCRC from a large US claims database from January 2005 to June 2008. The first distant metastasis diagnosis date was defined as the index date. Main outcomes were length of hospital stay (days) and hospitalisation costs (2010 US$) for AEs (identified by primary discharge diagnoses). All analyses are presented descriptively. Results: The study population (aged ≥18 years; n = 12,648) was balanced according to gender and was mainly aged 50 years or older (90.1%). Most patients had colon cancer (70.1%) as opposed to rectal cancer. Gastrointestinal (GI) perforation incurred the longest median length of stay (11.5 days) for hospitalisations, followed by wound-healing complications (7 days), arterial and venous thromboembolism (5.5 and 4 days, respectively), and congestive heart failure (4 days). The highest inpatient cost per event was for GI perforations (mean $66,224 and median $ 34,027), followed by arterial thromboembolism ($40,992 and $18,587), wound-healing complications ($36,440 and $21,163), interstitial lung disease ($26,705 and $19,111) and acute myocardial infarction ($22,395 and $15,223). Skin toxicity (mean $6475 and median $6110) and hypertension ($14,108 and $6047) were associated with relatively low costs. Conclusions: Hospital costs for monoclonal antibody treatment-related AEs in patients with mCRC vary greatly. This study provides source data for economic evaluations of head-to-head comparisons of monoclonal antibody treatments.

The Influence of the Change Frequency of Director of Manufacturing Management on the Quality Management
Take Anhui Province as an Example

Jingjing Luo, Gordon G. Liu, Weijun Tian
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.79006
Abstract: Based on the survey data from questionnaire of Quality Management of Pharmaceutical Production Enterprises in Anhui Province, this research examines the relationship between the change frequency of production director and GMP inspection results of pharmaceutical manufacturers by adopting OLS model and Logit model. We find that director of manufacturing management plays a direct role in enterprise production management as senior administrator. If director of manufacturing management changes more times, the enterprise’s drug production management will lose persistent stability. As a result, the quality of drug production is affected. Without ability to produce high-quality drugs, the GMP inspection results of pharmaceutical enterprises are poor. Thus, this paper suggests that in daily drug quality supervision, enterprises that frequently change director of manufacturing management should be paid more attention to, and we should increase the frequency of examination, so as to reasonably allocate regulatory resources and carry out targeted supervision.
Size-dependent Transport Study of In0.53Ga0.47As Gate-all-around Nanowire MOSFETs: Impact of Quantum Confinement and Volume Inversion
Jiangjiang J. Gu,Heng Wu,Yiqun Liu,Adam T. Neal,Roy G. Gordon,Peide D. Ye
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1109/LED.2012.2194690
Abstract: InGaAs gate-all-around nanowire MOSFETs with channel length down to 50nm have been experimentally demonstrated by top-down approach. The nanowire size-dependent transport properties have been systematically investigated. It is found that reducing nanowire dimension leads to higher on-current, transconductance and effective mobility due to stronger quantum confinement and the volume inversion effect. TCAD quantum mechanical simulation has been carried out to study the inversion charge distribution inside the nanowires. Volume inversion effect appears at a larger dimension for InGaAs nanowire MOSFET than its Si counterpart.
First Experimental Demonstration of Gate-all-around III-V MOSFET by Top-down Approach
Jiangjiang Gu,Yiqun Liu,Yanqing Wu,Robert Colby,Roy G. Gordon,Peide D. Ye
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The first inversion-mode gate-all-around (GAA) III-V MOSFETs are experimentally demonstrated with a high mobility In0.53Ga0.47As channel and atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3/WN gate stacks by a top-down approach. A well-controlled InGaAs nanowire release process and a novel ALD high-k/metal gate process has been developed to enable the fabrication of III-V GAA MOSFETs. Well-behaved on-state and off-state performance has been achieved with channel length (Lch) down to 50nm. A detailed scaling metrics study (S.S., DIBL, VT) with Lch of 50nm - 110nm and fin width (WFin) of 30nm - 50nm are carried out, showing the immunity to short channel effects with the advanced 3D structure. The GAA structure has provided a viable path towards ultimate scaling of III-V MOSFETs.
Multicountry Burden of Chronic Hepatitis C Viral Infection among Those Aware of Their Diagnosis: A Patient Survey
Marco daCosta DiBonaventura, Yong Yuan, Benedicte Lescrauwaet, Gilbert L’Italien, Gordon G. Liu, Isao Kamae, Josephine A. Mauskopf
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086070
Abstract: Background The World Health Organization has called for global and regional assessments of the burden of hepatitis C (HCV) along with country-specific patient profiles to better inform healthcare policy. The present investigated the characteristics and burden of patients reporting a diagnosis of HCV infection in the US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, urban China, and Japan using a consistent methodology of patient-reported surveys. Methods The 2010 5EU (N = 57,805), 2009 US (N = 75,000), 2008/2009 Japan (N = 37,683), and 2009/2010 urban China (N = 33,261) waves of the National Health and Wellness Survey were used as the data source. Within each country, patients with a self-reported diagnosis of HCV were compared with those who did not report a diagnosis of HCV on sociodemographics, health behaviors, comorbidities, and health outcomes (e.g., Short Form-12v2). The effect of HCV was examined using regression analysis applying sampling weights. Results The prevalence of HCV ranged from 0.26% (China) to 1.42% (Italy). Patients in Japan and Italy (61.60 and 61.02 years, respectively) were the oldest, while patients in the US were the most likely to be obese (39.31%) and have concomitant anxiety (38.43%) and depression (46.05%) compared with other countries. Pooling countries and adjusting for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities, HCV was associated with significantly lower physical component summary scores (b = ?2.51) and health utilities (b = ?0.04) and greater overall work impairment (b = 8.79), physician visits (b = 2.91), and emergency department visits (b = 0.30) (all p<.05). The effects on health status were strongest in the US and UK while the effects on healthcare resource use were strongest in Japan. Conclusions HCV was associated with a significant humanistic and economic burden. These results suggest that the manifestation of the HCV burden, and the profile of the patients themselves, varied dramatically by country. Successful disease management should be cognizant of region-specific unmet needs.
Bug shallowness in open-source, Macintosh software
G Gordon Worley III
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: Central to the power of open-source software is bug shallowness, the relative ease of finding and fixing bugs. The open-source movement began with Unix software, so many users were also programmers capable of finding and fixing bugs given the source code. But as the open-source movement reaches the Macintosh platform, bugs may not be shallow because few Macintosh users are programmers. Based on reports from open-source developers, I, however, conclude that that bugs are as shallow in open-source, Macintosh software as in any other open-source software.
Quantum Watermarking by Frequency of Error when Observing Qubits in Dissimilar Bases
G Gordon Worley III
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: We present a so-called fuzzy watermarking scheme based on the relative frequency of error in observing qubits in a dissimilar basis from the one in which they were written. Then we discuss possible attacks on the system and speculate on how to implement this watermarking scheme for particular kinds of messages (images, formated text, etc.).
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