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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 380 matches for " Gonadotropin-releasing-Hormon "
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GnRH - Gonadotropin Releasing Hormon: Mechanismen und therapeutische Anwendung in der assistierten Reproduktion
Obruca A,Fischl F,Huber JC
Journal für Fertilit?t und Reproduktion , 1998,
Abstract: Mit der Einführung der Gondotropinreleasinghormon (GnRH) Agonisten konnte eine Verbesserung der ovariellen Stimulationen, insbesonders bei Patienten mit einer Hormonst rung (z. B.: PCO) oder mit ovarieller Insuffizienz ("poor responder") erreicht werden. Derzeit kommen im Rahmen der In-vitro Fertilisation (IVF) 3 verschiedene Protokolle zur Anwendung. Beim langen Protokoll beginnt die GnRH Agonist-Verabreichung entweder in der Mitte der Lutealphase des Vorzyklus oder aber in der frühen Follikelphase des Behandlungszyklus. Die eigentliche Stimulation mittels Gonadotropinen beginnt erst, nachdem die hypophys re Suppression feststeht. Im Unterschied dazu nützt das kurze und das ultrakurze Protokoll den kurzzeitig stimulierenden Effekt der GnRH Agonisten aus. Deswegen beginnt die Gonadotropingabe bereits kurze Zeit nach Stimulationsbeginn. Die GnRH Agonist-Therapie dauert beim ultrakurzen Protokoll nur 3 bis 4 Tage, beim kurzen Protokoll bis zur Ovulationsinduktion. Den besseren Stimulationseffekt durch GnRH-Stimulationsprotokolle erkauft man mit einem erh hten Risiko eines ovariellen Hyperstimulationssyndroms, das vor allem jüngere Patientinnen trifft.
Changes in Electrocardiogram Findings during Treatment with Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist and Surgical Castration for Prostate Carcinoma  [PDF]
Hasan Sa?lam, Akif ?akar, Osman K?se, ?ükrü Kumsar, Salih Budak, Serbülent G?khan Beyaz, ?ztu? Adsan
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2012.223029
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate electrocardiogram (ECG) changes after complete androgen blockade (CAB) achieved by either surgical or medical castration and compare the outcomes of the groups. Methods: Sixty-three consecutive men (between 58 - 86 years of age) requiring CAB for prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. Patients with diabetes mellitus, an additional malignancy, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure or a medical history of cardiac event in the last 12 months were excluded from the study. Additionally, those who were taking medicine affecting heart rate were excluded. The participants were divided into two groups according to their modality of castration. The first group consisted of 35 patients who received bilateral orchiectomy plus anti-androgen medication. The second group contained 28 patients who accepted gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plus anti-androgen therapy. After complete examinations and biochemical tests, the ECG leads of the patients were obtained conveniently. This was then repeated at three- and six-month visits. ECG findings (including heart rate, PR, QRS, QT, corrected QT (QTc) intervals and QT dispersion (QTd)) were recorded and analysed statistically. The groups were then compared in terms of pre- and post-treatment ECG outcomes. Results: Both groups revealed similarly lower heart rate and prolonged PR, QRS, QT, corrected QTc and QTd by the end of six months. By the end of three months, all variables had changed significantly in the orchiectomy group, whereas in the GnRH group, they had not. Conclusion: CAB may result in lower heart rate and prolonged QT, a condition associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. Therefore, patients receiving CAB should be monitored closely for cardiac adverse effects.
Case Report of Ectopic Pregnancy during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation without Oocytes Harvested and Late Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome  [PDF]
Hui Lin, Wen He, Jie Lv, Chanlin Han, Li Sun, Jianping Ou, Liuhong Cai
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2018.63008
Abstract: Here we reported a rare case of misdiagnosed ectopic pregnancy (EP) due to unintended ovulation during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in GnRH agonist cycle, resulting in no oocytes harvested and late hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS). The patient was a 33-year old primary infertile woman due to male’s factors and underwent her second in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle using GnRH agonist protocol, and no oocytes harvested on ovum picked-up (OPU) day. The start of gonadotropin usage was on day 8th of her period, and the P level increased rapidly and strangely high from day 8th after gonadotropin usage. The E2 level and follicles grew normally but finally no oocytes harvested. She was diagnosed as late ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS) 7 days after OPU. 20 days after OPU, no menstruation come and a positive urine test of hCG were reported. And the patient was diagnosed as EP by laparoscopy. In conclusion, rapidly increased P level, no oocyte retrieval and late onset of OHSS should be very important clues to diagnose this misdiagnosed EP.
Oral Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors in Recurrent Priapism Complicating Thalassemia Intermedia: A Case Report  [PDF]
Davood Maleki
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.36072

Recurrent priapism is a rare, serious and difficult to treat complication of some hematological disorders, for which no standard therapy exists. This study reports a case of a 42-year-old man with thalassemia intermedia complicated by recurrent episodes of priapism. To prevent priapism recurrences, a trial of PDE5is use was initiated. One day after initiation of a PDE5i (25 mg sildenafil repeated every 8 hours), priapism was improved. For 3 weeks, the patient reported improvement, without experiencing any episodes of priapism and a normal physiologic erectile function. Four weeks after treatment he experienced priapism reoccurrence and doubling of the Sildenafil was not effective. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist initiated and one week after initiatin of new drug he improved. He was free of priapism episodes for more than 2 years afterward. PDE5 deregulation seems to be an underling pathologic mechanism of recurrent priapism at least in thalassemia intermedia patients. It appears that PDE5is may have a role in the management of such patients and further testing in clinical trials is needed.

Bone mineral density and body composition in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty before and after treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist
Alessandri, Sandra B.;Pereira, Francisco de A.;Villela, Rosangela A.;Antonini, Sonir R. R.;Elias, Paula C. L.;Martinelli Jr., Carlos E.;Castro, Margaret de;Moreira, Ayrton C.;Paula, Francisco J. A. de;
Clinics , 2012, DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2012(06)08
Abstract: objectives: idiopathic central precocious puberty and its postponement with a (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) gnrh agonist are complex conditions, the final effects of which on bone mass are difficult to define. we evaluated bone mass, body composition, and bone remodeling in two groups of girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty, namely one group that was assessed at diagnosis and a second group that was assessed three years after gnrh agonist treatment. methods: the precocious puberty diagnosis and precocious puberty treatment groups consisted of 12 girls matched for age and weight to corresponding control groups of 12 (cd) and 14 (ct) girls, respectively. bone mineral density and body composition were assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry. lumbar spine bone mineral density was estimated after correction for bone age and the mathematical calculation of volumetric bone mineral density. conep: caae-0311.0.004.000-06. results: lumbar spine bone mineral density was slightly increased in individuals diagnosed with precocious puberty compared with controls; however, after correction for bone age, this tendency disappeared (cd = -0.74 + 0.9 vs. precocious puberty diagnosis = -1.73 + 1.2). the bone mineral density values of girls in the precocious puberty treatment group did not differ from those observed in the ct group. conclusion: there is an increase in bone mineral density in girls diagnosed with idiopathic central precocious puberty. our data indicate that the increase in bone mineral density in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty is insufficient to compensate for the marked advancement in bone age observed at diagnosis. gnrh agonist treatment seems to have no detrimental effect on bone mineral density.
Efficacy and safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists used in the treatment of prostate cancer
Choi S, Lee AK
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S24106
Abstract: acy and safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists used in the treatment of prostate cancer Review (2761) Total Article Views Authors: Choi S, Lee AK Published Date December 2011 Volume 2011:3 Pages 107 - 119 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S24106 Seungtaek Choi, Andrew K Lee Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most effective systemic treatment for prostate cancer. ADT has been shown to have a high rate of response and to improve overall survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In addition, multiple studies have shown that adding ADT to external beam radiation therapy leads to improvement in cure rates and overall survival in prostate cancer patients. The most commonly used ADT is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy. Although GnRH agonist therapy has significant benefits for patients with prostate cancer, it has also been shown to have significant side effects, including fatigue, hot flashes, decreased libido, decreased quality of life, obesity, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, decreased bone mineral density, and increased risk of fractures. Therefore, it is crucial that the benefits of ADT be weighed against its potential adverse effects before its use.
Intermediary role of kisspeptin in the stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons by estrogen in the preoptic area of sheep brain
Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh Shirazi,Amin Tamadon
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: The role of estrogen in the stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons is clear. These neurons do not express estrogen alpha receptors, so other mediator neurons should be present to transmit the positive feedback effect of estrogen to the GnRH neurons. Kisspeptin neurons have an important role in the stimulation of GnRH neurons, so they can be the mediator of the effect of estrogen on GnRH neurons in preoptic area of sheep brain. One of the known effects of estrogen is the stimulation of Fos gene in the brain. The aim of the present study was to determine the intermediary role of kisspeptin in the transmission of estrogen effects to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the preoptic area of sheep brain. Methods: Six mature ewes in breeding season were selected and ovariectomised. Three ewes in treatment group were injected with 50 mg estradiol benzoate in 1 ml of sunflower oil and three ewes in control group were injected with saline solution intramuscularly. Immediately after estradiol injections, the hypothalamus of the ewes was removed. The count of kisspeptin neurons, Fos genes, and kisspeptin neurons which colocalized with Fos genes were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: Estradiol injection increased the colocalization of kisspeptin with Fos gene in the preoptic area of the sheep brain (P=0.01). Results of the present study showed that 86.9 percent of kisspeptin neurons colocalized with Fos gene in the preoptic area (P=0.01). Conclusion: Kisspeptin neurons are important mediators in transmission of positive feedback effect of estrogen into GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of sheep brain.
Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero
Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra,Carlos Alberto Duque Parra
MedUNAB , 2006,
Abstract: It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH). In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.
Ovarian Cyst Formation Following Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Agonist Administration Decreases the Oocyte Quality in IVF Cycles
?zlem Gün Ery?lmaz,Esma Sar?kaya,Fatma Nur Aksakal,Sevtap Hamdemir
Balkan Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: The gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist (GnRH-a) treatment during in vitro fertilization (IVF) sometimes causes a functional ovarian cyst during the administration period before gonadotropin stimulation, as an undesired event. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of these cysts on the IVF outcomes.Materials and Methods: Out of 981 IVF cycles, 78 with ovarian cysts were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the demographic characteristics, hormonal outcomes, and fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The metaphase II oocyte ratio, fertilization rate and percentage of high quality embryos (grade 1) were significantly higher in the cyst-negative group (p<0.0001; p<0.0001; p≤0.05). These same three parameters were also significantly higher in the cyst-aspirated group (p<0.01; p<0.05; p<0.05). Cyst diameters of the aspiration group were significantly higher (p<0.05). No statistically significant differences in implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were determined between the groups.Conclusion: An ovarian cyst formation during the GnRH-a suppression period negatively affects oocyte quality. Cyst aspiration before gonadotropin stimulation does not improve the IVF outcome.
Immunohistochemical Localization of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Somatolactin During Sexual Maturation and Spawning of Lates niloticus
Noha A. Khalil,Abd El-Hakim E. El-Gamal,Sohair A. Gaber,Mostafa A. Mousa
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The present study investigated the concomitant changes of mGnRH and SL immunoreactivities within the brain and the pituitary gland at different stages of the gonadal cycle of Lates niloticus. mGnRH cell bodies were observed in the mediobasal hypothalamus within the Nucleus Lateralis Tuberis Pars posterior (NLTP). Cells with immunoreactivity for SL were detected in the Pars Intermedia (PI) of the pituitary gland. The synthetic and secretory activity of both mGnRH-ir neurons and SL-IR cells were increased during sexual maturation and spawning. Both mGnRH-ir neurons and SL-ir cells were small with moderate immunoreactivity in immature fish. However, the synthetic activity of these cells was increased as indicated by the increased numbers and sizes of cells with more immunoreactivity during gonadal development. In late stages of maturation (prespawning), the synthetic activity of mGnRH-ir neurons and SL-ir cells reached their maximum in ripe fish. Finally, during spawning, mGnRH-ir neurons and SL cells showed an increase in the secretory activity in spent fish as reflected by their small sizes, vacuolated appearance and weak immunoreactivity. Furthermore, mGnRH-ir fibers, which are in close association with SL-ir cells, showed similar seasonal changes in the density and immunoreactivity as for mGnRH-ir neurons and SL cells. The dominance of mGnRH in the hypothalamus and its close contact with SL-ir cells in the pituitary gland, together with the concurrent changes of GnRH and SL immunoreactivity in relation to seasonal changes in the reproductive conditions suggest that mGnRH plays an important role for SL release to regulate some biological events related to the reproduction in L. niloticus.
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