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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 358 matches for " Ghana "
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Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characterisation of Groundwaters in the Eastern Region of Ghana  [PDF]
Samuel Y. Ganyaglo, Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo, Shiloh Osae, Samuel B. Dampare, Joseph R. Fianko, Mohammad A. H. Bhuiyan
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.23022
Abstract: Major ions and stable isotopes of groundwater in the Cape Coast granitoid complex (G1) and Lower Birimian (LB) formations in the Eastern Region of Ghana were evaluated to establish the source of recharge to the groundwater system. Five major hydrochemical facies were identified in the various rocks in the study area. They are calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and calcium chloride waters and mixed or non dominant water type. Sodium chloride and calcium chloride waters dominate aqui-fers of the Cape Coast granitoid complex whereas calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate is the dominant hydro-chemical facies in the Lower Birimian aquifers. The most probable geochemical process responsible for the evolution of these hydrochemical facies is dissolution of minerals in the various rock types. Stable isotope composition of the groundwaters established that the recharge to the groundwater system is derived from rainfall.
Assessment of Feedstock Options for Biofuels Production in Ghana  [PDF]
Francis Kemausuor, Joseph Oppong Akowuah, Emmanuel Ofori
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.32017
Abstract:

In the wake of climate change and increasing fossil fuel prices, biofuels are becoming attractive to agricultural dependent economies in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions of the world. This study evaluates the energy production potential of biomass resources grown on the available arable agricultural land under two principal scenarios: using 2.5% and 5% of the available arable land for energy crop expansion. Using conservative biofuel yields from crops in the sub-region, a 2.5% of uncultivated arable land dedicated to four traditional crops grown in Ghana namely maize, cassava, sweet sorghum and oil palm could potentially replace 9.3% and 7.2% of transportation fuels by 2020 and 2030 respectively. Using 5% of the uncultivated arable land to cultivate the above four crops and jatropha could potentially produce biofuel to replace 17.3% of transport fuels by 2020 and 13.3% by 2030. In order to enrol such a scheme, government is encouraged to put in place appropriate structures to ensure that, the industry meet international sustainability standards.

Barriers to the Adoption of BOT Contracts System for Infrastructural Development of Technical Universities in Ghana  [PDF]
Harold Adjarko, Hiob Ayerakwah, John Fynn
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2018.63007
Abstract: The study was conducted with the aim of exploring the barriers to the adoption of BOT contract systems for infrastructural development of technical universities in Ghana. In an empirical questionnaire survey with professionals and experts in the construction and education sector, the respondents were invited to rate their perception on the barriers to the adoption of the BOT contracts systems. An interview session to satisfy ways of adopting the BOT contracts for infrastructural development in technical universities was conducted with selected professionals. The study revealed that the major barriers to the adoption of the BOT contract system are: delays in approval, corruption, reliability and credit worthiness of entities and expropriation. The study suggested that detailed policy or framework for implementing BOT contracts; proper planning by technical universities; and adequate protection for lenders is required for successful BOT implementation. Therefore there is a need to explore this concept, using adequate policy initiatives, proper measures and support from government to improve on the proper implementation of the BOT contracts in Technical Universities in Ghana.
Agrochemicals and the Ghanaian Environment, a Review  [PDF]
Joseph R. Fianko, Augustine Donkor, Samuel T. Lowor, Philip O. Yeboah
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.23026
Abstract: Agrochemicals are generally recognized as a significant factor in enhancing the ability to meet Ghana’s need for sufficient, safe and affordable food and fiber, however, increased usage have led to environmental deterioration. In Ghana agriculture and public health sectors remain the major contributors of pollutants into the environment. This is a systematic review of studies done in Ghana to give an integrated picture of agrochemicals especially pesticides exposure to humans, animals, plants, water, soil/sediment and atmosphere in Ghana. Although the widespread usage of agrochemicals in Ghana has contributed immensely to increased food supply and improvement in public health, it has caused tremendous harm to the environment. Water bodies, fish, vegetables, food, soil and sediment have been found to be pesticide contaminated. There is considerable evidence that farmers have overused agrochemicals especially pesticides. It is evident from biological monitoring studies that farmers are at higher risk for acute and chronic health effects associated with pesticides due to occupational exposure. Furthermore the intensive use of pesticides involves a special risk of for field workers, consumers and unacceptable residue levels in exportable products may serve as barrier to international trade. This review will set the future course of action of different studies on agrochemical usage and pesticide exposure in Ghana.
Environmental Implications of the Discharge of Municipal Landfill Leachate into the Densu River and Surrounding Ramsar Wetland in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana  [PDF]
Frank K. Nyame, Jacob Tigme, Jacob M. Kutu, Thomas K. Armah
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.48072
Abstract: Investigations were conducted over a six-month period on leachate which continuously egresses from a “natural attenuation” landfill site into a fragile ecosystem in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana. Most physico-chemical, oxygen demand parameters and nutrient contents were within permissible limits but Total Dissolved Solids (1124 - 13200 mg/l), conductivity (7960 - 24890 μS/cm), Mn (0.12 - 0.94 mg/l), Ca2+ (160 - 356 mg/l) and, more especially chloride contents (1030 - 2967 mg/l) far exceeded respective World Health Organisation (WHO) limits for effluent discharge into the natural environment. Multivariate statistics using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) suggest significant concentrations of Ca2+, Cl-, and to a lesser extent Zn, Cd, Mn and PO42- relative to the river water samples. Because the landfill was abandoned recently (in 2009), degradation and other breakdown processes of waste material may only have just began, suggesting that the uncontrolled and continuous discharge of chloride and some heavy metal-laden leachate could, in the long-term, substantially impact negatively on the Ramsar Densu wetland and surrounding water bodies, soil and nearby marine ecosystem.
Factors affecting TB case detection and treatment in the Sissala East District, Ghana  [PDF]
Collins K. Ahorlu, Frank Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2013.13006
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis remains a major heal- th problem affecting about a third of the world population despite a number of preventive and control measures taken in the past few decades. Eighty-five percent of all tuberculosis cases are concentrated in Asia and Africa due to lack of education and health care infrastructure. Objective: To determine factors affecting low tuberculosis case detection in the Sissala East district in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Methods: This was a descriptive study where semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 61 respondents; six focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to generate both qualitative and quantitative data for analysis. Results: Tuberculosis, known locally as Kesibine was identified as a major problem in the district. The two most frequently reported TB related dis-tresses were coughing (96.7%) and chest pains (95.0%). However, these distresses were reported more after probing for them. The most frequently spontaneously reported distress was reduced income (60.7%) for patients. The most prominent cause reported was sexual pollution (72.2%). Suspected tuberculosis patients are stigmatized and are denied sex by their partners as shown in the following narrative; I will not eat or have sex with her or eat any leftover from her plate (male local healer, In-depth interview). Case detection and treatment is hampered by lack of communication between sub-district facilities and the district hospital to aid laboratory diagnosis. Conclusion: There is therefore the need for vigorous health education to inform the people about the biomedical causes of TB and the availability of appropriate treatment for the disease at health facilities. However, the education should not aim at changing the “wrong beliefs” but focus on making people aware of the biomedical causes and see TB as treatable infection, which could be controlled.
Deciding to Urban-Migrate and Agricultural Development: Evidence from the Millennium Challenge Account (MCC)-Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) Intervention Zones, Ghana  [PDF]
Eric Ekobor-Ackah Mochiah, Robert Darko Osei, Isaac Osei Akoto
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.513111
Abstract: The decision to migrate involves both “push” and “pull” factors. Push factors force migrants out of rural areas while pull factors attract rural folks to the urban areas. The information set which displays the realities on the ground, if positive will motivate a potential migrant to move to an urban area and vice versa. Movement of labour for agriculture in the rural areas decreases resources needed to help promote the needed growth in the sector. With a sample size of 46,110 household members from two batches (about 3000 farmers/households for each batch) of selected farmers who enjoyed agricultural interventions (technology), a probit model is estimated to find the factors that influence the decision to urban-migrate. In particular we discuss the question of whether the MiDA intervention through the training of farmers on various techniques/technologies to be more productive, has had an impact on farmers’ as well as their household members’ decision to urban-migrate. Generally, household, Farmer Based Organization and individual characteristics were considered in the model. We find that, farmers and their household members in the Southern Horticultural belt were less likely to migrate while those in the Northern Agricultural Zone were more likely to migrate to the urban area. Education, households with returned migrants, and remittances were positive in influencing the decision to urban-migrate. On the other hand, being self-employed and being married reduces the probability that an individual will migrate. Generally, the differential economic opportunities through the relative increased knowledge in the urban areas remain a pull factor of labour resources of the undeveloped rural agricultural sector. Bridging the gap between the expected income differential of rural and urban areas resulting from differences in knowledge and opportunities will be the key to reducing this phenomenon as suggested by [4] and many other studies.
Homosexuality in Ghana  [PDF]
I. D. Norman, B. Awiah, F. A. Norvivor, J. Komesuor, M. Kweku, F. N. Binka
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.61002
Abstract: Although homosexuality is a crime in Ghana, like many others in Africa, it is practiced in both the provincial towns and communities and in the major urban centres. Generally the society is reticent about discussing sex, yet the national society is as over-sexualized as those societies that openly discuss sex. This paper investigated the incidence and prevalence of homosexuality and lesbianism in Ghana. Assessment was done on association among psychosocial background, sexual attitudes and homosexuality, including the use of paraphernalia in the sexual lives of the people. This cross-sectional study consisted of questionnaire survey and documentary review on the internet. Respondents completed self-administered and anonymous survey with open-ended question about their sexuality and sexual preferences. The sample consisted of N = 1068 respondents. Sampling selection was of random, pre-stratified by gender and region, which was based on the population survey by the Ghana Statistical Service for 2009. We found that the national attitudes towards homosexuality in general were changing from ambivalence to focused activism and agitation against homosexuality on one hand and acceptance on the other hand. Homosexuality and lesbian practices are prevalent in all socio-economic classes and ages of society. The study revealed that pornography and other sex media were accepted as part of the sexual repertoire of Ghanaian society. The societal reticence about sexuality that exists among the population tends to distort sexual beliefs, and imposes fear and dishonesty in sexual identification. This situation may complicate interventions for sexually transmitted diseases, as well as sexual or mental health.
Seismic activity in Ghana: past, present and future
P. E. Amponsah
Annals of Geophysics , 2004, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3319
Abstract: Though Ghana is far away from the major earthquake zones of the world, it is prone to earthquake disaster. Ghana has records of damaging earthquakes dating as far back as 1615. The last three major events occurred in 1862, 1906 and 1939. This paper presents the main historical and current instrumental recorded earthquakes of Ghana and the steps being taken to mitigate the negative effects of such disastrous occurrences in the country. The discussion is based on historical and current data obtained from the seismological observatories in Accra and Kukurantumi. Historical earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6.0 and current local tremors with magnitudes ranging from 1.0 to 4.8 on the Richter scale have been recorded since the establishment of the seismograph stations.
Health Risk Associated with Pesticide Contamination of Fish from the Densu River Basin in Ghana  [PDF]
J. R. Fianko, A. Donkor, S. T. Lowor, P. O. Yeboah, E.T. Glover, T. Adom, A. Faanu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22013
Abstract: The Densu River Basin constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Ghana. The practice of using pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids and several others in agriculture and public health programs has raised concerns about potentially adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this study, a field survey was conducted to assess farmers’ knowledge of safe handling and use of pesticides. Residues of pesticides in fish samples as well as the potential health risk associated with exposure to these pesticides were also evaluated. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that a very high proportion of farmers are at high risk of pesticide poisoning from occupational exposure. More than 90% of farm workers do not practice safety precaution during pesticide formulation and application leading to considerable prevalence of pesticide related illness in this agricultural community. Pesticide residues in fish samples varied greatly; from 0.10 µgKg-1 to 30.90 µgKg-1, consumption of fish and fisheries product from the basin was no zero risk. The estimated dose for aldrin, methoxychlor, γ-chlordane, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endrin, p'p'-DDT and δ- HCH do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in fish samples since the values were lower than toxic thresholds as well as reference dose. However, γ- HCH, heptachlor, α-endosulfan, endosulfan Sulphate, p'p'-DDE and dieldrin levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup.
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