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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11263 matches for " George Bouchagiar "
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Initial Coin Offering and Cryptocurrencies: Shifting Trust Away from Human Actors and toward a Cryptographic System  [PDF]
George Bouchagiar
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2018.74022
Abstract: Initial Coin Offering (ICO) has become global. Cryptocurrencies are offered to finance projects in the blockchain arena. This crypto-phenomenon challenges traditional capital raising and investment mechanisms and many strongly believe in its potential. This paper analyses some key characteristics of ICOs and investigates potential risks. It also examines the shift from traditional mechanisms to “cryptos” and studies several features of blockchains. An overview on trust is provided to detect some trust-enhancing and trust-diminishing aspects of technologies. Finally, cryptology is discussed to test cryptocurrencies’ potential as objects of trust.
Personal Data v. Big Data: Challenges of Commodification of Personal Data  [PDF]
Maria Bottis, George Bouchagiar
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.83015
Abstract: Any firm today may, at little or no cost, build its own infrastructure to process personal data for commercial, economic, political, technological or any other purposes. Society has, therefore, turned into a privacy-unfriendly environment. The processing of personal data is essential for multiple economically and socially useful purposes, such as health care, education or terrorism prevention. But firms view personal data as a commodity, as a valuable asset, and heavily invest in processing for private gains. This article studies the potential to subject personal data to trade secret rules, so as to ensure the users’ control over their data without limiting the data’s free movement, and examines some positive scenarios of attributing commercial value to personal data.
Personal Data v. Big Data in the EU: Control Lost, Discrimination Found  [PDF]
Maria Bottis, George Bouchagiar
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.83014
Abstract: We live in the Big Data age. Firms process an enormous amount of raw, unstructured and personal data derived from innumerous sources. Users consent to this processing by ticking boxes when using movable or immovable devices and things. The users’ control over the processing of their data appears today mostly lost. As algorithms sort people into groups for various causes, both legitimate and illegitimate, fundamental rights are endangered. This article examines the lawfulness of the data subject’s consent to the processing of their data under the new EU General Data Protection Regulation. It also explores the possible inability to fully anonymize personal data and provides an overview of specific “private networks of knowledge”, which firms may construct, in violation of people’s fundamental rights to data protection and to non-discrimination. As the Big Data age is here to stay, both law and technology must together reinforce, in the future, the beneficent use of Big Data, to promote the public good, but also, people’s control on their personal data, the foundation of their individual right to privacy.
Venture Capital and Innovation in Europe  [PDF]
George Geronikolaou, George Papachristou
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.34058
Abstract: In this paper we search for evidence signifying whether VC activity is demand or supply stimulated. Namely, we examine whether innovation and entrepreneurship are fostered by Venture Capital (VC) investments or whether innovative entrepreneurship is a precondition of a VC involvement. Based on a European panel of VC investments, we test the direction of causality between VC and innovation (proxied by annual patent applications at the European Patents Office). We present evidence indicating that causality runs from patents to VC suggesting that, in Europe, innovation seems to create a demand for VC and not VC a supply of innovation. In this sense, innovative ideas seem to lack more than funds in Europe. We explain our findings on the basis of information asymmetry issues and irreversibility considerations of VC investments.
The Index of Invariant Subspaces of Bounded below Operators on Banach Spaces  [PDF]
George Chailos
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2012.22018
Abstract: For an operator on a Banach space , let be the collection of all its invariant subspaces. We consider the index function on and we show, amongst others, that if is a bounded below operator and if , , then If in addition are index 1 invariant subspaces of , with nonzero intersection, we show that . Furthermore, using the index function, we provide an example where for some , holds .
General Markowitz Optimization Problems  [PDF]
George Stoica
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.312A281
Abstract:

We solve two Markowitz optimization problems for the one-step financial model with a finite number of assets. In our results, the classical (inefficient) constraints are replaced by coherent measures of risk that are continuous from below. The methodology of proof requires optimization techniques based on functional analysis methods. We solve explicitly both problems in the important case of Tail Value at Risk.

A Spectral Integral Equation Solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation  [PDF]
George Rawitscher
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.410A3009
Abstract:

The Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE), that describes the wave function of a number of coherent Bose particles contained in a trap, contains the cube of the normalized wave function, times a factor proportional to the number of coherent atoms. The square of the wave function, times the above mentioned factor, is defined as the Hartree potential. A method implemented here for the numerical solution of the GPE consists in obtaining the Hartree potential iteratively, starting with the Thomas Fermi approximation to this potential. The energy eigenvalues and the corresponding wave functions for each successive potential are obtained by a spectral method described previously. After approximately 35 iterations a stability of eight significant figures for the energy eigenvalues is obtained. This method has the advantage of being physically intuitive, and could be extended to the calculation of a shell-model potential in nuclear physics, once the Pauli exclusion principle is allowed for.

Is the Public Sector Declining as an Occupational Niche for African American Women? An Analysis of Wages in Privileged Employment  [PDF]
George Wilson
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.85026
Abstract: We maintain that a subtle and hitherto unrecognized form of racial inequality at the privileged occupational level is emerging. “New governance” reform, a rapidly encroaching form of privatization which has altered conditions of work and the status of workers is causing African American women to lose the public sector as the long-standing “occupational niche” in managerial and professional employment. Findings from Integrated Public Use Micro-Series data indicate that—in the context of wages—the new “business logic” characterized most importantly by enhanced managerial discretion, has progressively disadvantaged African American women, relative, White gender counterparts. Specifically, relative parity in wages achieved in the public sector, compared to the private sector in 1996 period progressively eroded across two time points, 2003 and 2010 because of widening racial gaps in the public sector. Further, niche status varies across occupational categories: wage gaps widen more in managerial than in professional positions. We discuss prospects for the public sector to remain an occupational niche for African American women in privileged employment and call for more research on racial stratification in the public sector.
Within and Cross Volatility Contagion Effects among Stock, Crude and Forex Returns: Empirical Evidence from Five Emerging Economies  [PDF]
George Varghese
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.88095
Abstract:

The paper examines the spillover effects of return volatility among stock market index, foreign exchange market and WTI crude oil market across five emerging nations. Here a Trivariate Diagonal BEKK-GARCH model is used to estimate the time-varying conditional variance and to test the own-volatility spillover effects of returns among the three underlying variables. We find that significant own volatility spillover exists in the WTI returns followed by that of stock returns and forex returns. Further, fluctuations in WTI returns exert considerable influence over the stock market volatilities. The lagged variance of the variables as well as their lagged squared residuals from the mean equation has a positive and significant impact on the current volatility in most cases. The findings of the study are of pertinent importance to financiers, economists, investors and policymakers.

Dynamic Modeling of the Harvesting Function: The Conflicting Case  [PDF]
George Emm Halkos, George J. Papageorgiou
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.57073
Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the classic topic of intertemporal resource economics: the optimal harvesting of renewable natural resources over time by one and several resource extractors with conflicting interests. The traditional management model, dating back to Plourde [1], is overlooked both in the simple case for which the resource stock is treated as a state variable and in the improved case for which the harvesting equipment is treated as a stock variable. As a result in the extended case, the equilibrium richer than the saddle point, with bifurcations and limit cycles, is possible. While the results of the enriched management case are consistent with the concept of the pulse fishing, as this concept is introduced by Clark [2]-[4], in the conflicting case the conditions, under which the richer limit cycle equilibrium occurs, are not enough investigated. Therefore, we discuss conflicts as a game with two types of players involved: the traditional fishermen armed with the basic equipment and the heavy equipment users. Both players have a common depletion function, considered as harvesting, which is dependent together on personal effort and on intensity of equipment’s usage.

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