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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5100 matches for " Giuseppe Pieraccini "
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A Learning Approach to Natural Language Understanding
Roberto Pieraccini,Esther Levin
Computer Science , 1994,
Abstract: In this paper we propose a learning paradigm for the problem of understanding spoken language. The basis of the work is in a formalization of the understanding problem as a communication problem. This results in the definition of a stochastic model of the production of speech or text starting from the meaning of a sentence. The resulting understanding algorithm consists in a Viterbi maximization procedure, analogous to that commonly used for recognizing speech. The algorithm was implemented for building
Exploring Proteins in Anopheles gambiae Male and Female Antennae through MALDI Mass Spectrometry Profiling
Francesca R. Dani, Simona Francese, Guido Mastrobuoni, Antonio Felicioli, Beniamino Caputo, Frederic Simard, Giuseppe Pieraccini, Gloriano Moneti, Mario Coluzzi, Alessandra della Torre, Stefano Turillazzi
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002822
Abstract: MALDI profiling and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) are novel techniques for direct analysis of peptides and small proteins in biological tissues. In this work we applied them to the study of Anopheles gambiae antennae, with the aim of analysing expression of soluble proteins involved in olfaction perireceptor events. MALDI spectra obtained by direct profiling on single antennae and by the analysis of extracts, showed similar profiles, although spectra obtained through profiling had a richer ion population and higher signal to noise ratio. Male and female antennae showed distinct protein profiles. MALDI imaging experiments were also performed and differences were observed in the localization of some proteins. Two proteins were identified through high resolution measurement and top-down MS/MS experiments. A 8 kDa protein only present in the male antennae matched with an unannotated sequence of the An. gambiae genome, while the presence of odorant binding protein 9 (OBP-9) was confirmed through experiments of 2-DE, followed by MS and MS/MS analysis of digested spots. This work shows that MALDI MS profiling is a technique suitable for the analysis of proteins of small and medium MW in insect appendices, and allows obtaining data for several specimens which can be investigated for differences between groups. Proteins of interest can be identified through other complementary MS approaches.
Chiral amplification in a cyanobiphenyl nematic liquid crystal doped with helicene-like derivatives
Alberta Ferrarini,Silvia Pieraccini,Stefano Masiero,Gian Piero Spada
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2009, DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.5.50
Abstract: The addition of a chiral non-racemic dopant to a nematic liquid crystal (LC) has the effect of transferring the molecular chirality to the phase organization and a chiral nematic phase is formed. This molecular chirality amplification in the LC provides a unique possibility for investigating the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular interactions, and mesoscale organization. It is known that axially chiral or helical-shaped molecules with reduced conformational disorder are good candidates for high helical twisting power derivatives. In particular, biaryl derivatives are known to be efficient chiral inducers in biaryl nematic mesophases. In this paper, we focus on a new series of helicene-like molecules of known absolute configuration. We have integrated cholesteric pitch measurements with geometry optimization by DFT calculations and analysis of the twisting ability by the Surface Chirality model to shed light on the structural features responsible for the analogies and differences exhibited by these derivatives. The investigation of these dopants with well-defined geometry, by virtue of the low conformational freedom, and the substituents variously distributed around the core, allows us to extend our knowledge of the molecular origin of the chirality amplification in liquid crystals and to confirm the simple relationship “molecular P-helicity” → “cholesteric P-handedness” for helical-shaped helicene-like derivatives.
The interplay of configuration and conformation in helical perylenequinones: Insights from chirality induction in liquid crystals and calculations
Elisa Frezza,Silvia Pieraccini,Stefania Mazzini,Alberta Ferrarini
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.8.16
Abstract: The chirality transfer in liquid crystals induced by two helical perylenequinones (namely, the natural compounds cercosporin and phleichrome) was investigated by integrating measurements of helical twisting power with a conformational analysis by DFT calculations and with the prediction of their twisting ability by the surface-chirality method. The two quasi-enantiomeric derivatives induce oppositely handed cholesteric phases when introduced as dopants in nematic solvents. We evaluated the role of the different conformations of the chiral hydroxyalkyl side chains in determining the helical twisting power: They were found to affect the strength of the chirality transfer, although the handedness of the induced cholesteric phase is essentially determined by the axial chirality (helicity) of the core of the perylenequinones.
Supercritical Fluid Adsorption of Domperidone on Silica Aerogel  [PDF]
Giuseppe Caputo
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2013.33024

Silica aerogel (SA) was loaded with domperidone to demonstrate the potentiality of adsorption processes based on the usage of supercritical carbon dioxide to treat poorly water-soluble drugs, forming new kinds of drug delivery systems. The effects of pressure, temperature and solution concentration on loaded SA were studied. Adsorption isotherms were measured at 35and 45 and fitted with Langmuir model. Release kinetics of the adsorbed drug were also evaluated by in vitro dissolution tests. Results showed that domperidone can be uniformly dispersed into the aerogel and that the release rate of domperidone from the composite, constituted by drug and silica aerogel, is much faster than that of the crystalline drug. The proposed adsorption method is suitable for the production of domperidone fast release tablets.

Modeling and simulation in tissue biomechanics: Modern tools to face an ancient challenge  [PDF]
Giuseppe Vairo
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.612A001

This is the editorial for the specail issue on Modeling and Simulation in Tissue Biomechanics published in Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering

Archimedes’ Psammites and the Tradition of Italic Thought of Science  [PDF]
Giuseppe Boscarino
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.41002
Abstract: It is intended to confute the opinion of a Platonic Archimedes, through the study of the fundamental theses of his Sandreckoner (Psammites) and of its particular logical-linguistic aspects, but especially of an Aristotelic Archimedes, as Delsedine (1970) maintains in his article “L’infini numérique dans l’Arénaire d’Archimède”. He writes: The Sandreckonerrépond à la nécessitè d’adapter la notation numérique à l’idée de l’infinité potentielle de l’ensamble des nombres naturales”1. First, it is focused on the general aspects of the work, which highlight its Enlightenment and Py-thagorean—Democritean character, then it is passed to the analysis of its particular linguistic and logical aspects and of its fundamental theses, translated into symbolic form, in which it is still giving prominence to its Pythagorean-Democritean or Italic character (Boscarino, 1999, 2010, 2011, 2012).
Archimedes’ to Eratosthenes in the Palimpsest and Archimedes in Heron’s Metrikon  [PDF]
Giuseppe Boscarino
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.45025
Abstract: It is argued that even with some new readings made by the publication of the Letter to Eratosthenes in the Archimedes Palimpsest, with the wonderful discovery of his so-called “mechanical method” (a certain way of theorizing in mathematical things by means of mechanical entities) at the beginning of the twentieth century, some important historical-philological and philosophicalepistemological issues still remain, which have already discussed in part in my writings. We produce some important testimonies taken from Metrikon by Heron of Alexandria in favour of our translations and interpretations of Archimedes’ lexicon, not without placing under investigation at the same time the personality and the importance of Hero in the history of philosophical, scientific and technological Greek-Hellenistic thought in line with Archimedes and the tradition of Italic thought of science (The quotations of the Greek texts of Archimedes, Heron and Pappus are my translations).
Endogenous Ranking in the Two-Sector Urn-Ball Matching Process  [PDF]
Giuseppe Rose
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.83024
Abstract: This paper contributes to the debate concerning micro-foundations of matching functions in frictional labor markets. The focus is on a particular matching regime, i.e., the so-called urn-ball process. It is shown that in a twosector economy, even in the presence of heterogeneous workers, the assumption of applicants-ranking may be misleading. Instead, the choice concerning the adoption of either ranking or no-ranking behavior is endogenous and it is affected by both the tightness of the two sectors and the composition of the labor force in terms of skills. Moreover it is proved that exogenous shocks may change the form of the matching function. This result casts additional doubts on the assumption of exogenous matching function often made in empirical works aimed at assessing the effectiveness of policy measures.
Evidences for Varying Speed of Light with Time  [PDF]
Giuseppe Pipino
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2019.52022
Abstract: Aims: The paper explores the hypothesis that the speed of light c is decreasing over time at rate (dc/dt)=-H? c, H being the Hubble constant. This hypothesis differs from the so-called tired light, in which the velocity c is supposed to vary during the journey of photons in the empty space for some frictional mechanism. In the hypothesis of the author the speed c, during this journey, is assumed constant. In this way the problems of the tired hypothesis are overcome. Methods: The paper links the variation dc/dt with the Hubble constant and infers a value of dc/dt from the difference between the value of the variation of the Earth-Moon distance measured by the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment and the tidal effect. Results: Under the hypothesis c time varying, we explain: 1) The cosmological redshift. 2) The anomalous acceleration ap ≈ -8 × 10-10 m?sec-2, measured for some spacecrafts. 3) The high redshift of supernovae Ia, which seems to evidence an acceleration of the expansion of the universe. 4) The peripheral motion of stars in galaxies around their rotational centre. 5) The dilation of the light curves observed for supernovae Ia.
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