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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 59 matches for " Gestane Ayele "
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Children Who Received PCV-10 Vaccine from a Two-Dose Vial without Preservative Are Not More Likely to Develop Injection Site Abscess Compared with Those Who Received Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) Vaccine: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study
Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Meaza Demissie, Neghist Tesfaye, Nega Asefa, Worku Aniemaw, Berhe Weldearegawi, Yigzaw Kebede, Tigist Shiferaw, Amare Worku, Lemessa Olijira, Behailu Merdekios, Yemane Ashebir, Takele Tadesse, Yadeta Dessie, Solomon Meseret, Gestane Ayele
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097376
Abstract: Background The single dose pneumonia ten-valent vaccine has been widely used and is highly efficacious against selected strains Streptococcus pneumonia. A two-dose vial without preservative is being introduced in developing countries to reduce the cost of the vaccine. In routine settings improper immunization practice could result in microbial contamination leading to adverse events following immunization. Objective To monitor adverse events following immunization recommended for routine administration during infancy by comparing the rate of injection-site abscess between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and children who received the Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccine. Methods A longitudinal population-based multi-site observational study was conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The study was conducted in four existing Health and Demographic Surveillance sites run by public universities of Abraminch, Haramaya, Gondar and Mekelle. Adverse events following Immunization were monitored by trained data collectors. Children were identified at the time of vaccination and followed at home at 48 hour and 7 day following immunization. Incidence of abscess and relative risk with the corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated to examine the risk difference in the comparison groups. Results A total of 55, 268 PCV and 37, 480 Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccinations were observed. A total of 19 adverse events following immunization, 10 abscesses and 9 deaths, were observed during the one year study period. The risk of developing abscess was not statistically different between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and those received Pentavalent (RR = 2.7, 95% CI 0.576–12.770), and between children who received the first aliquot of PCV and those received the second aliquot of PCV (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.485–6.091). Conclusion No significant increase in the risk of injection site abscess was observed between the injection sites of PCV-10 vaccine from a two-dose vial without preservative and pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) vaccine in the first 7 days following vaccination.
Productive and Reproductive Performances of Indigenous Sheep in Ethiopia: A Review  [PDF]
Shashie Ayele, Mengistu Urge
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2019.91009
Abstract: Sheep in Ethiopia is among the major economically important livestock species in the country, playing a significant role to the livelihood of resource-poor farmers and pastoralists. A number of research works were done in the past which evaluate and improve the performance of indigenous sheep in Ethiopia. However, compiled information concerning the production and reproduction potential of indigenous sheep in the country is not available. In this paper, performance of major production and reproduction traits of indigenous sheep is reviewed and discussed. The information presented in this review indicated that, 16 to 126 g/d average daily gain, 7 - 18 kg hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of 34% to 49% (slaughter body weight basis) at 18 - 26 kg slaughter body weight have been recorded for Ethiopian sheep breeds fed various type of basal and supplement diets. These parameters showed variation within a breed and among breeds in various feeding trials and they increased as the level of supplement increases. However, despite sizeable information upon the response of sheep to various types of supplementary feeding, their full growth and other production potential of the majority of sheep breeds of the country are not well studied. Therefore, in future research work, emphasis should be given to explore the genetic potential of various production traits of sheep breeds of the country. Regarding the level of reproduction, 11 to 16 month age at first lambing (for most sheep breeds) and 7 to 10 month lambing intervals have been reported by various authors. The litter size result (1.01 to 1.7 lambs) showed that, there is high capability of Ethiopian sheep to give multiple births. The average pre-weaning mortality rate for most Ethiopian sheep breeds vary from 8%
Local government in Ethiopia: still an apparatus of control?
Z Ayele
Law, Democracy & Development , 2011,
Abstract: Historically, local authorities in Ethiopia enjoyed wide political, administrative, judicial, and financial autonomy. However, from the 1850s a process of territorial expansion and centralisation was initiated in the country.
Generalized Mathematical Model for Biological Growths  [PDF]
Purnachandra Rao Koya, Ayele Taye Goshu
Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation (OJMSi) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmsi.2013.14008
Abstract: In this paper, we present a generalization of the commonly used growth models. We introduce Koya-Goshu biological growth model, as a more general solution of the rate-state ordinary differential equation. It is shown that the commonly used growth models such as Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Richards, Weibull, Monomolecular, Mitscherlich, Gompertz, Logistic, and generalized Logistic functions are its special cases. We have constructed growth and relative growth functions as solutions of the rate-state equation. The generalized growth function is the most flexible so that it can be useful in model selection problems. It is also capable of generating new useful models that have never been used so far. The function incorporates two parameters with one influencing growth pattern and the other influencing asymptotic behaviors. The relationships among these growth models are studies in details and provided in a flow chart.
Predator Population Dynamics Involving Exponential Integral Function When Prey Follows Gompertz Model  [PDF]
Ayele Taye Goshu, Purnachandra Rao Koya
Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation (OJMSi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmsi.2015.33008
Abstract: The current study investigates the predator-prey problem with assumptions that interaction of predation has a little or no effect on prey population growth and the prey’s grow rate is time dependent. The prey is assumed to follow the Gompertz growth model and the respective predator growth function is constructed by solving ordinary differential equations. The results show that the predator population model is found to be a function of the well known exponential integral function. The solution is also given in Taylor’s series. Simulation study shows that the predator population size eventually converges either to a finite positive limit or zero or diverges to positive infinity. Under certain conditions, the predator population converges to the asymptotic limit of the prey model. More results are included in the paper.
Bayesian Joint Modelling of Survival Time and Longitudinal CD4 Cell Counts Using Accelerated Failure Time and Generalized Error Distributions  [PDF]
Markos Abiso Erango, Ayele Taye Goshu
Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation (OJMSi) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojmsi.2019.71004
Abstract: Survival of HIV/AIDS patients is crucially dependent on comprehensive and targeted medical interventions such as supply of antiretroviral therapy and monitoring disease progression with CD4 T-cell counts. Statistical modelling approaches are helpful towards this goal. This study aims at developing Bayesian joint models with assumed generalized error distribution (GED) for the longitudinal CD4 data and two accelerated failure time distributions, Lognormal and loglogistic, for the survival time of HIV/AIDS patients. Data are obtained from patients under antiretroviral therapy follow-up at Shashemene referral hospital during January 2006-January 2012 and at Bale Robe general hospital during January 2008-March 2015. The Bayesian joint models are defined through latent variables and association parameters and with specified non-informative prior distributions for the model parameters. Simulations are conducted using Gibbs sampler algorithm implemented in the WinBUGS software. The results of the analyses of the two different data sets show that distributions of measurement errors of the longitudinal CD4 variable follow the generalized error distribution with fatter tails than the normal distribution. The Bayesian joint GED loglogistic models fit better to the data sets compared to the lognormal cases. Findings reveal that patients’ health can be improved over time. Compared to the males, female patients gain more CD4 counts. Survival time of a patient is negatively affected by TB infection. Moreover, increase in number of opportunistic infection implies decline of CD4 counts. Patients’ age negatively affects the disease marker with no effects on survival time. Improving weight may improve survival time of patients. Bayesian joint models with GED and AFT distributions are found to be useful in modelling the longitudinal and survival processes. Thus we recommend the generalized error distributions for measurement errors of the longitudinal data under the Bayesian joint modelling. Further studies may investigate the models with various types of shared random effects and more covariates with predictions.
Land Use Land Cover Change Detection and Deforestation Modeling: In Delomena District of Bale Zone, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Girma Ayele, Hussein Hayicho, Mersha Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2019.104031
Abstract: Previous studies in Delo-Mena district failed to provide conceptual framework about causes and impacts of deforestation including prediction of spatial location of future deforestation. The study was aimed at investigating spatiotemporal dynamics and prediction of future trends of deforestation in this area. Three periods Landsat images were downloaded and preprocessed using ENVI 4.3. Supervised classification technique was employed for image classification. Land Change Modular used to predict deforestation based on transition between 2000 and 2015 along three driving variables (road distance, settlement and soil). Six land-use land-cover classes were classified for three periods. The result indicated that the forest areas were 91,339, 73,274 and 70,481 hectors in year 2000, 2010 and 2015, respectively. This forest area was reduced by 20% between 2000 and 2010 at annual rate of 2%. Between 2010 and 2015, a forest area was lost by 4% with annual rate of 1%. This deforestation rate was greater than global rates and was lower than rates of south eastern African countries. Farmland expansion was a major cause of deforestation contributed to the annual forest loss by 4.9% and 36% over different periods. In 2030, about 33,243 hectors of a forest area would be expected to disappear that implied emission of about 17 million ton of carbon dioxide. Fuelwoods shortage and loss of biodiversity were perceived as impacts of deforestation. Farm-land and settlement were found increasing at expense of vegetation. Forest plantation, supply of fuel efficient technology and community mobilization were recommended that would be emphasized by the forestry sector based at the district office.
Visceral Lieshmaniasis and HIV co-infection in patients admitted to Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
G Mengistu, B Ayele
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2007,
Ethnographic study of diarrhoeal diseases among under-five children in Mana District, Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia
Mirgissa Kaba, Fekadu Ayele
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2000,
Abstract: A cross-sectional design was employed to identify the local cosmology of childhood diarrhoea and its local treatment procedures. A total of 848 under-five children were identified by a quick inventory of randomly selected kebeles. Trained enumerators administered a pre-tested questionnaire in order to identify the socio-demographic and economic aspects of the community, knowledge of diarrhea, and its causes and treatments. Besides, a focus group discussion was employed among mothers whose children were found to have recent history of diarrhoeal attack. The survey data was analysed with SPSS/PC software while the qualitative data was manually analysed. The majority (66.4%) of mothers/care-takers reported to identify diarrhea by loose, white, watery stool with an episode of at least three times a day. Although 27.6% of the respondents claimed that they do not know causes, 23.4%, 21.6%, and 20.5% have pointed out evil eye, teething, and poor hygiene respectively, to be major causes of the problem. From the qualitative data, it was found that the type of diarrhea and the remedies to be taken varied remarkably. Accordingly, there could be frequent loose stool due to "hadji", evil eye, teething, and `bird'. The degree of concern and type of treatment does accordingly vary. Based on the two weeks recall period, the prevalence of diarrhea among the study community was found to be 33.7%. From the survey result, it was found that diarrhoeal disease is managed by resorting to modern health facilities, traditional healers, and both sectors, interchangeably, by 39.7%, 48.1%, and 10.4% of the respondents respectively. Although similar studies need to be conducted cross-culturally, one may safely conclude that plans for proper health care delivery should appreciate the underlying cultural ethos of the target population of concern. In the same vein, health education programs may also consider this as a point of departure. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development: 2000, 14(1): 77-84)
Student Centred Teaching and Learning Experience from the External World
D Ayele, K Schippers
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The behavior of a human being is manifestation of his intrinsic nature, acquired genetically, and the extrinsic, which is learned in the society through day-to-day interaction. Therefore, even if one can say that there is a possibility that two individuals will have the same societal exposure it is impossible that they will have identical intrinsic nature (I am cautious about identical twins). This means that, the way each of us deal with the enormous challenges in life or in our day-to-day social interactions are different from others. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Science Vol. 2 (2) 2007: pp. 113-141
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