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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5102 matches for " Giuseppe Miserocchi "
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Remodelling of Membrane Rafts Expression in Lung Cells as an Early Sign of Mechanotransduction-Signalling in Pulmonary Edema
Paola Palestini,Laura Botto,Ilaria Rivolta,Giuseppe Miserocchi
Journal of Lipids , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/695369
Abstract: Membrane rafts (MRs) are clusters of lipids, organized in a “quasicrystalline” liquid-order phase, organized on the cell surface and whose pattern of molecules and physicochemical properties are distinct from those of the surrounding plasma membrane. MRs may be considered an efficient and fairly rapid cell-activated mechanism to express or mask surface receptors aimed at triggering specific response pathways. This paper reports observations concerning the role of MRs in the control of lung extravascular water that ought to be kept at minimum to assure gas diffusion, supporting the hypothesis that MRs expression is a potential mechanism of sensing minor changes in the volume of extravascular water. We present the evidence that MRs expression specifically relates to signal-transduction processes evoked by mechanical stimuli arising in the interstitial lung compartment when a small increase in extravascular volume occurs. We further hypothesize that a differential expression of MRs might also reflect the damage to precise components of the extracellular matrix caused by the perturbation in water balance and thus can trigger a molecule-oriented specific matrix remodelling. 1. Introduction Membrane rafts (MRs) represent specialized portions of the cell plasma membrane involved in the signalling response to incoming stimuli. In fact, MRs may be considered an efficient and fairly rapid system to express or mask surface receptors to activate specific intracellular response pathways. MRs have been described in two forms, either flat portions of plasma membrane, named lipid rafts, or flask-like of about 70?nm in diameter, named caveolae. The latter, besides representing a receptor platform, also constitutes a potential transcellular fluid carrier through transcytosis. This paper reports observations concerning the potential role of MRs in mechano-sensitive signalling in the control of lung extravascular water, a key point in the respiratory function. Indeed, the volume of the extravascular water ought to be kept at minimum [1] in order to assure the maximum efficiency of the air-blood barrier in the gas diffusion mechanisms. In fact, we were able to describe how the expression of MRs in pulmonary cells is modified when a perturbation of extravascular lung water is caused either by saline infusion (so-called cardiogenic model of lung edema, (CE)) or exposure to hypoxia (HE) [2]. Finally, we will discuss our results considering the phenotype of animals genetically deprived of an important protein present in caveolae, namely, Cav-1. 2. Membrane Rafts The pioneering
Biochemical and morphological changes in endothelial cells in response to hypoxic interstitial edema
Laura Botto, Egidio Beretta, Rossella Daffara, Giuseppe Miserocchi, Paola Palestini
Respiratory Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-7-7
Abstract: We analysed the composition of plasma membrane and of lipid microdomains in lung tissue samples from anesthetized rabbits exposed to mild hypoxia (12 % O2 for 3–5 h) causing interstitial lung edema. Lipid analysis was performed by chromatographic techniques, while protein analysis by electrophoresis and Western blotting. Lipid peroxidation was assessed on total plasma membranes by a colorimetric assay (Bioxytech LPO-586, OxisResearch). Plasma membrane fluidity was also assessed by fluorescence. Lipid microdomains were isolated by discontinuous sucrose gradient. We also performed a morphometric analysis on lung cell shape on TEM images from lung tissue specimen.After hypoxia, phospholipids content in plasma membranes remained unchanged while the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio increased significantly by about 9% causing a decrease in membrane fluidity. No significant increase in lipid peroxidation was detected. Analysis of lipid microdomains showed a decrease of caveolin-1 and AQP1 (markers of caveolae), and an increase in CD55 (marker of lipid rafts). Morphometry showed a significant decrease in endothelial cell volume, a marked increase in the cell surface/volume ratio and a decrease in caveolar density; epithelial cells did not show morphological changes.The biochemical, signaling and morphological changes observed in lung endothelial cell exposed to hypoxia are opposite to those previously described in cardiogenic edema, suggesting a differential cellular response to either type of edema.The interstitial compartment of the lung is kept at a subatmospheric pressure in physiological conditions, a feature shared by other compartments where extravascular water is kept at a least amount. In the lung, a relatively "dry" interstitial space allows a minimum thickness of the air-blood barrier to optimize gas diffusion. A rise in extravascular lung water may occur because of an increase in the pressure gradient across the microvascular barrier and/or by an increase in perm
First record of Hemidiaptomus (Gigantodiaptomus) superbus (Schmeil, 1895) in Italy, with notes on distribution and conservation status (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae)
Journal of Limnology , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jlimnol.2011.149
Abstract: Hemidiaptomus (Gigantodiaptomus) superbus (Schmeil, 1895) was found in a temporary pool in the Pineta di Classe coastal pine-wood (Ravenna, northern Italy). This is the first official record of a species belonging to the subgenus Gigantodiaptomus of Italian fauna, and it widens the known distribution of this rare diaptomid to the Mediterranean basin. In order to supply data on this rare and poorly known species, original drawings for the Italian population have been provided, and some overlooked morphological features have been highlighted. In light of the growing evidence of the existence of a number of cryptic species in the Diaptomidae family, and considering the variability observed in the ornamentation of the fifth pair of female legs, the ribosomal DNA marker 16S was used to compare the specimens collected in Italy with those from the terra typica of the species. Molecular data confirmed the strict conspecificity of the two populations being studied. The environmental parameters relating to the new Italian site are described and compared with the few data currently available in the literature. A careful review of all the published data dealing with H. (G.) superbus has been performed, and the paucity of recent records is stressed, together with the opportunity to support dedicated conservation measures for the protection of this species.
Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as a New Non-Invasive Tool to Detect Oxidative Skeletal Muscle Impairment in Children Survived to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia
Francesca Lanfranconi, Luca Pollastri, Alessandra Ferri, Donatella Fraschini, Giuseppe Masera, Giuseppe Miserocchi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099282
Abstract: Background Separating out the effects of cancer and treatment between central and peripheral components of the O2 delivery chain should be of interest to clinicians for longitudinal evaluation of potential functional impairment in order to set appropriate individually tailored training/rehabilitation programmes. We propose a non-invasive method (NIRS, near infrared spectroscopy) to be used in routine clinical practice to evaluate a potential impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity during exercise in children previously diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of skeletal muscle to extract O2 in 10 children diagnosed with ALL, 1 year after the end of malignancy treatment, compared to a control group matched for gender and age (mean±SD = 7.8±1.5 and 7.3±1.4 years, respectively). Methods and Findings Participants underwent an incremental exercise test on a treadmill until exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (), heart rate (HR), and tissue oxygenation status (Δ[HHb]) of the vastus lateralis muscle evaluated by NIRS, were measured. The results showed that, in children with ALL, a significant linear regression was found by plotting vs Δ[HHb] both measured at peak of exercise. In children with ALL, the slope of the HR vs linear response (during sub-maximal and peak work rates) was negatively correlated with the peak value of Δ[HHb]. Conclusions The present study proves that the NIRS technique allows us to identify large inter-individual differences in levels of impairment in muscle O2 extraction in children with ALL. The outcome of these findings is variable and may reflect either muscle atrophy due to lack of use or, in the most severe cases, an undiagnosed myopathy.
Changes in the mechanical properties of the respiratory system during the development of interstitial lung edema
Raffaele L Dellacà, Emanuela Zannin, Giulio Sancini, Ilaria Rivolta, Biagio E Leone, Antonio Pedotti, Giuseppe Miserocchi
Respiratory Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-9-51
Abstract: We studied 17 paralysed and mechanically ventilated closed-chest rats (325–375 g). Total input respiratory system impedance (Zrs) was derived from tracheal flow and pressure signals by applying forced oscillations with frequency components from 0.16 to 18.44 Hz distributed in two forcing signals. In 8 animals interstitial lung edema was induced by intravenous infusion of saline solution (0.75 ml/kg/min) for 4 hours; 9 control animals were studied with the same protocol but without infusion. Zrs was measured at the beginning and every 15 min until the end of the experiment.In the treated group the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio increased from 4.3 ± 0.72 to 5.23 ± 0.59, with no histological signs of alveolar flooding. Resistance (Rrs) increased in both groups over time, but to a greater extent in the treated group. Reactance (Xrs) did not change in the control group, while it decreased significantly at all frequencies but one in the treated. Significant changes in Rrs and Xrs were observed starting after ~135 min from the beginning of the infusion. By applying a constant phase model to partition airways and tissue mechanical properties, we observed a mild increase in airways resistance in both groups. A greater and significant increase in tissue damping (from 603.5 ± 100.3 to 714.5 ± 81.9 cmH2O/L) and elastance (from 4160.2 ± 462.6 to 5018.2 ± 622.5 cmH2O/L) was found only in the treated group.These results suggest that interstitial edema has a small but significant impact on the mechanical features of lung tissues and that these changes begin at very early stages, before the beginning of accumulation of extravascular fluid into the alveoli.The functional organisation of the lung extracellular matrix comprises basically two large macromolecular families. The fibrillar components, including collagen I and III and elastic fibers, provide the elasticity of the lung tissue on stretching and de-stretching which is mechanically defined as lung compliance, that is the ratio be
Mechanisms controlling the volume of pleural fluid and extravascular lung water
G. Miserocchi
European Respiratory Review , 2009,
Abstract: Pleural and interstitial lung fluid volumes are strictly controlled and maintained at the minimum thanks to the ability of lymphatics to match the increase in filtration rate. In the pleural cavity, fluid accumulation is easily accommodated by retraction of lung and chest wall (high compliance of the pleural space); the increase of lymph flow per unit increase in pleural fluid volume is high due to the great extension of the parietal lymphatic. However, for the lung interstitium, the increase in lymph flow to match increased filtration does not need to be so great. In fact, increased filtration only causes a minor increase in extravascular water volume (<10%) due to a marked increase in interstitial pulmonary pressure (low compliance of the extracellular matrix) which, in turn, buffers further filtration. Accordingly, a less extended lymphatic network is needed. The efficiency of lymphatic control is achieved through a high lymphatic conductance in the pleural fluid and through a low interstitial compliance for the lung interstitium. Fluid volume in both compartments is so strictly controlled that it is difficult to detect initial deviations from the physiological state; thus, a great physiological advantage turns to be a disadvantage on a clinical basis as it prevents an early diagnosis of developing disease.
Accumulative Difference Image Protocol for Particle Tracking in Fluorescence Microscopy Tested in Mouse Lymphonodes
Carlo E. Villa,Michele Caccia,Laura Sironi,Laura D'Alfonso,Maddalena Collini,Ilaria Rivolta,Giuseppe Miserocchi,Tatiana Gorletta,Ivan Zanoni,Francesca Granucci,Giuseppe Chirico
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012216
Abstract: The basic research in cell biology and in medical sciences makes large use of imaging tools mainly based on confocal fluorescence and, more recently, on non-linear excitation microscopy. Substantially the aim is the recognition of selected targets in the image and their tracking in time. We have developed a particle tracking algorithm optimized for low signal/noise images with a minimum set of requirements on the target size and with no a priori knowledge of the type of motion. The image segmentation, based on a combination of size sensitive filters, does not rely on edge detection and is tailored for targets acquired at low resolution as in most of the in-vivo studies. The particle tracking is performed by building, from a stack of Accumulative Difference Images, a single 2D image in which the motion of the whole set of the particles is coded in time by a color level. This algorithm, tested here on solid-lipid nanoparticles diffusing within cells and on lymphocytes diffusing in lymphonodes, appears to be particularly useful for the cellular and the in-vivo microscopy image processing in which few a priori assumption on the type, the extent and the variability of particle motions, can be done.
The effect of nanoparticle uptake on cellular behavior: disrupting or enabling functions?
Panariti A,Miserocchi G,Rivolta I
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: Alice Panariti, Giuseppe Miserocchi, Ilaria RivoltaDepartment of Experimental Medicine, University of Milano Bicocca, Monza, ItalyAbstract: Nanoparticles (NPs) are materials with overall dimensions in the nanoscale range. They have unique physicochemical properties, and have emerged as important players in current research in modern medicine. In the last few decades, several types of NPs and microparticles have been synthesized and proposed for use as contrast agents for diagnostics and imaging and for drug delivery; for example, in cancer therapy. Yet specific targeting that will improve their delivery still represents an unsolved challenge. The mechanism by which NPs enter the cell has important implications not only for their fate but also for their impact on biological systems. Several papers in the literature discuss the potential risks related to NP exposure, and more recently the concept that even sublethal doses of NPs may elicit a cell response has been proposed. In this review, we intend to present an overall view of cell mechanisms that may be perturbed by cell–NP interaction. Published data, in fact, emphasize that NPs should no longer be viewed only as simple carriers for biomedical applications, but that they can also play an active role in mediating biological effects.Keywords: nanoparticles, uptake, intracellular trafficking, bio compatibility
Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers
G Miserocchi, G Sancini, F Mantegazza, Gerolamo Chiappino
Environmental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-7-4
Abstract: Asbestos fibers are known to be durable and not easily digested or dissolved after being inhaled into the lung. It was reported that asbestos fibers translocate from the lung into other tissue including pleural and peritoneal tissues [1,2]. Asbestos fibers translocated into the mesothelial tissue play an important role for the induction of asbestos related serosal disease, such as pleural and peritoneal fibrosis, as well as malignant pleural and/or peritoneal mesothelioma [3].The aim of this paper is that of discussing the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers from the lung to other body compartments based on knowledge of pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics [4-6]. Although it appears difficult to monitor the process of asbestos translocation as it takes place over decades of life, it appears useful to discuss of asbestos fibers as being dragged by bulk flows of water among compartments. We address this issue by considering the pressure gradients governing the inter-compartmental fluid exchanges, the physical features of the corresponding flows and the particular motion pattern of anisodiametric particles dragged by such flows in the tissues and across membranes delimiting the compartments.Atmospheric asbestos pollution includes fibers whose length and diameter vary greatly according to dust formation process, distance from the source and the mineral variety of asbestos.When inhaled mineral particles establish contact with biological tissues, reactions occur depending upon chemical as well as physical properties of the fibers. In the early pathogenic response, adsorption phenomena prevail in the cell-particle interactions [7]. Oxidation, as well as surface hydration and hydroxylation may occur in a moist atmosphere along the airways [8]. Studies on cultured A549 cells indicate that exposure to asbestos fibers initiate free radical reactions, inhibit glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, decrease reduced glutathione and increase leakage
Influence of distributary channels on sediment and organic carbon supply in event-dominated coastal margins: the Po prodelta as a study case
T. Tesi,S. Miserocchi,M. A. Go?i,M. Turchetto
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-7-7849-2010
Abstract: From November 2008 through May 2009, the North Italy experienced the highest precipitation period recorded over the last century. As a result, a long series of flood events occurred in the Po river (North Italy). This series of events ended with a large flood in early May 2009. An event-response sampling was carried out in the Po prodelta in April–May 2009 to characterize this latter event and to investigate the strata preservation in the stratigraphy record as a result of this series of floods. The water sampling was carried out during two periods of the flood, including early in the event under conditions of moderate river flow (~5000 m3 s 1) and 24 h later during the peak discharge (~8000 m3 s 1). At each station, profiles of conductivity, transmittance, and fluorescence were acquired whereas surface and bottom waters were sampled to collect sediments in suspension. In addition, sediment cores were collected in the Po prodelta before and after the peak flood. Biogeochemical compositions and sedimentological characteristics of suspended and sediment samples were investigated using a multi-proxy approach that included bulk and biomarkers analyses. Furthermore, 7Be down-core profiles and radiographs were used to analyze the internal stratigraphy of sediment cores. During moderate discharge, the water column did not show evidence of plume penetration. In surface waters, suspended sediment concentrations were found to be similar to low river discharge periods whereas the main OC was autochthonous. After 24 h, during the peak flood, water column properties and biogeochemical parameters exhibited marked changes indicating significant penetration of the turbid plume. However, suspended sediment concentrations and terrigenous OC content in surface waters were still less then expected based on the discharge. These results suggested that, since material enters the Adriatic as buoyancy-driven flow with a reduced transport capacity, settling and flocculation processes result in trapping a significant fraction of land-derived material prior to reaching the subaqueous prodelta. In spite numerous floods occurred from November 2008 through April 2009, sediment cores collected in late April 2009 did not exhibited significant evidence of event-strata preservation. Since these floods were ordinary (2–3 y return period), the lack of preservation indicates that most of the sediment supply during these oridinary events does not reach the subaqueous prodelta. However, it is likely that modest sediment deposition occurs during these oridinary floods but thicknesses of these
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