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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 91306 matches for " Gloria I. Mensah "
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First Nationwide Survey on the Resistance to First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Kwaku Owusu-Darko, Samuel O. Addo, Gloria I. Mensah, Mercy J. Newman, David Ofori-Adjei, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61007
Abstract: Background/objective: A nationwide survey on the resistance to first line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs was conducted in Ghana from 2007-2008 by Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. We aimed to characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and determine the resistance pattern to first line anti-TB drugs among newly diagnosed and previously treated PTB patients in Ghana. Methods: Two sputum samples from consented new smear positive PTB patients who had never been treated for TB or had been on anti-TB treatment for less than a month and patients who had been treated for TB previously for more than a month in selected diagnostic centres nationwide were collected for culture, identification and drug susceptibility test. Culture positive isolates were tested against streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E) using the simplified proportion method and line probe assay (LPA). The LPA was performed in mid-2017. Results: Among 410 samples, 345 positive cultures were obtained and identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Of the 345 isolates, 133 were further differentiated by GenoType MTBC® as M. tuberculosis, 126 (94.7%) and M. africanum 7 (5.3%). The overall drug resistance patterns were as follows: 43/345 (12.5%), 6/345 (1.7%), 9/345 (2.6%) and 71/345 (20.6%) were resistant to H, R, E and S respectively and 5/345 (1.4%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Conclusion: The results indicate high levels of resistance to S and H among new and previously treated TB patients. We recommend adequate surveillance systems including periodic national anti-TB drug resistance surveys.
First Nationwide Survey of the Prevalence of TB/HIV Co-Infection in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, William K. Ampofo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Naomi Nartey, Gloria I. Mensah, Samuel O. Addo, Kofi Bonney, Justice Kumi, Adukwei Hesse, Nii A. Addo, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.62013
Abstract: Background: To better understand the extent of the magnitude of tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection in Ghana, a baseline study was conducted to establish the national prevalence of the dual infection. The study aimed to determine the most prevalent HIV serotype (HIV-1 or HIV-2) in TB patients (new and old cases); genotype mycobacterial species causing TB/HIV co-infection and determine their drug susceptibility patterns. Methods: Sputum and dried blood samples were collected from 503 TB patients from 67 health facilities nationwide between December 2007 and November 2008. All samples were processed for mycobacterial and HIV testing using conventional and molecular methods. Results: A total of 517 paired sputum samples were received from 517 patients. A total 503 patients [335 (66.6%) males; 168 (33.4%) females] had at least one culture positive sample. Majority (93.0%) of the patients were new cases while 7.0% were old cases. All 503 TB isolates were Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Of 503 blood samples, 74 were positive for HIV (14.7%), comprising 71 (14.1%) and 3 (0.6%) for HIV-1 and HIV-1 & 2 respectively; none was positive for HIV-2 alone. The seroprevalence of HIV in newly diagnosed TB patients and those already on treatment, was 69/468 (14.7%) and 5/35 (14.3%) respectively (p > 0.05). Differentiation of isolates from TB/HIV co-infected patients showed that 70/74 (94.6%) were Mycobacterium tuberculosis while 4/74 (5.4%) were Mycobacterium africanum. Monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin were 4/74 (5.4%) and 1/74 (1.4%) respectively; resistance to both drugs (multi-drug resistant-MDR) was not observed. Sixty nine (93.2%) isolates were susceptible to both drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV infection in TB patients was 14.7%. TB/HIV was common among the sexually active age group (25 - 34 years). Majority of the TB isolates were M. tuberculosis which were susceptible to both isoniazid and rifampicin. HIV-1 was the common serotype infecting TB patients in Ghana.
Stimulation of Growth and Development of Celosia argentea L. by Crude Extracts of Senna alata (L.) Roxb
I O Agbagwa, F A Onofeghara, S I Mensah
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2003,
Abstract: The effects of different concentrations of Senna alata crude water extracts on the germination, growth and flowering of Celosia argentea were studied. All concentrations of this extract induced a consistent decrease in absolute percentage and rate of germination, and inhibited radical elongation in Celosia argentea. Earliness in flowering and overall increase in height was obtained from seedlings sprayed with 750/0 C and 100% C crude water extracts. (Journal of Applied Sciences & Environmental Management: 2003 7(1): 9-14)
Manejo actual en síndrome de Pierre Robin
Morovic I,Carmen Gloria;
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0370-41062004000100005
Abstract: introduction: airway obstruction in children with pierre robin syndrome (prs)could be an important determinant of the prognosis and quality of life of the child. objective: to analyze mandibular distraction as an early management in children with prs and airway obstruction. method: prs patients treated between january 1998 and march 2003 at the luis calvo mackenna hospital were included. clinical evaluation, lateral cephalograms, nasoendoscopy, oxygen saturation and polysomnograms were used as parameters in the decision to perform mandibular distraction. long term follow up included evaluation of complications, nutritional evolution, facial growth and development. results: 23/31 prs patients underwent mandibular distraction, relieving airway obstruction in all the cases. 2 cases underwent tracheotomy at birth that were removed during the process. 2 patients had pulmonary hypertension and reversed clinical signs after distraction. their weight charts improved significantly after the operation. conclusion: mandibular distraction is a successful method for young patients with prs to relieve airway onstruction, improve feeding and avoid tracheotomy or early decannulation in previously tracheotomized patients
Cirugía de mano en pediatría
Carmen Gloria Morovic I.
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2005,
Abstract:
Manejo actual en síndrome de Pierre Robin Current management of Pierre Robin syndrome
Carmen Gloria Morovic I
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2004,
Abstract: Introducción: La dificultad respiratoria del síndrome Pierre Robin (SPR) puede ser determinante en su pronóstico y calidad de vida. Este estudio evalúa la eficacia de la distracción mandibular como tratamiento precoz en PRS con dificultad respiratoria severa. Pacientes y Método: Lactantes SPR controlados en Unidad Cirugía Plástica Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna entre enero 1998 y marzo 2003. La indicación de distracción se basa en evaluación clínica, radiología, nasofibroscopía, saturación de oxígeno y/o polisomnografía. El seguimiento tardío evalúa complicaciones, evolución nutricional, crecimiento y desarrollo facial. Resultados: 23/31 lactantes SPR se les realizó distracción mandibular, presentando 100% alivio de sintomatología obstructiva. Dos casos presentaban traqueotomía desde RN, que se retiraron durante el procedimiento. Dos casos presentaban hipertensión pulmonar que revirtieron post distracción. Hubo mejoría significativa de las curvas de crecimiento ponderal. Conclusión: La distracción mandibular es un método efectivo en lactantes con micrognatia, aliviando la obstrucción respiratoria, facilitando alimentación, evitando raqueotomías y/o permitiendo decanulación precoz Introduction: Airway obstruction in children with Pierre Robin syndrome (PRS)could be an important determinant of the prognosis and quality of life of the child. Objective: to analyze mandibular distraction as an early management in children with PRS and airway obstruction. Method: PRS patients treated between January 1998 and March 2003 at the Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital were included. Clinical evaluation, lateral cephalograms, nasoendoscopy, oxygen saturation and polysomnograms were used as parameters in the decision to perform mandibular distraction. Long term follow up included evaluation of complications, nutritional evolution, facial growth and development. Results: 23/31 PRS patients underwent mandibular distraction, relieving airway obstruction in all the cases. 2 cases underwent tracheotomy at birth that were removed during the process. 2 patients had pulmonary hypertension and reversed clinical signs after distraction. Their weight charts improved significantly after the operation. Conclusion: Mandibular distraction is a successful method for young patients with PRS to relieve airway onstruction, improve feeding and avoid tracheotomy or early decannulation in previously tracheotomized patients
The National Cardiothoracic Centre, Accra Ghana: Proceedings of the second International Update Course in Cardiology - improving the coverage of cardiology services
K Entsua-Mensah, A Doku, I Adzamli
Pan African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Many developing countries now face the growing phenomenon of the double burden of disease. Most are still grappling with infectious diseases resulting from poor environmental sanitation and lack of access to good drinking water like malaria, cholera, and enteric fever. At the same time changes in diet and lifestyle in general in these countries is resulting in increasing numbers of people with obesity, sedentary life styles, increased salt intake from fast foods, increased smoking and consumption of alcohol and fizzy drinks, hypertension and diabetes. To increase the scope and depth of cardiovascular care in Ghana, the National Cardiothoracic Centre, (NCTC), organised the 2nd International Update Course in Cardiology for cardiologists and general practitioners, with emphasis on a practical approach to cardiology. Post conference evaluation indicated that the course was very useful especially for practitioners in district and regional hospitals. Close to 98% of the participants revealed that the update course will greatly impact positively on their management of cardiovascular diseases.
The Valuation of Infrastructure Index Bonds  [PDF]
Joseph Atta-Mensah
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2015.54028
Abstract:

The paper examines a potential role of financing Africa’s infrastructure projects, particularly in Africa, with bonds indexed to the project. Using option-pricing techniques, the author shows that an infrastructure indexed bond is equivalent to a regular bond and a short position on a European put option. The results of the paper suggest that the value of the infrastructure indexed bond increases monotonically as the value of the project it is financing rises. In addition, the market value of the infrastructure-indexed bonds falls as the value of the project becomes more volatile. The rise in the dividend rate on the project is observed to have an adverse effect on the value of infrastructure-indexed bonds.

The Role of Collateral in Credit Markets  [PDF]
Joseph Atta-Mensah
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2015.54027
Abstract:

The author examines the role of collateral in an environment where lenders and borrowers possess identical information and similar beliefs about its future value. Using option-pricing techniques, he shows that a secured loan contract is equivalent to a regular bond and an embedded option to the borrower to default. The author finds that the lender will not advance to the borrower, a loan that exceeds the market value of the collateral, and that the supply of loans increases with a rise in the market value of the collateral. Increases in the volatility of the value of the collateral, interest rate, and dividend rate of the collateral independently depress the loan supply. The author also derives the cost of a third-party guarantee of a loan and an implied risk premium.

Poverty, Climate Change and Weather-Indexed Bonds  [PDF]
Joseph Atta-Mensah
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.62024
Abstract: Scientific evidence clearly shows that as a result of greenhouse emissions, the global climate is changing. Poor developing countries are at most risk because they are more dependent on agriculture; more vulnerable to coastal and water resource changes; and have less financial, technical and institutional capacity for adaptation. It is therefore important for these countries to come up with a comprehensive Action Plan on how to mitigate and adapt to climate change. This paper suggests that weather-indexed bonds could provide a potential vehicle for developing countries (LDCs) to raise money on the international capital markets to manage the risks associated to climate change. The issue of this type of bond could provide an opportunity for countries to hedge against the fluctuations in revenues derived from weather dependent assets. Furthermore, weather-linked risk management tools allow countries to examine a new set of risk-contingent structured financial products. This paper also examines a variety of models applicable to agriculture and the sovereign debt of developing agrarian nations including from the corporate side, weather-linked bonds, and from the producer side, weather-linked loans. These weather risk management tools are targeted towards mitigating both business and financial risk by reducing the contractual obligation of debt (principal and/or interest) depending on the intrinsic value of an attached weather option (e.g. excess heat or precipitation), which pays off, if a specific weather event occurs.
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