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Adolescents’ Willingness and Intentions to Use Contraceptives in Rural Ghana  [PDF]
Sulemana Abubakari, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Obed Ernest A. Nettey, George Adjei, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Robert Adda, Francis Dzabeng, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Charles Zandoh, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311029
Abstract: Efforts made to improve the availability and access to family planning services to adolescents in Ghana have not yielded the desired results. Adolescents in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area are no exception. This study explored contraceptive use intentions, preferences and their determinants among adolescents in rural Ghana. This was to contribute evidence towards achieving universal access to reproductive health. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect Sexual and Reproductive Health data in the Kintampo districts in 2011. A total of 1805 female adolescents were randomly sampled from a resident female adolescent population of 16,795. This study used intention and/or willingness of adolescents to use contraceptives as the outcome variable and the explanatory variables were demographic and socioeconomic factors. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were done. The findings indicated 54.3% of adolescents’ were willing to use contraceptives. Injectable was the most preferred contraceptive method among adolescents (48.6%); this was followed by the pill (29.6%) with the least being foam or jelly (0.2%). The most commonly cited reason for not intending to use contraception was adolescents’ opposition to family planning (31.5%) followed by a fear of side effects (25.8%). Age and education influenced adolescents’ willingness to use contraceptives in the future. Formal education of the young generation coupled with knowledge of contraceptive methods could yield positive outcomes for contraceptive use and ultimately reproductive health of the adolescent population in the near future.
Family Planning Awareness, Perceptions and Practice among Community Members in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana  [PDF]
Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Abubakari Sulemana, George Adjei, Stephaney Gyaase, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Robert Adda, Abena Konadu Yawson, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Livesy Abokyi, Charles Zandoh, Martha Abdulai, Ellen Abrafi Boamah, Kwame Adjei, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Francis Dzabeng, Charlotte Tawiah-Agyeman, Frank Baiden, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2015.31001
Abstract: Family planning is known to prevent maternal deaths, but some social norms, limited supplies and inconsistent use makes this difficult to achieve in most low- and middle-income countries. In spite of the high fertility levels in most sub-Saharan African countries and the potential economic benefits of family planning, its patronage remains very low in the sub-region. This study was with the objective of identifying the levels of awareness, utilization, access to and perceptions about family planning and contraception. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, with data collected from multiple sources using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Relevant findings included a marked disconnect between family planning/contraceptive knowledge and use. The pills and injectables were the most frequently used, but females in the study population poorly patronised emergency contraception. Supplies of most family planning methods were found to be health facility based, requiring clients to have to necessarily go there for services. Some respondents harboured perceptions that family planning was the responsibility of females alone and that it fuelled promiscuity among female users. Recommendations made include ensuring that health facilities had adequate staff and expertise to provide facility-based family planning services and also to disabuse the minds of community members of the negative perceptions towards family planning.
Oral pathologies seen in pregnant and non-pregnant women
BDRT Annan, K Nuamah
Ghana Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: The oral health status of a hundred pregnant women and that of one hundred non-pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic and gynaecological clinic respectively at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital was assessed for some common oral pathologies. The doctors and other health personnel managing the pregnant women were also quizzed to ascertain knowledge of any of these conditions. The aim was to find out if any oral condition was particularly prevalent in the pregnant women but not in the non-pregnant women. Our study confirms that in these women, pregnancy has an effect on the oral health status. However this effect is more likely due to the physiological changes associated with pregnancy than any other specific factors. Some oral conditions already present may be influenced by the hormonal changes, which in some cases exacerbate or ameliorate minor oral pathologies. Our findings were similar to that in other studies. However health workers who deal with the pregnant women in these clinics are less aware of these conditions and hence do not usually give any advice.
Microbial quality of chevon and mutton sold in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana
Adzitey Frederick, Teye G Ayum, Ayim A Gifty, Addy Samuel
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2010,
Abstract: The microbial quality of 80 meat samples made up of 40 chevon and 40 mutton were collected from the Aboabo, Central-internal, Central-external, and Sakasaka meat shops in Tamale Metropolis and assessed in order to ascertain it safety. Chevon from Aboabo and mutton from the Central market-internal had the highest mean total aerobic bacterial count of 3.9 X 10 6 cfu/cm2 and 3.7 X 106 cfu/cm2 , respectively. The lowest total aerobic count in chevon was found in the Central-internal (6.0 X 105 cfu/cm2) and that of mutton was found in Sakasaka market meat shop (6.0 X 10 5 cfu/cm2). Bacteria isolated from the samples were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus species, Salmonella species , Enterococcus species, and Staphylococcus species, some of which harbor human pathogens of public health concern. The isolation of various bacteria in chevon and mutton sold in the Tamale Metropolis indicates that, lower standard of operating systems in the slaughtering, processing and sale of meats are adhered to. The Government of Ghana, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Food and Agriculture should enforce the laws that prohibit the illegal slaughtering of animals without veterinary inspection, unstandardized methods of handling animals, slaughtering and selling of meats on the open market. @JASEM J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. December, 2010, Vol. 14 (4) 53 - 55
Parasitism of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Populations on Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata (L.) by Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Ghana
MA Cobblah, K Afreh-Nuamah, D Wilson, MY Osae
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2012,
Abstract: The study was carried out at the Weija Irrigation Company site at Weija, in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, to determine the seasonal abundance of the major parasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) populations on cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (L.) during the rainy and the dry seasons. The results indicated that Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) was the most abundant and important parasitoid of P. xylostella on cabbage. It accounted for about 92% of the parasitoids, and occurred in all the three seasons of planting. The rest consisted of four facultative hyperparasitoids: Oomyzus sokolowskii, Aphanogmus reticulatus, Elasmus sp. and a Trichomalopsis sp., and two primary parasitoids, Pediobius sp. and Hockeria sp. A significantly higher rate of parasitism (68.6 ± 12.9%, P < 0.05) of P. xylostella by C. plutellae occurred during the major rainy season and the least (9.9 ± 7.1) in the minor rainy season. Cotesia plutellae acted in a density dependent manner, and its numbers increased as that of the host in all three seasons. The coefficient of correlation was highest in the major rainy season (r = 0.97) with a coefficient of determination of 0.97. In the minor rainy season r = 0.55, and in the dry season r = 0.66. The annual coefficient of correlation was r = 0.51 and the coefficient of determination = 0.262. Hence, in an annual production of cabbage, 26.2% of the variation in parasitism was due to the variation in the number of P. xylostella. The results, therefore, indicate that C. plutellae can be used in the development of an integrated pest management programme (IPMP), against P. xylostella in Ghana.
Hemispheric brain abscess: A review of 46 cases
T K Dakurah, M Iddrissu, G Wepede, I Nuamah
West African Journal of Medicine , 2006,
Chronic subdural haematoma: review of 96 cases attending the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra
TK Dakurah, M Iddrissu, G Wepeba, I Nuamah
West African Journal of Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Chronic subdural haematoma is not uncommon in Africa. Early diagnosis and treatment is satisfying. Simpler operative procedures are generally effective. This review is meant to find out the situation regarding the condition in Ghana. Study design: A retrospective study of patients with chronic subdural haematoma admitted to and treated by the Neurosurgical Unit of Korle Bu Teaching Hospital between January 1995 and December 1998 was undertaken. The case notes, computerise axial tomography (CT) scans and operative records were reviewed and the relevant data extracted. Incomplete records were excluded. Results: 96 patients were involved. The mean age of the patients was 46.9 years, with male to female ratio of 16: 1. The most common presenting feature was headache (64.7%). Time of injury to presentation was about 2 months. 81 were treated using burr hole and drainage and 15 by craniotomy and stripping of membranes. Eighty four were treated under general anaesthesia. Two were reoperated on because of recurrent bleed. There were two (2) deaths. Ninety patients had a Glasgow Outcome Score of good at the time of their last review. Conclusion: The data suggests that burr hole and closed drainage is a very effective method of managing CSDH.
The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania
Helen Prytherch,Melkidezek T. Leshabari,Christiane Wiskow,Gifty A. Aninanya
Global Health Action , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v5i0.19120
Abstract: Background: The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective: To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design: Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion: This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated.
Number needed to treat and number needed to harm with paliperidone palmitate relative to long-acting haloperidol, bromperidol, and fluphenazine decanoate for treatment of patients with schizophrenia
Srihari Gopal,Joris Berwaerts,Isaac Nuamah,et al
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2011,
Abstract: Srihari Gopal1, Joris Berwaerts1, Isaac Nuamah1, Kasem Akhras2, Danielle Coppola1, Ella Daly1, David Hough1, Joseph Palumbo11Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA; 2Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Services, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USABackground: We analyzed data retrieved through a PubMed search of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (haloperidol decanoate, bromperidol decanoate, and fluphenazine decanoate), and a company database of paliperidone palmitate, to compare the benefit-risk ratio in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: From the eight studies that met our selection criteria, two efficacy and six safety parameters were selected for calculation of number needed to treat (NNT), number needed to harm (NNH), and the likelihood of being helped or harmed (LHH) using comparisons of active drug relative to placebo. NNTs for prevention of relapse ranged from 2 to 5 for paliperidone palmitate, haloperidol decanoate, and fluphenazine decanoate, indicating a moderate to large effect size.Results: Among the selected maintenance studies, NNH varied considerably, but indicated a lower likelihood of encountering extrapyramidal side effects, such as akathisia, tremor, and tardive dyskinesia, with paliperidone palmitate versus placebo than with first-generation antipsychotic depot agents versus placebo. This was further supported by an overall higher NNH for paliperidone palmitate versus placebo with respect to anticholinergic use and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale positive score. LHH for preventing relapse versus use of anticholinergics was 15 for paliperidone palmitate and 3 for fluphenazine decanoate, favoring paliperidone palmitate.Conclusion: Overall, paliperidone palmitate had a similar NNT and a more favorable NNH compared with the first-generation long-acting injectables assessed.Keywords: long-acting injectables, first-generation antipsychotics, randomized, number needed to treat, number needed to harm, paliperidone palmitate, second-generation antipsychotics
The Provider Payment System of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana
Hannah Fosuaa Amo,Kwadjo Ansah-Adu,Samuel N.Y. Simpson
Studies in Sociology of Science , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/j.sss.1923018420130401.999
Abstract: The overriding concern of this paper is to examine opportunities and constraints of provider-payment system being used to manage health insurance in Ghana. Mindful of this objective, the study employed a survey approach to collect data, which involved the use of questionnaires, interviews and observation. Three out of the ten administrative regions were randomly selected to for the study. Thirty insurance schemes and 30 health service providers were randomly selected given that regions were our unit of analysis. Apart from these, 50 subscribers were purposively selected from Greater Accra; Central, Brong-Ahafo, and Ashanti regions were sampled for the study with a response rate of 97%. The results of the study show that inadequate funding characterised by delays in the release of subsidies result in the interruption of payment to service providers. Though the payment system is rated as satisfactory, it does not allow providers to achieve reasonable cash flow and as such it affects the value of health care provided to subscribers. The disruptions in re-imbursements can potentially undermine quality of health services provided to subscribers. It is therefore recommended that the national insurance authority devised mechanisms that will ensure prompt payment to providers as one of the several means of promoting quality healthcare. Key words: District mutual health insurance scheme; National health insurance scheme; Provider payment system
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