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Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst: A Retrospective Analysis (Cancer of the Thyroid or Primary Cancer of the Thyroglossal Cyst)  [PDF]
Paolo Gamba, Umberto Pignatelli, Giampiero DAddazio, Gabriella Licursi, Luca Gentile, Ugo Moz
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104259
Abstract:
Thyroglossal duct cysts are one of the most common congenital abnormalities of the cervical region. Complications of these swellings are rare, and among these, appearance of a carcinoma has also been noted. Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma (TGDC) is a rare entity and its management is controversial. The incidence of thyroid papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst is less than 1%, in most cases, the diagnosis is made postoperatively. We report the case of an adult female patient with a papillary carcinoma arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst. Our aim is defining a clinical protocol to diagnose the thyreoglossal duct carcinoma through clinical features, radiological investigations, cytological and histopathological examinations and, through this diagnostic protocol, to choose the best surgical approach. The literature contains 300 cases of this pathology; papillary histotype constitutes about 80%, then squamocellular carcinoma, mixed folliculo-papillary carcinoma and adenocarcinoma follow. The literature suggests two different hypotheses: neoplasia originating from ectopic thyroid tissue and plurifocal theory. The adopted diagnostic investigations are: ultrasonography, Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Our patient was treated using a modified Sistrunk’s procedure operation, in which thyroidectomy proved crucial for the correct diagnosis and continuation of appropriate treatment. Our case confirms the difficulty in distinguishing a primitive thyroglossal duct carcinoma from a synchronous metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. This dilemma often remains unresolved. The two different surgical approaches reported in the literature, one more conservative and the other more aggressive, apparently alternatives are instead complementary and adequate when strict diagnostic criteria and adequate follow-up, are observed. The first year follow-up includes the thyroglobulin level determination and a neck ecografic scan every 3 months. The patient has been following for two years without any metastasis.
The Effect of Boundaries in One-Loop Quantum Cosmology
Peter D. D'Eath,Giampiero Esposito
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: The problem of boundary conditions in a supersymmetric theory of quantum cosmology is studied, with application to the one-loop prefactor in the quantum amplitude. Our background cosmological model is flat Euclidean space bounded by a three-sphere, and our calculations are based on the generalized Riemann zeta-function. One possible set of supersymmetric local boundary conditions involves field strengths for spins 1, 3/2 and 2, the undifferentiated spin-1/2 field, and a mixture of Dirichlet and Neumann conditions for spin 0. In this case the results we can obtain are: zeta(0)=7/45 for a complex scalar field, zeta(0)=11/360 for spin 1/2, zeta(0)= -77/180 (magnetic) and 13/180 (electric) for spin 1, and zeta(0)=112/45 for pure gravity when the linearized magnetic curvature is vanishing on $S^3$. The zeta(0) values for gauge fields have been obtained by working only with physical degrees of freedom. An alternative set of boundary conditions can be motivated by studying transformation properties under local supersymmetry; these involve Dirichlet conditions for the spin-2 and spin-1 fields, a mixture of Dirichlet and Neumann conditions for spin-0, and local boundary conditions for the spin-1/2 field and the spin-3/2 potential. For the latter one finds: zeta(0)=-289/360. The full zeta(0) does not vanish in extended supergravity theories, indicating that supersymmetry is one-loop divergent in the presence of boundaries.
Local Boundary Conditions for the Dirac Operator and One-Loop Quantum Cosmology
Peter D. D'Eath,Giampiero Esposito
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.43.3234
Abstract: This paper studies local boundary conditions for fermionic fields in quantum cosmology, originally introduced by Breitenlohner, Freedman and Hawking for gauged supergravity theories in anti-de Sitter space. For a spin-1/2 field the conditions involve the normal to the boundary and the undifferentiated field. A first-order differential operator for this Euclidean boundary-value problem exists which is symmetric and has self-adjoint extensions. The resulting eigenvalue equation in the case of a flat Euclidean background with a three-sphere boundary of radius a is found to be: $F(E)=[J_{n+1}(Ea)]^{2}-[J_{n+2}(Ea)]^{2}=0 , \forall n \geq 0$. Using the theory of canonical products, this function F may be expanded in terms of squared eigenvalues, in a way which has been used in other recent one-loop calculations involving eigenvalues of second-order operators. One can then study the generalized Riemann zeta-function formed from these squared eigenvalues. The value of zeta(0) determines the scaling of the one-loop prefactor in the Hartle-Hawking amplitude in quantum cosmology. Suitable contour formulae, and the uniform asymptotic expansions of the Bessel functions and their first derivatives, yield for a massless Majorana field: zeta(0)=11/360. Combining this with zeta(0) values for other spins, one can then check whether the one-loop divergences in quantum cosmology cancel in a supersymmetric theory.
Spectral Boundary Conditions in One-Loop Quantum Cosmology
Peter D. D'Eath,Giampiero Esposito
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.44.1713
Abstract: For fermionic fields on a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary one has a choice between local and non-local (spectral) boundary conditions. The one-loop prefactor in the Hartle-Hawking amplitude in quantum cosmology can then be studied using the generalized Riemann zeta-function formed from the squared eigenvalues of the four-dimensional fermionic operators. For a massless Majorana spin-1/2 field, the spectral conditions involve setting to zero half of the fermionic field on the boundary, corresponding to harmonics of the intrinsic three-dimensional Dirac operator on the boundary with positive eigenvalues. Remarkably, a detailed calculation for the case of a flat background bounded by a three-sphere yields the same value zeta(0)=11/360 as was found previously by the authors using local boundary conditions. A similar calculation for a spin-3/2 field, working only with physical degrees of freedom (and, hence, excluding gauge and ghost modes, which contribute to the full Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin-invariant amplitude), again gives a value zeta(0)=-289/360 equal to that for the natural local boundary conditions.
Diffuse plane normolipemic xanthomatosis associated with Takayasu′s disease and hyperhomocysteinemia: A case report
Fichera Giampiero,Anastasio Eduardo,Capasso Fabrizio,D?SQ?Avino Maria
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2004,
Abstract: We describe a case of diffuse plane normolipemic xanthomatosis (DPNX) associated with Takayasu′s disease and hyperhomocysteinemia. This report of an association of Takayasu′s disease with hyperhomocysteinemia and DPNX is the only such report in literature. This report corroborates the study by Marcoval et al on 8 patients in 1988 where they highlighted that in every case of DPNX a possible concomitant condition should be always suspected and found out.
Impact of HIV subtype on response and resistance in antiretroviral-na ve adults comparing treatment with once daily versus twice daily ritonavir boosted fosamprenavir in combination with Abacavir/Lamivudine
Lisa L. Ross,Marjorie D. Robinson,Giampiero Carosi,Adriano Lazzarin
Drugs and Therapy Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/dts.2012.e1
Abstract: The impact of HIV-1 subtype on resistance mutation selection and on virologic response to fosamprenavir in combination with once-daily (QD) versus twice-daily (BID) dosing of ritonavir was examined in a prospective, open label, randomized study in antiretroviral-na ve, HIV-1 infected subjects. We studied APV109141 compared QD fosamprenavir/ritonavir (1400mg/100mg) to BID fosamprenavir/ritonavir (700mg/100mg), administered in combination with a QD fixed-dose abacavir/lamivudine (600 mg/300 mg) combination tablet through 48 weeks in ART-na ve subjects. HIV genotypes were obtained from all subjects at screen. Subjects with virologic failure (VF) were also genotyped at baseline and VF. HIV subtypes observed in the ITT (n=214) population were A or AE or AG circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) 19%; B 62%; BF or BG CRFs 2%; C or CPX CRFs 7%; D 2%; F1 7%; G <1%. By TLOVR (ITT-exposed), 86/106 (81%) of subjects on QD study arm and 87/106 (82%) in the BID arm achieved plasma HIV-RNA<400 copies/mL at Week 48. Three subjects met VF criteria, 2 receiving QD fosamprenavir/ritonavir; 1 receiving BID fosamprenavir/ritonavir; (HIV subtype B, F1 A1, respectively). Baseline drug resistance was detected in 2/3 VFs: Subject 1-RT: K103K/N, T215C; major PI: V82A, L90M; and Subject 2-RT: M41L, L74V. Only virus from one subject with VF selected for any treatment-emergent mutation (Subject 1; M184V). Post-VF, Subject 3 (subtypeA1) suppressed HIV-RNA >400 copies/mL through 48 weeks. Subtype appeared to have no preferential impact on virologic response or selection for specific resistance mutations in subjects receiving fosamprenavir/ritonavir. Virologic failure rate was rare (3 subjects; each from different subtypes). At VF, virus from only one subject selected any HIV NRTI mutation (M184V); none selected major protease mutations.
Atomic Parity-Violation and Precision Physics
D. Bardin,P. Christova,L. Kalinovskaya,Giampiero Passarino
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1007/s100520100773
Abstract: The atomic parity-violation (APV) parameter QW for a nucleus with `n' neutrons and `z' protons has been included in the list of pseudo-observables accessible with the codes TOPAZ0 and ZFITTER. In this way one can add the APV results in the LEP EWWG `global' electroweak fits, checking the corresponding effect when added to the existing precision measurements.
A spinorial perspective on massless photons
Esposito, Giampiero
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s10701-007-9191-z
Abstract: We exploit the fact that, in Minkowski space-time, gamma matrices are possibly more fundamental than the metric to describe how gauge invariance at perturbative level enforces a Lagrangian for spinor electrodynamics with massless photons. The term quadratic in the potential arises naturally in the gauge-fixed Lagrangian but has vanishing coefficient.
On the valorisation of public real estate properties: the valuation of programs and projects (feasibility study)
Giampiero Bambagioni
Techne : Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment , 2012,
Abstract: Building construction and improvement and development require a holistic approach that allows an overall valuation of the investment, also as regards its town-planning/technical/economic aspects. The valuation can be done ex ante through feasibility studies (which are expressly provided for in the cases referred to in the Regulation for Implementation and Enforcement of the code of Public Contracts (D.P.R. 207/2010); to this end it is necessary to reconcile the “project constraints” that take shape in four macro-areas: Resources (and Economic Sustainability), Cost Engineering, Time Frames, Performance/Quality. Demonstrating the economic sustainability of a building project by combining principles and definite rules consistent with international best practices – even more so in the current international economic-financial situation – constitutes the essential prerequisite for raising resources, sometimes even among international institutional investors, that make it possible to develop all stages of the building process with continuity. An intelligent promotion and development of the immense national public real estate heritage will also promote the country’s economic-social development.
An intersection problem in a finite set
Giampiero Chiaselotti
Le Matematiche , 1995,
Abstract: See directly the article.
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