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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5583 matches for " Giovanni Caprioli "
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Understanding hadronic $γ$-ray emission from supernova remnants
Damiano Caprioli
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: We aim to test the plausibility of a theoretical framework in which the $\gamma-$ray emission detected from supernova remnants is of hadronic origin, i.e., due to the decay of neutral pions produced in nuclear collisions involving relativistic nuclei. In particular, we investigate how the nature of the circumstellar medium affects the evolution of a remnant and of its $\gamma-$ray emission, stressing the role of magnetic field amplification in the prediction of expected particle spectra. A phenomenological scenario consistent with both the underlying Physics and the larger and larger amount of observational data provided by the present generation of $\gamma-$ray experiments is finally outlined and critically discussed.
Hybrid Simulations of Particle Acceleration at Shocks
Damiano Caprioli
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2014.10.005
Abstract: We present the results of large hybrid (kinetic ions - fluid electrons) simulations of particle acceleration at non-relativistic collisionless shocks. Ion acceleration efficiency and magnetic field amplification are investigated in detail as a function of shock inclination and strength, and compared with predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory, for shocks with Mach number up to 100. Moreover, we discuss the relative importance of resonant and Bell's instability in the shock precursor, and show that diffusion in the self-generated turbulence can be effectively parametrized as Bohm diffusion in the amplified magnetic field.
Understanding hadronic gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants
Damiano Caprioli
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2011/05/026
Abstract: We aim to test the plausibility of a theoretical framework in which the gamma-ray emission detected from supernova remnants may be of hadronic origin, i.e., due to the decay of neutral pions produced in nuclear collisions involving relativistic nuclei. In particular, we investigate the effects induced by magnetic field amplification on the expected particle spectra, outlining a phenomenological scenario consistent with both the underlying Physics and the larger and larger amount of observational data provided by the present generation of gamma experiments, which seem to indicate rather steep spectra for the accelerated particles. In addition, in order to study to study how pre-supernova winds might affect the expected emission in this class of sources, the time-dependent gamma-ray luminosity of a remnant with a massive progenitor is worked out. Solid points and limitations of the proposed scenario are finally discussed in a critical way.
Supernova remnants as cosmic ray factories
Damiano Caprioli
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: In this work we investigate particle acceleration in supernova remnant shocks within a semi-analytical formalism which self-consistently accounts for particle acceleration, amplification of the magnetic field via streaming instability and back-reaction of both accelerated particles and magnetic turbulence on the shock dynamics. In particular, we study the interplay between particle injection and magnetic field amplification, showing how a phenomenological but reasonable saturation of the standard streaming instability may lead to quite steep spectra for the accelerated particles. We comment on the implications that such a scenario may have on the comprehension of the diffuse spectrum of Galactic cosmic rays and of gamma-ray observations of single remnants.
Cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants: non-linear theory revised
Damiano Caprioli
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2012/07/038
Abstract: A rapidly growing amount of evidences, mostly coming from the recent gamma-ray observations of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs), is seriously challenging our understanding of how particles are accelerated at fast shocks. The cosmic-ray (CR) spectra required to account for the observed phenomenology are in fact as steep as $E^{-2.2}--E^{-2.4}$, i.e., steeper than the test-particle prediction of first-order Fermi acceleration, and significantly steeper than what expected in a more refined non-linear theory of diffusive shock acceleration. By accounting for the dynamical back-reaction of the non-thermal particles, such a theory in fact predicts that the more efficient the particle acceleration, the flatter the CR spectrum. In this work we put forward a self-consistent scenario in which the account for the magnetic field amplification induced by CR streaming produces the conditions for reversing such a trend, allowing --- at the same time --- for rather steep spectra and CR acceleration efficiencies (about 20%) consistent with the hypothesis that SNRs are the sources of Galactic CRs. In particular, we quantitatively work out the details of instantaneous and cumulative CR spectra during the evolution of a typical SNR, also stressing the implications of the observed levels of magnetization on both the expected maximum energy and the predicted CR acceleration efficiency. The latter naturally turns out to saturate around 10-30%, almost independently of the fraction of particles injected into the acceleration process as long as this fraction is larger than about $10^{-4}$.
From E. Fermi to Fermi-LAT: watching particle acceleration in supernova remnants
Damiano Caprioli
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Supernova remnants (SNRs) have been regarded for many decades as the sources of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) up to a few PeV. However, only with the advent of Fermi-LAT it has been possible to detect - at least in some SNRs - \gamma-rays whose origin is unequivocally hadronic, namely due to the decay of neutral pions produced by collisions between relativistic nuclei and the background plasma. When coupled with observations in other bands (from radio to TeV \gamma-rays), Fermi-LAT data present evidence for CR spectra significantly steeper than the standard prediction of diffusive shock acceleration, forcing us to rethink our theoretical understanding of efficient particle energization at strong shocks. We outline how, by including the effects of CR-triggered magnetic field amplification, it is possible to reconcile non-linear models of diffusive shock acceleration with \gamma-ray observations, in particular providing a successful application of such a theory to Tycho's SNR. Finally, we show how kinetic simulations can investigate the microphysics of the non-linear coupling of accelerated particles and magnetic fields, probing from first principles the efficiency of the Fermi mechanism at strong shocks
New insights on hadron acceleration at supernova remnant shocks
Damiano Caprioli
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-35410-6_18
Abstract: We outline the main features of nuclei acceleration at supernova remnant forward shocks, stressing the crucial role played by self-amplified magnetic fields in determining the energy spectrum observed in this class of sources. In particular, we show how the standard predictions of the non-linear theory of diffusive shock acceleration has to be completed with an additional ingredient, which we propose to be the enhanced velocity of the magnetic irregularities particles scatter against, to reconcile the theory of efficient particle acceleration with recent observations of gamma-ray bright supernova remnants.
"Espresso" Acceleration of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays
Damiano Caprioli
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/811/2/L38
Abstract: We propose that ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) above $10^{18}$eV are produced in relativistic jets of powerful active galactic nuclei via an original mechanism, which we dub "espresso" acceleration: "seed" galactic CRs with energies $\lesssim 10^{17}$eV that penetrate the jet sideways receive a "one-shot'" boost of a factor of $\sim\Gamma^2$ in energy, where $\Gamma$ is the Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow. For typical jet parameters, a few percent of the CRs in the host galaxy can undergo this process, and powerful blazars with $\Gamma\gtrsim 30$ may accelerate UHECRs up to more than $10^{20}$eV. The chemical composition of espresso-accelerated UHECRs is determined by that at the Galactic CR knee and is expected to be proton-dominated at $10^{18}$eV and increasingly heavy at higher energies, in agreement with recent observations made at the Pierre Auger Observatory.
Cosmic-ray Acceleration and Propagation
Damiano Caprioli
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The origin of cosmic rays (CRs) has puzzled scientists since the pioneering discovery by Victor Hess in 1912. In the last decade, however, modern supercomputers have opened a new window on the processes regulating astrophysical collisionless plasmas, allowing the study of CR acceleration via first-principles kinetic simulations. At the same time, a new-generation of X-ray and $\gamma$-ray telescopes has been collecting evidence that Galactic CRs are accelerated in the blast waves of supernova remnants (SNRs). I present state-of-the-art particle-in-cells simulations of non-relativistic shocks, in which ion and electron acceleration efficiency and magnetic field amplification are studied in detail as a function of the shock parameters. I then discuss the theoretical and observational counterparts of these findings, comparing them with predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory and with multi-wavelength observations of young SNRs. I especially outline some major open questions, such as the possible causes of the steep CR spectra inferred from $\gamma$-ray observations of SNRs and the origin of the knee in the Galactic CR spectrum. Finally, I put such a theoretical understanding in relation with CR propagation in the Galaxy in order to bridge the gap between acceleration in sources and measurements of CRs at Earth.
Fermi acceleration at supernova remnant shocks
Damiano Caprioli
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1063/1.4772241
Abstract: We investigate the physics of particle acceleration at non-relativistic shocks exploiting two different and complementary approaches, namely a semi-analytic modeling of cosmic-ray modified shocks and large hybrid (kinetic protons/fluid electrons) simulations. The former technique allows us to extract some information from the multi-wavelength observations of supernova remnants, especially in the gamma-ray band, while the latter returns fundamental insights into the details of particle injection and magnetic field amplification via plasma instabilities. In particular, we present the results of large hybrid simulations of non-relativistic shocks, discussing the properties of the transition from the thermal to the non-thermal component, the spectrum of which turns out to be the power-law predicted by first-order Fermi acceleration. Along with a rather effective magnetic field amplification, we find that more than 20% of the bulk energy is converted in non-thermal particles, altering significantly the dynamics of the shock and leading to the formation of a precursor.
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