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Evolution or Revolution of Organizational Information Technology – Modeling  [PDF]
Niv Ahituv, Gil Greenstein
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.31006
Abstract: This paper suggests a new normative model that attempts to analyze why improvement of versions of existing decision support systems do not necessarily increase the effectiveness and the productivity of decision making processes. Moreover, the paper suggests some constructive ideas, formulated through a normative analytic model, how to select a strategy for the design and switching to a new version of a decision support system, without having to immediately run through a mega conversion and training process while temporarily losing productivity. The analysis employs the information structure model prevailing in Information Economics. The study analytically defines and examines a systematic informativeness ratio between two information structures. The analysis leads to a better understanding of the performances of decision support information systems during their life-cycle. Moreover, this approach explains normatively the phenomenon of “leaks of productivity”, namely, the decrease in productivity of information systems, after they have been upgraded or replaced with new ones. Such an explanation may partially illuminate findings regarding the phenomenon known as the Productivity Paradox. It can be assumed that the usage of the methodology that is presented in this paper to improve or replace information structure with systematically more informative versions of information structures over time may facilitate the achievement of the following major targets: increase the expected payoffs over time, reduce the risk of failure of new versions of information systems, and reduce the need to cope with complicated and expensive training processes.
The Teaching Method of Creative Education  [PDF]
Yong Gil Lee
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.48A006
Abstract: This paper is the study on the meaning of 5 stages of teaching in creative education. The five-stage teaching of creative education is one of the teaching methods set up as educational methodology for the education purpose of human creativity cultivation. Creativity is understood as universal and holistic aspect of human in creative education, and the spheres of creativity can be classified into physical-physiological sphere, social sphere, rational sphere, moral sphere, artistic sphere, and religious sphere in human life and the properties of value ability in each sphere are presented. Vividness in physical-physiological sphere, cooperation in social sphere, quest in rational sphere, virtue in moral sphere, beauty in artistic sphere, and belief in religious sphere are defined as the properties of value ability and presented the educational purpose. Such spheres of creativity distinguish universal human life and the cultivation of creativity are established as the educational purpose. Teaching method in creative education consists of the five stages of teaching as integrated teaching-studying to cultivate the properties of value ability in each sphere of creativity, which is the stage of idea-discovery-digging-manifestation-development to encourage learner’s freedom and willingness with teacher’s love and guide. Learner is the subject in the study course in the five-stage teaching and it is the teaching-studying theory to cultivate value ability through the learner’s thinking and experience, connecting the ideal type of thinking for value creation to the ideal type of teaching-studying. Freedom and willingness as the ideal type of thinking for value creation are explained in theoretical level and the actual measure for education is tried in the teaching theory by the five-stage teaching of idea-discovery-digging-manifestation-development as the ideal type of teaching-studying. In other words, creative education is to build the ideal type of thinking for value creation in advance and then present the corresponding teaching-studying. The five-stage of teaching in creative education is to build theoretical system of education to allow students to make creative value by themselves through the cultivation of human ability, changing logical order to time series in thinking and then applying it to education. The five-stage of teaching in creative education is the formulization of thinking for value education applied to studying. It is theoretical composition of the stages to develop thinking for value creation through the experiences of the activity spheres,
Strategies to stabilize compact folding and minimize aggregation of antibody-based fragments  [PDF]
Diana Gil, Adam G. Schrum
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.44A011
Abstract:

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have proven to be useful for development of new therapeutic drugs and diagnostic techniques. To overcome the difficulties posed by their complex structure and folding, reduce undesired immunogenicity, and improve pharmacoki- netic properties, a plethora of different Ab fragments have been developed. These include recombinant Fab and Fv segments that can display improved properties over those of the original mAbs upon which they are based. Antibody (Ab) fragments such as Fabs, scFvs, diabodies, and nanobodies, all contain the variable Ig domains responsible for binding to specific antigenic epitopes, allowing for specific targeting of pathological cells and/or molecules. These fragments can be easier to produce, purify and refold than a full Ab, and due to their smaller size they can be well absorbed and distributed into target tissues. However, the physicochemical and structural properties of the immunoglobulin (Ig) domain, upon which the folding and conformation of all these Ab fragments is based, can limit the stability of Ab-based drugs. The Ig domain is fairly sensitive to unfolding and aggregation when produced out of the structural context of an intact Ab molecule. When unfolded, Ab fragments may lose their specificity as well as establish non-native interactions leading to protein aggregation. Aggregated antibody fragments display altered pharmacokinetic and immunogenic properties that can augment their toxicity. Therefore, much effort has been placed in understanding the factors impacting the stability of Ig folding at two different levels: 1) intrinsically, by studying the effects of the amino acid sequence on Ig folding; 2) extrinsically, by determining the environmental conditions that may influence the stability of Ig folding. In this review we will describe the structure of the Ig domain, and the factors that impact its stability, to set the context for the different approaches currently used to achieve stable recombinant Ig domains when pursuing the development of Ab fragment-based biotechnologies.

A Forensic Approach for Assessing Modes of Subsurface Petroleum Releases  [PDF]
John A. Anton, Gil Oudijk
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.73027
Abstract:

Chronic petroleum discharges resulting from underground storage tank (UST) system failures may continue for months or years, whereas catastrophic releases result from structural failures or overfills that occur over shorter time periods. A forensic analytical framework is useful for distinguishing between chronic and catastrophic releases and identifying responsible parties. However, the forensic program must account for the petroleum type because identifying release modes relies on understanding the chemical evolution of petroleum through time within the context of site conditions. Here we discuss key petroleum components that aid in reconstructing the release and identifying potential responsible parties when subsurface conditions are known.

Hot Vapor Bubble Prints on Carbon Steel  [PDF]
Gil Bazanini, José Divo Bressan
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.52038
Abstract: To study the effects of bubbles (or cavities) collapse on a solid surface, a rotating disk device was used here to create bubbles (or bubbles) in water. In the apparatus, these bubbles are led to collapse on the surface of carbon steel (commonly used in structures and machine impellers), and so related to higher costs for the hydraulic machines industry when damaged by such phenomenon, for example. After that, the specimens are observed with the aid of a scanning electronic microscope, where the damages on the specimens are analyzed showing pits and approximate circular areas on their surfaces. An explanation is presented here, based on collapse simulations (for qualitative purposes) and their result using images of the specimens after the collapses to visualize the damages caused by prints on their surface. The pits are certainly made by liquid micro-jet impingement while the areas, showing some aspects of burning, are credited to the high temperature impaction of the bubble contents in the final stages of its collapse.
Family Inclusiveness and Spatial Dispersion: The Spatial Consequences of Having Large and Diversified Family Configurations  [PDF]
Eric D. Widmer, Gil Viry
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.55024
Abstract: This article stresses the critical role of family inclusiveness for shaping the spatiality of families. Some individuals have a rather exclusive definition of their family, focusing on partner, children, siblings and parents. Others develop inclusive definitions of family by considering extended kin, step relatives and friends as significant family members. Family inclusiveness is hypothesized to account for a large share of the dispersion of family members throughout space. Data consisted of a stratified sample of 300 mothers of school-aged children living in the cosmopolitan city of Geneva. The results show that spatial dispersion of families increases with the number of family members considered significant. Inclusion of family members beyond the nuclear family of origin is paradoxically associated with a localised family context. Overall, this study emphasises the importance of family inclusiveness as a key dimension for understanding family spatiality in globalized societies.
Localization and Perturbations of Roots to Systems of Polynomial Equations
Michael Gil'
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/653914
Abstract: We establish estimates for the sums of absolute values of solutions of a zero-dimensional polynomial system. By these estimates, inequalities for the counting function of the roots are derived. In addition, bounds for the roots of perturbed systems are suggested.
Longitudinal Stability Criteria for a Propeller-Driven Aircraft
Gil Iosilevskii
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/762329
Abstract: The Routh criterion is used to assess longitudinal dynamic stability of a propeller-driven aircraft. Under a few plausible assumptions on possible ranges of the pertinent stability derivatives, it reduces to a pair of simple conditions imposing a traditional aft limit (the forward of the maneuver and the neutral-speed-stability points) on the center-of-gravity position and an upper limit on the longitudinal moment of inertia. It is demonstrated that most aircraft have sufficiently small inertia to remain stable as long as their center-of-gravity is properly placed. At the same time, sailplane-like aircraft (as, e.g., long endurance UAVs), with an engine installed at the rear extremity of the aircraft, may have sufficiently high inertia to become unstable regardless of their center-of-gravity placement. 1. Introduction Linear analysis of the longitudinal dynamics of a rigid aircraft can be found practically in any textbook on flight mechanics. In a nutshell, it can be recapitulated as follows. Assuming constant-density atmosphere, flat nonrotating Earth, zero thrust angle, and no control inputs, the equations governing small perturbations of airspeed, angle-of-attack, pitch rate and pitch angle from their respective values in a trimmed straight-and-almost-level flight can be written as with see equation (5.13,16) in [1]. The notation here is the same as in [1] with three exceptions: (i) an overdot replaces “ ” to designate a derivative with respect to reduced time; (ii) the subscript “e” is omitted from unperturbed (equilibrium) values of the flight-path angle and the lift and drag coefficients; (iii) “ ” and “ ” replace “ ” and “ ” for the reduced moment of inertia and the reduced velocity. Setting?? in (1), where is the (reduced) time and and are obvious time-independent quantities, leads to the generalized eigenvalue problem , and, in turn, to the fourth order characteristic equation, The coefficients in (4) can be identified with products of the elements of the matrices and , but except for all other coefficients are rather unwieldy (Appendix A). Of course, the aircraft is stable if all the roots of (4) are in the left half-plane. Equation (4) has no analytical solution for , and therefore it has to be solved either approximately [2] or numerically. Each approach has its virtues, but in many cases the roots of (4) are not really needed—what is needed is the knowledge whether the aircraft is stable or not. In principle, stability of a system (the aircraft, in this case) can be assessed without actually solving its characteristic equation—by the Routh
A Genealogical Interpretation of Principal Components Analysis
Gil McVean
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000686
Abstract: Principal components analysis, PCA, is a statistical method commonly used in population genetics to identify structure in the distribution of genetic variation across geographical location and ethnic background. However, while the method is often used to inform about historical demographic processes, little is known about the relationship between fundamental demographic parameters and the projection of samples onto the primary axes. Here I show that for SNP data the projection of samples onto the principal components can be obtained directly from considering the average coalescent times between pairs of haploid genomes. The result provides a framework for interpreting PCA projections in terms of underlying processes, including migration, geographical isolation, and admixture. I also demonstrate a link between PCA and Wright's fst and show that SNP ascertainment has a largely simple and predictable effect on the projection of samples. Using examples from human genetics, I discuss the application of these results to empirical data and the implications for inference.
O "homem dos riscos" e o "homem lento" e a teoriza??o sobre o risco epidemiológico em tempos de globaliza??o
Sevalho, Gil;
Interface - Comunica??o, Saúde, Educa??o , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-32832012005000005
Abstract: by using time as an interdisciplinary composition element, the concept of epidemiological risk is discussed, recognizing the "risk-taking man" created by the epidemiologist naomar de almeida-filho and the "slow man" created by the geographer milton santos. jean-fran?ois lyotard's criticism of science as discourse that does not take popular narrative into account is used in the argument. the slow man resists fragmentation of identities imposed by globalization and creatively weaves solidarity in its place, while the risk-taking man represents speed and modernity, thereby imposing a standardizing, individualistic and competitive order. epidemiological risk is envisaged in proximity to territories and places, and contrasts the slow man's concreteness with the artificiality of the epidemiological discourse of the risk-taking man. boaventura de sousa santos's southern epistemology, with its sociologies of absences and emergencies, sustains this critical perspective and proposes scientific practice that is politically committed to social justice and prioritizes popular knowledge.
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