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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4189 matches for " Go;Kobayashi "
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4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal-Modified Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Is Degraded by Cathepsin G in Rat Neutrophils
Yukihiro Tsuchiya,Go Okada,Shigeki Kobayashi,Toshiyuki Chikuma,Hiroshi Hojo
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/213686
Abstract: Degradation of oxidized or oxidatively modified proteins is an essential part of the antioxidant defenses of cells. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal, a major reactive aldehyde formed by lipid peroxidation, causes many types of cellular damage. It has been reported that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or, in some cases, by the lysosomal pathway. However, our previous studies using U937 cells showed that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is degraded by cathepsin G. In the present study, we isolated the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-degrading enzyme from rat neutrophils to an active protein fraction of 28 kDa. Using the specific antibody, the 28 kDa protein was identified as cathepsin G. Moreover, the degradation activity was inhibited by cathepsin G inhibitors. These results suggest that cathepsin G plays a crucial role in the degradation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal-Modified Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Is Degraded by Cathepsin G in Rat Neutrophils
Yukihiro Tsuchiya,Go Okada,Shigeki Kobayashi,Toshiyuki Chikuma,Hiroshi Hojo
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/213686
Abstract: Degradation of oxidized or oxidatively modified proteins is an essential part of the antioxidant defenses of cells. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal, a major reactive aldehyde formed by lipid peroxidation, causes many types of cellular damage. It has been reported that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or, in some cases, by the lysosomal pathway. However, our previous studies using U937 cells showed that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is degraded by cathepsin G. In the present study, we isolated the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-degrading enzyme from rat neutrophils to an active protein fraction of 28?kDa. Using the specific antibody, the 28?kDa protein was identified as cathepsin G. Moreover, the degradation activity was inhibited by cathepsin G inhibitors. These results suggest that cathepsin G plays a crucial role in the degradation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. 1. Introduction Low-to-moderate concentrations of reactive oxygen species affect a great number of physiological functions. However, when the reactive oxygen species concentration exceeds the antioxidative capacity of an organism, animal cells enter a state termed oxidative stress, in which the excess reactive oxygen species induces oxidative damage on cellular components. As a result, oxidative stress has been implicated in a large range of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, male infertility, autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disorders [1–3]. Exposure to oxidative stress, which occurs in the presence of reactive oxygen species and free radicals, causes many adverse events including modification of proteins and reactions with DNA [4]. Lipid peroxidation also occurs, and various reactive aldehydes, such as 2-alkenals, 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, and ketoaldehydes, are generated [5]. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a major reactive aldehyde formed by the peroxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid [6], and is involved in various physiological and pathological reactions [5, 6]. HNE has a high stability and reactivity and is largely responsible for many types of cellular damage associated with oxidative stress. HNE covalently binds to cysteine, lysine, or histidine residues [5]. These adducts are detected in several disease lesions, including in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease [7, 8] and in low-density lipoproteins of atherosclerotic lesions [9]. HNE
Verification of Hypothesis of “Six Patterns of Paid Vacation Use”: An Exploration of Six Patterns of Paid Vacation Usage and Number of Days Taken  [PDF]
Go Igusa
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2014.23013
Abstract: In this study a survey using questionnaires was conducted to understand the actual condition of the relationship between methods for taking paid vacation and its usage rate; to focus on verifying the relationship quantitatively by empirical analysis; and to present a plan to promote paid vacation usage. The simple tabulation did not reveal a distinct difference in the number of days taken as paid vacation among the usage methods; however, by making the other conditions constant, the number of days taken as paid vacation by those adopting a share method was significantly high. In other words, by recommending the share method at a workplace, it is possible that the paid vacation usage condition improves considerably. In order for this method to operate effectively, the paper proposed that “efforts to utilize human resources” is necessary so that personnel who can replace the work of employees taking paid vacation are prepared.
A Survey Study on the Causes of Annual Paid Leave Being Left Untaken by Japanese Physicians from the Perspective of Hospital Managers  [PDF]
Go Igusa
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2014.24017
Abstract: This paper focuses on the issue of annual paid leave that is left untaken by physicians in a difficult working environment from the perspective of hospital managers and clarifies the reasons why physicians cannot (will not) take leave through interviews with these managers and main causes of this through qualitative analysis. The results show that the main causes of annual paid leave being left untaken are “the lack of substitute physicians due to management constraints” and “physician’s ethics and overwork” which are different from the results of conventional research into annual paid leave. While also exposing the issue of supply and demand such as the uneven distribution of physicians, this paper raises the necessity of human resources management for physicians such as reconstructing the supply and demand coordination framework by improving the medical services payment system for physicians in order to make sure that demand for physician labour is met and to build and maintain a system for the provision of safe and secure healthcare in the future.
Economic Analysis on Attributes of Workers and Method to Take Annual Paid Vacation  [PDF]
Go Igusa
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2015.33014
Abstract: This paper focuses on what type of laborers chooses which of the six types of uses of paid vacations. In this paper, we conduct a multinomial logistic regression analysis with the “six types of uses of paid vacations” which are “share method”, “progressive method”, “regressive method”, “self-pay method (advance)”, “self-pay method (arrears)”, and “self-pay method (work at home)” as object variables. As a result, many of the independent variables did not influence which type was chosen, but interesting variables “information is not shared” and “those around me take paid vacation” were influential, revealing that different types of choices are made depending on how participants work.
Endosonography-Guided Pancreatic Duct Drainage for Chronic Pancreatitis: A Case Report and Review
Kei Ito,Naotaka Fujita,Yutaka Noda,Go Kobayashi,Takashi Obana,Jun Horaguchi,Shinsuke Koshita,Yoshihide Kanno
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/517864
Abstract: A 50-year-old man was admitted to our department, complaining of epigastric pain and high fever. CT revealed a pseudocyst at the pancreatic head with upstream dilatation of the pancreatic duct (PD) and fluid collection surrounding the pancreas. Endosonography-guided PD drainage (ESPD) was performed because of unsuccessful ERCP. With a curved linear array echoendoscope, a 7.2?F catheter was placed in the PD. Laboratory data showed improvement in a few days and revealed disappearance of the fluid collection. Ten days after ESPD, a 7?F stent was placed in the PD via the puncture tract across the papilla of Vater followed by transpapillary replacement with a 10?F stent. CT showed a reduction in diameter of the PD and disappearance of the pseudocyst. ESPD is a feasible and useful procedure in selected patients with chronic pancreatitis showing stenosis of the main PD when transpapillary approach is impossible. 1. Introduction The cause of pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) is multifactorial, one of which is regarded to be pancreatic ductal hypertension. Ductal decompression is advocated for patients with pain and a markedly dilated duct. Endoscopic approach to CP is gaining wider application [1, 2]. Transpapillary pancreatic duct (PD) stenting has been reported to be useful for relieving pain in such patients [3]. However, in some patients transpapillary approach is impossible because of severe inflammation involving the duodenum, tight PD stricture, or altered anatomy. Endosonography- (ES-) guided pancreatography for a diagnostic purpose in a patient with failed transpapillary approach was first reported by Harada et al. in 1995 [4]. Several reports on the application of this technique from diagnostic purpose to therapeutic one, such as ES-guided pancreatic duct drainage (ESPD), have been published [5–12]. We applied ESPD in patients with CP and the results were quite encouraging. Herein, its details are reported with a review of the literature. 2. Case Report A 50-year-old man was admitted to our department, complaining of epigastric pain and high fever. A diagnosis of alcohol-induced CP was made 10 years earlier. Laboratory data on admission showed the following abnormalities: serum amylase: 2909 IU/L (normal range: 42–130?IU/L); protronbin time: 34% (70–100%); Fibrinogen: <50?mg/dl (150–400); DD-dimer: 24.11?μg/ml (0.00-1.00?μg/ml). Abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a pseudocyst 2.5?cm in diameter at the pancreatic head with upstream dilatation of the PD and fluid collection surrounding the pancreas. Based on the diagnosis
In Vivo Analysis of Aicda Gene Regulation: A Critical Balance between Upstream Enhancers and Intronic Silencers Governs Appropriate Expression
Le Thi Huong, Maki Kobayashi, Mikiyo Nakata, Go Shioi, Hitoshi Miyachi, Tasuku Honjo, Hitoshi Nagaoka
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061433
Abstract: The Aicda gene encodes activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Aicda is strongly transcribed in activated B cells to diversify immunoglobulin genes, but expressed at low levels in various other cells in response to physiological or pathological stimuli. AID’s mutagenic nature has been shown to be involved in tumor development. Here, we used a transgenic strategy with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to examine the in vivo functions of Aicda regulatory elements, which cluster in two regions: in the first intron (region 2), and approximately 8-kb upstream of the transcription start site (region 4). Deleting either of these regions completely abolished the expression of Aicda-BAC reporters, demonstrating these elements’ critical roles. Furthermore, we found that selectively deleting two C/EBP-binding sites in region 4 inactivated the enhancer activity of the region despite the presence of intact NF-κB-, STAT6- and Smad-binding sites. On the other hand, selectively deleting E2F- and c-Myb-binding sites in region 2 increased the frequency of germinal-center B cells in which the Aicda promoter was active, indicating that E2F and c-Myb act as silencers in vivo. Interestingly, the silencer deletion did not cause ectopic activation of the Aicda promoter, indicating that Aicda activation requires enhancer-specific stimulation. In summary, precise regulation of the Aicda promoter appears to depend on a coordinated balance of activities between enhancer and silencer elements.
Pancreatic guidewire placement for achieving selective biliary cannulation during endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography
Kei Ito, Naotaka Fujita, Yutaka Noda, Go Kobayashi, Takashi Obana, Jun Horaguchi, Osamu Takasawa, Shinsuke Koshita, Yoshihide Kanno
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the frequency and risk factors for acute pancreatitis after pancreatic guidewire placement (P-GW) in achieving cannulation of the bile duct during endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP).METHODS: P-GW was performed in 113 patients in whom cannulation of the bile duct was difficult. The success rate of biliary cannulation, the frequency and risk factors of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and the frequency of spontaneous migration of the pancreatic duct stent were investigated.RESULTS: Selective biliary cannulation with P-GW was achieved in 73% of the patients. Post-ERCP pancreatitis occurred in 12% (14 patients: mild, 13; moderate, 1). Prophylactic pancreatic stenting was attempted in 59% of the patients. Of the 64 patients who successfully underwent stent placement, three developed mild pancreatitis (4.7%). Of the 49 patients without stent placement, 11 developed pancreatitis (22%: mild, 10; moderate, 1). Of the five patients in whom stent placement was unsuccessful, two developed mild pancreatitis. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no pancreatic stenting to be the only significant risk factor for pancreatitis. Spontaneous migration of the stent was observed within two weeks in 92% of the patients who had undergone pancreatic duct stenting.CONCLUSION: P-GW is useful for achieving selective biliary cannulation. Pancreatic duct stenting after P-GW can reduce the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis, which requires evaluation by means of prospective randomized controlled trials.
Attractor-Based Simultaneous Design of the Minimum Set of Control Nodes and Controllers in Boolean Networks  [PDF]
Koichi Kobayashi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.714131
Abstract: Design of control strategies for gene regulatory networks is a challenging and important topic in systems biology. In this paper, the problem of finding both a minimum set of control nodes (control inputs) and a controller is studied. A control node corresponds to a gene that expression can be controlled. Here, a Boolean network is used as a model of gene regulatory networks, and control specifications on attractors, which represent cell types or states of cells, are imposed. It is important to design a gene regulatory network that has desired attractors and has no undesired attractors. Using a matrix-based representation of BNs, this problem can be rewritten as an integer linear programming problem. Finally, the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example on a WNT5A network, which is related to melanoma.
Endosonography-Guided Biliary Drainage with One-Step Placement of a Newly Developed Fully Covered Metal Stent Followed by Duodenal Stenting for Pancreatic Head Cancer
Kei Ito,Naotaka Fujita,Yutaka Noda,Go Kobayashi,Takashi Obana,Jun Horaguchi,Shinsuke Koshita,Yoshihide Kanno,Takahisa Ogawa,Yuhei Kato,Yasunobu Yamashita
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/426534
Abstract: An 83-year-old man was admitted to our department, presenting with jaundice, fever, and nausea. CT revealed a pancreatic head tumor with duodenal invasion. Endoscopic transpapillary biliary drainage was unsuccessful due to stenosis at the second portion of the duodenum and tumor invasion to the papilla of Vater. Using a convex linear array echoendoscope, a fully-covered metal stent was placed across the puncture tract to bridge the duodenum and the bile duct. After improvement of jaundice, a duodenal metal stent was placed across the stricture of the duodenum. No procedure-related complications occurred. Neither migration nor obstruction of the two stents was observed during the three months followup period. Combination of ESBD using a fully covered metal stent and duodenal stenting is a feasible technique and possibly a less invasive treatment option for malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction compared to surgery. 1. Introduction Transpapillary endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) is the standard treatment in patients with biliary obstruction. However, it is not always possible to perform transpapillary biliary decompression, especially in patients with duodenal stenosis or difficult cannulation of the bile duct. We herein report a case who underwent endosonography-guided biliary drainage with one-step placement of a newly developed fully-covered metal stent followed by duodenal stenting for pancreatic head cancer. 2. Case Report An 83-year-old man, who had previously undergone partial gastrectomy with Billroth-I reconstruction due to gastric cancer, was admitted to our department, presenting with jaundice, fever, and nausea. Laboratory data showed an elevation of hepatobiliary enzyme and C-reactive protein. CT revealed a pancreatic head tumor with duodenal invasion. He was able to take only liquid food orally due to duodenal stenosis. It was necessary to perform biliary drainage first due to acute cholangitis. Endoscopic transpapillary biliary drainage was unsuccessful due to stenosis at the second portion of the duodenum and tumor invasion to the papilla of Vater. Using a convex linear array echoendoscope (GF-UCT240: Olympus Medical Systems, Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), puncture of the extrahepatic bile duct via the duodenal bulb was performed with a 19G needle after obtaining the informed consent from the patient (Figure 1(a)). Following dilation of the puncture tract with a balloon catheter, 4?mm in diameter, a fully-covered metal stent (covered ZEOSTENT: Zeon Medical Inc., Tokyo, Japan), 6?cm in length and 1?cm in diameter, was placed across the
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