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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 299088 matches for " Girish J Kulkarni "
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Mass function of haloes: scale invariant models
J. S. Bagla,Nishikanta Khandai,Girish Kulkarni
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Press-Schechter theory gives a simple, approximate functional form of the mass function of dark matter haloes. Sheth and Tormen (ST) refined this mass function to give an improved analytical fit to results of N-body simulations. These forms of the halo mass function are universal (independent of cosmology and power spectrum) when scaled in suitable variables. Using large suites of LCDM N-body simulations, studies in the last few years have shown that this universality is only approximate. We explore whether some of the deviations from universality can be attributed to the power spectrum by computing the mass function in N-body simulations of various scale-free models in an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology. This choice of cosmology does not introduce any scale into the problem. These models have the advantage of being self-similar, hence stringent checks can be imposed while running these simulations. This set of numerical experiments is designed to isolate any power spectrum dependent departures from universality of mass functions. We show explicitly that the best fit ST parameters have a clear dependence on power spectrum. Our results also indicate that an improved analytical theory with more parameters is required in order to provide better fits to the mass function.
Metal Enrichment and Reionization Constraints on Early Star Formation
J. S. Bagla,Girish Kulkarni,T. Padmanabhan
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15012.x
Abstract: The epoch of reionization and formation of first stars are inter-linked topics that are of considerable interest. We use a simplified approach for studying formation of stars in collapsed haloes, and the resulting ionization of the inter-galactic medium (IGM). We consider a set of LCDM models allowed by observations of CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies for this study. We constrain parameters related to star formation with the help of observations. We constrain subsets of these parameters independently by using the observed metallicity of the inter-galactic medium at z ~ 5 and the requirement that the Thomson scattering optical depth due to an ionized IGM as determined for the model from CMB observations be reproduced. We consider a range of initial metalicities for star forming gas, and some variations of the initial mass function of stars. We find that a "normal" initial mass function (IMF) may satisfy these two constraints with a raised efficiency of star formation as compared to that seen in the local universe. Observations require a significant fraction of metals to escape from haloes to the IGM. We can also place constraints on the ratio of escape fraction for metals and ionizing photons, we find that this ratio is of order unity for most models. This highlights the importance of using the constraints arising from enrichment of the inter-galactic medium. (Abridged)
Formation rates of Dark Matter Haloes
Sourav Mitra,Girish Kulkarni,J. S. Bagla,Jaswant K. Yadav
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: We derive an estimate of the rate of formation of dark matter halos per unit volume as a function of the halo mass and redshift of formation. Analytical estimates of the number density of dark matter halos are useful in modeling several cosmological phenomena. We use the excursion set formalism for computing the formation rate of dark matter halos. We use an approach that allows us to differentiate between major and minor mergers, as this is a pertinent issue for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. We compute the formation rate for the Press-Schechter and the Sheth-Tormen mass function. We show that the formation rate computed in this manner is positive at all scales. We comment on the Sasaki formalism where negative halo formation rates are obtained. Our estimates compare very well with N-Body simulations for a variety of models. We also discuss the halo survival probability and the formation redshift distributions using our method.
Formation of galactic nuclei with multiple supermassive black holes at high redshifts
Girish Kulkarni,Abraham Loeb
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20699.x
Abstract: We examine the formation of groups of multiple supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in gas-poor galactic nuclei due to the high merger rate of galaxies at high redshifts. We calculate the relative likelihood of binary, triple, and quadruple SMBH systems, by considering the timescales for relevant processes and combining merger trees with N-body simulations for the dynamics of stars and SMBHs in galactic nuclei. Typical haloes today with mass $M_0\approx 10^{14}$ M$_\odot$ have an average mass $M_{z=6}=5\times 10^{11}$ M$_\odot$ at $z\sim 6$, while rare haloes with current mass $M_0\gtrsim 10^{15}$ M$_\odot$ have an average mass $M_{z=6}=5\times 10^{12}$ M$_\odot$ at that redshift. These cluster-size haloes are expected to host single galaxies at $z\sim 6$. We expect about 30% galaxies within haloes with present-day mass $M_0\approx 10^{14}$ M$_\odot$ to contain more than two SMBHs at redshifts $2\lesssim z\lesssim 6$. For larger present-day haloes, with $M_0\gtrsim 10^{15}$ M$_\odot$, this fraction is almost 60%. The existence of multiple SMBHs at high redshifts can potentially explain the mass deficiencies observed in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies, which are up to 5 times the mass of their central BHs. Multiple SMBHs would also lead to an enhanced rate of tidal disruption of stars, modified gravitational wave signals compared to isolated BH binaries, and slingshot ejection of SMBHs from galaxies at high speeds in excess of 2000 km s$^{-1}$.
Radio Crickets: Chirping Jets from Black Hole Binaries Entering their Gravitational Wave Inspiral
Girish Kulkarni,Abraham Loeb
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We study a novel electromagnetic signature of supermassive black hole binaries whose inspiral starts being dominated by gravitational wave (GW) emission. Recent simulations suggest that the binary's member BHs can continue to accrete gas from the circumbinary accretion disk in this phase of the binary's evolution, all the way until coalescence. If one of the binary members produces a radio jet as a result of accretion, the jet precesses along a biconical surface due to the binary's orbital motion. When the binary enters the GW phase of its evolution, the opening angle widens, the jet exhibits milliarcsecond scale wiggles, and the conical surface of jet precession is twisted due to apparant superluminal motion. The rapidly increasing orbital velocity of the binary gives the jet an appearance of a "chirp." This helical chirping morphology of the jet can be used to infer the binary parameters. For binaries with mass 10^7--10^10 Msun at redshifts z<0.5, monitoring these features in current and archival data will place a lower limit on sources that could be detected by eLISA and Pulsar Timing Arrays. In the future, microarcsecond interferometry with the Square Kilometer Array will increase the potential usefulness of this technique.
Reionization and feedback in overdense regions at high redshift
Girish Kulkarni,T. Roy Choudhury
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.18100.x
Abstract: Observations of galaxy luminosity function at high redshifts typically focus on fields of view of limited sizes preferentially containing bright sources. These regions possibly are overdense and hence biased with respect to the globally averaged regions. Using a semi-analytic model based on Choudhury & Ferrara (2006) which is calibrated to match a wide range of observations, we study the reionization and thermal history of the universe in overdense regions. The main results of our calculation are: (i) Reionization and thermal histories in the biased regions are markedly different from the average ones because of enhanced number of sources and higher radiative feedback. (ii) The galaxy luminosity function for biased regions is markedly different from those corresponding to average ones. In particular, the effect of radiative feedback arising from cosmic reionization is visible at much brighter luminosities. (iii) Because of the enhanced radiative feedback within overdense locations, the luminosity function in such regions is more sensitive to reionization history than in average regions. The effect of feedback is visible for absolute AB magnitude $M_{AB} \gtrsim -17$ at $z=8$, almost within the reach of present day observations and surely to be probed by JWST. This could possibly serve as an additional probe of radiative feedback and hence reionization at high redshifts.
Midgut Microbial Community of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito Populations from India
Kshitij Chandel, Murlidhar J. Mendki, Rasesh Y. Parikh, Girish Kulkarni, Sachin N. Tikar, Devanathan Sukumaran, Shri Prakash, Brahma D. Parashar, Yogesh S. Shouche, Vijay Veer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080453
Abstract: The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is a ubiquitous species that serves as a major vector for west nile virus and lymphatic filariasis. Ingestion of bloodmeal by females triggers a series of physiological processes in the midgut and also exposes them to infection by these pathogens. The bacteria normally harbored in the midgut are known to influence physiology and can also alter the response to various pathogens. The midgut bacteria in female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected over a large geographical area from India was studied. Examination of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from culturable microflora revealed the presence of 83 bacterial species belonging to 31 bacterial genera. All of these species belong to three phyla i.e. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Phylum Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum (37 species), followed by Firmicutes (33 species) and Actinobacteria (13 species). Phylum Proteobacteria, was dominated by members of γ-proteobacteria class. The genus Staphylococcus was the largest genus represented by 11 species whereas Enterobacter was the most prevalent genus and recovered from all the field stations except Leh. Highest bacterial prevalence was observed from Bhuj (22 species) followed by Nagrota (18 species), Masimpur (18 species) and Hathigarh (16 species). Whereas, least species were observed from Leh (8 species). It has been observed that individual mosquito harbor extremely diverse gut bacteria and have very small overlap bacterial taxa in their gut. This variation in midgut microbiota may be one of the factors responsible for variation in disease transmission rates or vector competence within mosquito population. The present data strongly encourage further investigations to verify the potential role of the detected bacteria in mosquito for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and west nile virus. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on midgut microbiota of wild Cx. quinquefasciatus from over a large geographical area.
Immunodiagnosis of Ecchinococcus granulosus infestation.
Kulkarni J
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 1981,
Abstract:
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pyomyositis with myelitis: A rare occurrence with diverse presentation
Kulkarni Girish,Pal P,Veena Kumari H,Goyal M
Neurology India , 2009,
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial pathogen implicated in pyomyositis. There are increasing reports of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections. The present case report brings out the diverse clinical manifestations of MRSA infection in the form of paraspinal pyomyositis, myelitis, spinal osteomyelitis, and pneumonia. Molecular typing of the organism confirmed the diagnosis. Patient was successfully treated with vancomycin and surgical drainage. Consideration of the possibility of methicillin-resistance and appropriate antibiotic selection is vital in the treatment of serious community-acquired staphylococcal infections.
Incontinentia pigmenti with sensorimotor polyneuropathy: A novel association
Joy Sanju,Panda Samhita,Kulkarni Girish,Pal Pramod
Neurology India , 2009,
Abstract:
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