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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3783 matches for " Gerhard Andersson "
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The promise and pitfalls of the internet for cognitive behavioral therapy
Gerhard Andersson
BMC Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-8-82
Abstract: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an established psychological treatment approach [1] that is regarded as evidence based for several health conditions such as anxiety disorders [2], major depression [3], and health problems such as insomnia [4], headache [5], and tinnitus [6]. Briefly, CBT is a treatment approach that encompasses assessment strategies, cognitive and behavioral treatment techniques, a collaboration between the patient and the clinician, and use of homework assignments [7]. In addition, there are numerous other techniques that are specific for conditions, such as exposure in the treatment of anxiety disorders [8]. While most CBT studies have used the individual treatment format there is plenty of evidence to suggest that CBT works well in the group format [9], and as guided self-help [10]. The most recent development in the field of guided self-help is the use of the internet to deliver this treatment [11], and this paper comments on the potentials and pitfalls of this development.There has been a rapid expansion of outcome studies on internet-delivered CBT in the fields of psychiatry [12-14] and behavioral medicine [15], and there are an increasing number of studies showing that internet-delivered CBT can be equally effective as face-to-face CBT in conditions such as panic disorder [16], depressive symptoms [17], tinnitus [18], with studies on other conditions forthcoming.This paper will highlight the impact the internet has had on CBT, its potentials and limitations, and projections into the future on how internet-delivered CBT will influence the dissemination and development of CBT. Understanding the pros and cons of internet-delivered CBT is important as it may increase access to CBT and hence reach more patients at a lower cost. However, while resources may be saved there is still a need for clinicians to guide the treatment if effects similar to face-to-face CBT are to be obtained.While there are several studies on the effects of internet-deli
Links Between Future Thinking and Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Major Depression  [PDF]
Ali Sarkohi, Jonas Bj?rehed, Gerhard Andersson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23041
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the association between autobiographical memory specificity and future thinking in a depressed sample. A total of 88 individuals who meet the DSM-IV criteria of major depression were included and completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT) and the future thinking task (FTT). The FTT was an index of number of future plausible events, rating of likelihood and emotional valence. The results showed that positive future thinking was significantly correlated with retrieval of specific positive autobio-graphical memories (r = 0.23). Moreover, correlational analyses showed that positive autobiographical memo-ries were negatively correlated with extended autobiographical memories, repeated autobiographical memories, semantic associations and non-responses on the AMT. Self-report measures of depression and anxiety were not correlated with either the FTT or the AMT. The results of this cross-sectional study only give weak support for an association between autobiographical memory specificity and future thinking.
Affect Consciousness and Adult Attachment  [PDF]
B?rje Lech, Gerhard Andersson, Rolf Holmqvist
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.39102
Abstract: The concept of affect consciousness refers to the ability to perceive, reflect upon, express and respond to one’s own or other individuals’ affective experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate how affect consciousness and adult attachment are related. Three clinical groups (eating disorders, relational problems, and stress-related problems), and one non-clinical group (total N = 82) completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire and were interviewed using the Affect Consciousness Interview—Self/Other. Results showed associations between high affect consciousness and secure attachment, and between low affect consciousness and insecure attachment. Moreover, attachment style was predicted by consciousness about others’ and own affects in general, and specifically by consciousness about others’ anger and guilt, and by own joy. Affect consciousness as a potential dimension or moderator of attachment merits further investigation.
Development of a Swedish Version of the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy  [PDF]
Chato Rasoal, Tomas Jungert, Stephan Hau, Gerhard Andersson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.26087
Abstract: The development and establishment of a Swedish translation of the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE) was investigated in a sample of 788 participants. The SEE is a self-report instrument and is used to measure empathy directed toward people from ethnic cultural groups who are different from the respondent’s own ethnocultural group. Principal components factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) provided evidence for a four-factor structure. The factors were Acceptance of Cultural Differences, Communicative Ethnocultural Empathy, Ethnocultural Empathic Awareness, and Intellectual Ethnocultural Empathy. The factors were moderately intercorrelated, and additional correlational analyses showed convergent validity in high correlations between the four factors and the two subscales Empathic Concern and Perspective Taking of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Possible applications of this scale in a healthcare context are discussed.
Ethnocultural versus Basic Empathy: Same or Different?  [PDF]
Chato Rasoal, Tomas Jungert, Stephan Hau, Gerhard Andersson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29139
Abstract: The concept of ethnocultural empathy has been put forward as a variable that could explain tolerance between individuals and groups of different ethnic and cultural background. However, it is not clear if ethnocultural empathy is distinct from basic empathy. In this study we investigated the association between basic empathy, as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983) and ethnocultural empathy, as measured by the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (Wang et al., 2003). We also explored the question of whether a set of background variables would predict the two forms of empathy. We investigated if there were different predictors of ethnocultural and basic empathy, and if the two constructs are distinct. Results showed that the two forms of empathy were correlated and that largely similar predictors were found for the two constructs. A confirmatory factor analysis failed to confirm two separate constructs. Implications of the findings for the measurement of empathy are discussed.
Behavioral activation-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Kien Hoa Ly, Per Carlbring, Gerhard Andersson
Trials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-13-62
Abstract: The study will be a randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 120 participants, with 60 patients in each group. The treatment group includes an 8-week smartphone-based behavioral activation intervention, with minimal therapist contact. The smartphone-based intervention consists of a web-based psychoeducation, and a smartphone application. There is also a back-end system where the therapist can see reports from the patients or activities being reported. In the attention control group, we will include brief online education and then recommend use of a smartphone application that is not directly aimed at depression (for example, ‘Effective meditation’). The duration of the control condition will also be 8?weeks. For ethical reasons we will give the participants in the control group access to the behavioral activation treatment following the 8-week treatment period.We believe that this trial has at least three important implications. First, we believe that smartphones can be integrated even further into society and therefore may serve an important role in health care. Second, while behavioral activation is a psychological treatment approach for which there is empirical support, the use of a smartphone application could serve as the therapist’s prolonged arm into the daily life of the patient. Third, as we have been doing trials on guided Internet treatment for more than 10?years it is now time to move to the next generation of information technology - smartphones - which are not only relevant for Swedish conditions but also for developing countries in the world which are increasingly empowered by mobile phones with Internet connection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463020
The use of research questionnaires with hearing impaired adults: online vs. paper-and-pencil administration
Thorén Elisabet,Andersson Gerhard,Lunner Thomas
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6815-12-12
Abstract: Background When evaluating hearing rehabilitation, it is reasonable to use self-report questionnaires as outcome measure. Questionnaires used in audiological research are developed and validated for the paper-and-pencil format. As computer and Internet use is increasing, standardized questionnaires used in the audiological context should be evaluated to determine the viability of the online administration format. The aim of this study was to compare administration of questionnaires online versus paper- and pencil of four standardised questionnaires used in hearing research and clinic. We included the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA), Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Methods A cross-over design was used by randomly letting the participants complete the questionnaires either online or on paper. After 3 weeks the participants filled out the same questionnaires again but in the other format. A total of 65 hearing-aid users were recruited from a hearing clinic to participate on a voluntary basis and of these 53 completed both versions of the questionnaires. Results A significant main effect of format was found on the HHIE (p < 0.001), with participants reporting higher scores on the online format than in the paper format. There was no interaction effect. For the other questionnaires were no significant main or interaction effects of format. Significant correlations between the two ways of presenting the measures was found for all questionnaires (p<0.05). The results from reliability tests showed Cronbachs α’s above .70 for all four questionnaires and differences in Cronbachs α between administration formats were negligible. Conclusions For three of the four included questionnaires the participants’ scores remained consistent across administrations and formats. For the fourth included questionnaire (HHIE) a significant difference of format with a small effect size was found. The relevance of the difference in scores between the formats depends on which context the questionnaire is used in. On balance, it is recommended that the administration format remain stable across assessment points.
Representations of the Future in Depression—A Qualitative Study  [PDF]
Ali Sarkohi, Karin Forslund Frykedal, Hazel Holmberg Forsyth, Staffan Larsson, Gerhard Andersson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.44059

Previous studies indicate that the ability to imagine negative or positive future events affects psychological well-being and is a characteristic feature of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate how depressed individuals view their future during different time periods. A total of 15 individuals with a diagnosis of major depression were recruited from a psychiatry clinic and completed a semi-structured qualitative interview. Questions were asked about the situation right now, before becoming depressed, and the future (nearest time, within a year and the upcoming 5 - 10 years). Data were collected and analysed using a qualitative approach inspired by grounded theory. The results showed that depressed individuals experienced a state of “ambivalence”, with negative cognitive, emotional, physical and socioeconomic consequences when they were asked to think about the nearest future. Ambivalence and its negative emotional and cognitive effects were substantially reduced in strength when they were asked about their more distant future. We conclude that the concept of ambivalence in depression and/or anxiety in the present may be an important feature of depression which deserves more attention from both a theoretical and clinical perspective. The use of qualitative approaches in the study of depression is encouraged.

Enhancing physical activity on the dance floor through a mobile phone application
Kien Hoa Ly,Daniel Beauchamp,Gerhard Andersson
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.225v1
Abstract: Research indicates that there is a potential for persuasive technologies to be used as a means for increasing physical activity. In this exploratory work, we developed a mobile web application to gather movement data to explore the potential of a health tool in the context of a dance floor to promote physical activity. We wanted to explore if the mobile application in combination with the context and mechanisms seen in other health applications could drive physical activity. In total, 208 participants generated 20,279 data points through the mobile application on the dance floor. The result from this work points out that the concept should be further investigated in more studies.
Psychological treatment of depression: A meta-analytic database of randomized studies
Pim Cuijpers, Annemieke van Straten, Lisanne Warmerdam, Gerhard Andersson
BMC Psychiatry , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-8-36
Abstract: We conducted a comprehensive literature search of the major bibliographical databases (Pubmed; Psycinfo; Embase; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and we examined the references of 22 earlier meta-analyses of psychological treatment of depression. We included randomized studies in which the effects of a psychological therapy on adults with depression were compared to a control condition, another psychological intervention, or a combined treatment (psychological plus pharmacological). We conducted nine meta-analyses of subgroups of studies taken from this dataset. The 149 studies included in these 9 meta-analyses are included in the current database. In the 149 included studies, a total of 11,369 patients participated. In the database, we present selected characteristics of each study, including characteristics of the patients (the study population, recruitment method, definition of depression); characteristics of the experimental conditions and interventions (the experimental conditions, N per condition, format, number of sessions); and study characteristics (measurement times, measures used, attrition, type of analysis and country).The data on the 149 included studies are presented in order to give other researchers access to the studies we collected, and to give background information about the meta-analyses we have published using this dataset. The number of studies examining the effects of psychological treatments of depression has increased considerably in the past decades, and this will continue in the future. The database we have presented in this paper can help to integrate the results of these studies in future meta-analyses and systematic reviews on psychological treatments for depression.In recent decades, a large number of trials have been conducted in which the effects of psychological treatments of depression have been examined. These studies have shown clearly that psychological treatments have large effects [1], in terms of symptom redu
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