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Observer Variability in BI-RADS Ultrasound Features and Its Influence on Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Breast Masses  [PDF]
Laith R. Sultan, Ghizlane Bouzghar, Benjamin J. Levenback, Nauroze A. Faizi, Santosh S. Venkatesh, Emily F. Conant, Chandra M. Sehgal
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2015.41001
Abstract: Objective: Computer classification of sonographic BI-RADS features can aid differentiation of the malignant and benign masses. However, the variability in the diagnosis due to the differences in the observed features between the observations is not known. The goal of this study is to measure the variation in sonographic features between multiple observations and determine the effect of features variation on computer-aided diagnosis of the breast masses. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound images of biopsy proven solid breast masses were analyzed in three independent observations for BI-RADS sonographic features. The BI-RADS features from each observation were used with Bayes classifier to determine probability of malignancy. The observer agreement in the sonographic features was measured by kappa coefficient and the difference in the diagnostic performances between observations was determined by the area under the ROC curve, Az, and interclass correlation coefficient. Results: While some features were repeatedly observed, κ = 0.95, other showed a significant variation, κ = 0.16. For all features, combined intra-observer agreement was substantial, κ = 0.77. The agreement, however, decreased steadily to 0.66 and 0.56 as time between the observations increased from 1 to 2 and 3 months, respectively. Despite the variation in features between observations the probabilities of malignancy estimates from Bayes classifier were robust and consistently yielded same level of diagnostic performance, Az was 0.772-0.817 for sonographic features alone and 0.828-0.849 for sonographic features and age combined. The difference in the performance, ΔAz, between the observations for the two groups was small (0.003-0.044) and was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Interclass correlation coefficient for the observations was 0.822 (CI: 0.787-0.853) for BI-RADS sonographic features alone and for those combined with age was 0.833 (CI: 0.800-0.862). Conclusion: Despite the differences in the BI-RADS sonographic features between different observations, the diagnostic performance of computer-aided analysis for differentiating breast masses did not change. Through continual retraining, the computer-aided analysis provides consistent diagnostic performance independent of the variations in the observed sonographic features.
A Comparative Study of Mean-Variance and Mean Gini Portfolio Selection Using VaR and CVaR  [PDF]
Jamal Agouram, Ghizlane Lakhnati
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2015.42007
Abstract: This paper focuses on two methods for optimum market portfolio selection. We compare the Mean-Variance method with the Mean-Gini method using MADEX data from turbulent market periods in 2011, 2012 and 2013. We compare both strategies with reference to value at-risk (VaR) and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) measures during periods of financial crisis. The results show that both strategies are profitable for investors. We consider the Mean-Gini strategy to be the more secure strategy during periods of market instability.
Network Access Control Technology—Proposition to Contain New Security Challenges  [PDF]
Abdelmajid Lakbabi, Ghizlane Orhanou, Said El Hajji
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.58061
Abstract: Traditional products working independently are no longer sufficient, since threats are continually gaining in complexity, diversity and performance; In order to proactively block such threats we need more integrated information security solution. To achieve this objective, we will analyze a real-world security platform, and focus on some key components Like, NAC, Firewall, and IPS/IDS then study their interaction in the perspective to propose a new security posture that coordinate and share security information between different network security components, using a central policy server that will be the NAC server or the PDP (the Policy Decision Point), playing an orchestration role as a central point of control. Finally we will conclude with potential research paths that will impact NAC technology evolution.
The Impact of Tangible and Intangible Innovation Activities on the New Product Objectives in Three Phases of the Innovation Process: Case of the Fish Industry—Morocco  [PDF]
Fatimaezzahra Fouad, Amina Tourabi, Ghizlane Lakhnati
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2017.81002
Abstract: In any industry today, the act of innovation becomes a necessity. However, the understanding of innovation remains partial by most major Moroccan food companies, which have poor evaluation of food products. In this context, we have chosen to evaluate the performance of a new product through its degree of improvement in three stages of internal development: design, prototyping and production. Through the results, we first realized that the most important improvements in these three stages are those of time. These improvements are for the most part affected. In this article, we propose to discuss two aspects, namely the innovation process and its objectives, and the innovation activities contributing to the achievement of these objectives.
Aortic endovascular repair modeling using the finite element method  [PDF]
Ghizlane Mouktadiri, Benyebka Bou-Sa?d, Hélène Walter-Le-Berre
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.69112
Abstract: Aim: The goal is to simulate different stages of the endovascular procedure in the preoperative phase. Methods: We have developed a numerical model of the endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) using finite element analysis (FEA), we took into account the geometry of the biological region reconstructed from scans, a local characterization of the guidewire/catheter mechanical properties, a mapping of material properties depending on the degree of calcification, a real behavior of the vascular walls, and a projection of the aorta environment. Results: Our results present the endovascular system navigation from the femoral artery to the neck of the aneurysm, predict the deformation of femoral, iliac and aortic arteries while driving flexible and stiff endovascular devices, and detect stress concentration due to tortuous and calcified artery zones. A given group of patients with very angulated and calcified arteries were validated, based on a tuning between clinical data and our endovascular simulation. Conclusion: Our model allows controlling with accuracy the delivery system rise during surgery, predicting the feasibility of the surgery with reliability as well as choose the best guide for each patient, taking into account the risk of rupture of calcified areas in the case of high angulations, and using planning simulated images with deformation of artery walls to propose stent sizing.


Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia in an Immunocompetent Female Patient  [PDF]
Lamyae Amro, Ghizlane Hamzaoui, Hafsa Sajiai, Hind Serhane, Abdelhaq Alaoui Yazidi
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.37093

Introduction: The pneumocystosis is an infection caused by a saprophytic germ Pneumocystis jiroveci. It is exceptional in immunocompetent patients. Case report: This is a 30-year-old patient, admitted to the service for an acute respiratory failure. She was treated for pulmonary tuberculosis 6 months ago. The review has objectified clinique cyanosis of the lips and extremities with a blood pressure 120/70 mmHg, a heart rate of 70 bats/min, a temperature of 38°C and SaO2 to 82% in the open air. The chest radiograph objectified reticulonodular opacities on the right. The patient was put under bi-broad-spectrum antibiotics. Due to the non improvement of the patient’s state, the search for Pneumocystis jiroveci in induced sputum was made and it was positive. The search for a field of immunosuppression was negative.

Compound Heterozygous C282Y/H63D Mutation in Hemochromatosis: A Case Report  [PDF]
Zazour Abdelkrim, Wafaa Khannoussi, Amine El Mekkaoui, Ghizlane Kharrasse, Zahi Ismaili
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2016.63006
Abstract: Hereditary hemochromatosis is a condition characterized by iron overload, which is both treatable and preventable. It’s mainly related to hepcidin deficiency related to mutations in genes involved in hepcidin regulation. Iron overload increases the risk of disease such as liver cirrhosis, heart disease and diabetes. Two HFE genotypes have been commonly described in cases of iron overload, C282Y homozygosity and C282Y/H63D compound heterozygoty. The diagnosis of this rare disease now can be explored by biological and imaging tools. We report a case of compound heterozygous C282Y/H63D discovered by family screening for elevated serum ferritin.
First Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Wildlife Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) in the Southeast of Spain  [PDF]
Azucena Mora, Nieves Ortega, Elena Garcia, Susana Viso, Mónica G. Candela, Ghizlane Dahbi, Francisco Cuello, María Rosa Caro
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.412040
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to characterize a collection of Escherichia coli strains isolated from asymptomatic griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) during a reintroduction program in the southeast of Spain, in order to establish if griffon vulture could play a role in the spread of resistant or potentially pathogenic E. coli strains. For this purpose, 14 E. coli strains obtained from 10 griffon vulture were studied to establish their serotypes, phylogroups, virulencegene profiles and antimicrobial resistances. High heterogeneity was observed within the 14 strains isolated which belonged to three phylogroups (A, B1 and D), 8 serogroups (O2, O21, O29, O60, 073, O78, O103 and O141) and 13 different serotypes. Out of 34 genes screened, we have detected eight virulence genes that are typical of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) (fimH, fimAvMT78, iroN, iucD, cvaC, iss, traT and tsh); however, none of the studied strains showed the ExPEC status. The 14 strains were also analyzed for the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and for antimicrobial resistances. None of the 14 strains were ESBL-producing E. coli, but high resistance-prevalences to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of E. coli strains isolated from griffon vulture and although they did not show high virulencegene scores, they showed cotrimoxazole resistance.
Optimization of Wind Turbine Airfoil Using Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm and Pareto Optimal Front
Ziaul Huque,Ghizlane Zemmouri,Donald Harby,Raghava Kommalapati
International Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/193021
Abstract: A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and response surface-based multiobjective design optimization were performed for six different 2D airfoil profiles, and the Pareto optimal front of each airfoil is presented. FLUENT, which is a commercial CFD simulation code, was used to determine the relevant aerodynamic loads. The Lift Coefficient ( ) and Drag Coefficient ( ) data at a range of 0° to 12° angles of attack ( ) and at three different Reynolds numbers ( , 479, 210, and 958, 422) for all the six airfoils were obtained. Realizable turbulence model with a second-order upwind solution method was used in the simulations. The standard least square method was used to generate response surface by the statistical code JMP. Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) was used to determine the Pareto optimal set based on the response surfaces. Each Pareto optimal solution represents a different compromise between design objectives. This gives the designer a choice to select a design compromise that best suits the requirements from a set of optimal solutions. The Pareto solution set is presented in the form of a Pareto optimal front. 1. Introduction According to the US Department of energy, the combustion of fossil fuels results a net increase of 10.65 billion tones of atmospheric carbon dioxide every year [1] which deteriorates the environmental balance. Fossil fuels also give out sulfur dioxide into the air, which, after reacting with the moisture in air, produces sulfuric acid and leads to acid rain. Furthermore, depletion of these nonrenewable sources of energy is taking place at a rapid pace because of the increasing demands of energy, with the modernization of our society. Estimates from the US Department of Energy predict that the years of production left in the ground for oil are 43 years, gas 167 years, and coal 417 years [2]. Therefore, it is critical that we start looking for some renewable sources of energy that can be used as alternatives to fossil fuels. Renewable energy resources can play a key role in producing local, clean, and inexhaustible energy to supply the growing demand for electricity, heat, and transportation fuel. Wind energy as a source of energy to produce electricity is favoured widely as an alternative to fossil fuels. It is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, and clean and produces no greenhouse gas emissions. Wind turbines convert kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy which can be used to generate electricity. When the wind blows and flows around the blades of the wind turbines, which have
Traffic Engineering and Optimization Routing for VoIP Traffic in Wireless Mesh Networks
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2012,
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