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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11367 matches for " George Adjei "
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Estimating the cost to rural ambulating HIV/AIDS patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in rural Ghana: a pilot study
Stephen Apanga, Damien Punguyire, George Adjei
Pan African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Subsidized antiretroviral therapy programs obviously lowers the cost of antiretroviral drugs but other major costs are still incurred, which makes the overall cost of accessing and consuming antiretroviral treatment very high and sometimes catastrophic. The objective of this study was to estimate the total cost to rural ambulating HIV/AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in a rural area of the middle belt of Ghana. Methods: This was a convenient cross-sectional study of people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS receiving outpatient care and carried out from September to October 2009 involving 80 HIV/AIDS patients on HAART. Data was derived from patients’ medical records on health care utilization and a completed pre tested questionnaire used to obtain the cost of transportation and estimates of individual earned income from which the labor productivity loses (opportunity cost) for days not worked as a result of attending the antiretroviral clinic were derived. Results: The median total, indirect and direct annual costs to rural ambulating HIV/AIDS patients on HAART were estimated to be $US71.18 (115.16 Ghana cedis), $US2.740 (3.92 Ghana cedis) and $US53.04 (75.00 Ghana cedis) respectively. Conclusion: Although the cost of antiretroviral drugs has been subsidized by government from $360 to $41.38 per annum, HIV/AIDS patients on HAART spend double of this subsidized amount out of their pocket seeking health care. We recommend that agencies associated with HIV/AIDS activities, supplements government’s effort by helping to get antiretroviral closer to the door step of patients so as to reduce this huge financial burden which constitutes more than 100% of their median annual earned income. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 12:21
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Residues in Tropical Soils  [PDF]
John K. Bentum, David K. Dodoo, Peter K. Kwakye, David K. Essumang, George A. Adjei
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.64024
Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tropical soil samples from the Central Region of Ghana, and their variation with the soil characteristics were assessed. The soil characteristics of seventy eight samples were first determined. The PCBs was extracted with (1:1) hexane:acetone mixture, and then the extract treated with concentrated H2SO4, 5% KMnO4 and copper. The extract was finally eluted from a silica gel column with hexane:dichloromethane (97:3 v/v), and the PCBs analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD model CP 3800). The composition of PCBs homologous in the soils followed the order: hexa-PCBs (31.89%) > penta- PCBs (23.98%) > tri-PCBs (18.47%) > tetra-PCBs (13.67%) > hepta-PCBs (11.99%). The PCB congener profile in the study area was PCB 28 > PCB 153 > PCB 138 > PCB 52 > PCB 101 > PCB 180 > PCB 118. The mean concentration of the PCB congeners (dry matter basis) was PCB 28, 2.27 ± 2.436; PCB 52, 1.84 ± 2.27; PCB 101, 2.17 ± 2.52 μg/kg; PCB 118, 0.83 ± 0.89 μg/kg; PCB 138, 0.99 + 0.91 μg/kg; PCB 153, 1.18 ± 1.11 μg/kg and PCB 180, 1.18 ± 1.19 μg/kg. The mean concentrations of ΣPCBs were 9.15 ± 0.52 μg/kg for the surface soils (0 - 10 cm), 7.55 ± 0.56 μg/kg and 7.82 ± 0.55 μg/kg for the 10 - 20 cm and 20 - 30 cm sub-surface soils respectively. Significant but weak correlations were observed between PCBs and the soil pH, moisture, and exchangeable base. The coefficient of determination for all significant correlations was between 6.6% and 18.75%.
Identification of Intrinsic Airway Acidification in Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Lina Ngamtrakulpanit,Yuanlin Yu,Andrew Adjei,George Amoah
Global Journal of Health Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v2n1p106
Abstract: Exhaled breath condensate acidification reflects the presence of airway acidification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an organism particularly sensitive to acidity. We aimed to determine if there is evidence of airway acidification in a cross section of patients with active tuberculosis. We enrolled 51 subjects with active tuberculosis in Ghana and Thailand, and compared them to control subjects. We collected exhaled breath condensate, and assayed for pH after gas standardization. Exhaled breath condensate pH from the control group revealed a median of 7.9 (7.7 - 8.0, n = 21), significantly higher than the active pulmonary tuberculosis patients who had a median pH of 7.4 (7.0 – 7.7; n = 51; p=0.002). Presence or absence of antibiotic therapy did not affect EBC pH values. These exhaled breath condensate data support the theory that airways become acidic in active tuberculosis infection. This may be a mechanism of immune response and pathology not previously considered.
Trends in multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infections among asymptomatic residents in the middle belt of Ghana
Agyeman-Budu Akua,Brown Charles,Adjei George,Adams Mohammed
Malaria Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-22
Abstract: Background Malaria is the most important cause of mortality and morbidity in children living in the Kintampo districts in the middle part of Ghana. This study has investigated the multiplicity of infection (MOI) within asymptomatic residents of the Kintampo districts, and the influence of age and seasonality on MOI, by studying the distribution of the polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum antigen merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2). Methods DNA was extracted from an asymptomatic cohort of children and adults infected with P. falciparum during the period November 2003 to October 2004. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out and multiplicity of infection (MOI) was determined. Results Children under 10 years of age had an average MOI of 2.3 while adults 18 years and above had an average MOI of 1.4. Children below five years had high and low average MOIs of 2.8 in the March/April survey and 0.9 in the May/June survey respectively. A similar trend in the monthly distribution of MOI was observed for the entire cohort. IC/3D7 strains outnumbered the FC27 strains throughout the year by a ratio of about 4:1 with the difference between the prevalence of the two strains being least marked in the March/April survey, at the beginning of the rainy season. MOI was not linked to the level of malaria transmission as measured by the entomological inoculation rate. Discussion/conclusion The impact of interventions, introduced since this baseline study was carried out on the parasite diversity of asymptomatic residents will be the subject of further investigations.
An assessment of the likely acceptability of vaginal microbicides for HIV prevention among women in rural Ghana
Martha A Abdulai, Frank Baiden, George Adjei, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Kwame Adjei, Charlotte Tawiah, Sam Newton
BMC Women's Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-12-40
Abstract: The study employs a mixed method design, using cross-sectional survey and focus group discussions to further understand issues related to awareness and attitudes towards microbicide development, acceptability and perceived partner attitudes among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in two health facilities in the Kintampo North municipality of Ghana. We used logistic regression to identify possible predictors of microbicide acceptability among the women surveyed.Although only 2% of the 504 women were aware of the development of microbicides, 95% were willing to use one when it became available. The cost of a microbicide that will be considered affordable to 50% of women was US$0.75. Although there were concerns about possible wetting effect, gel or creams were the most preferred (68% of women) formulation. Although 71% thought their partners will find microbicide acceptable, apprehensions about the feasibility of and consequences of failed discreet use were evident. 49% of women were concerned about possible negative effect of microbicide on sexual pleasure. Perceived partner acceptability (O.R. =17.7; 95%C.I. 5.03-62.5) and possibility of discreet use (O.R. =8.9 95%C.I. 2.63-30.13) were the important predictors of microbicide acceptability.Achieving microbicide acceptability among male partners should be made a part of the promotive interventions for ensuring effective use among women in rural Ghana.According to the 2010 UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic, 33.3 million people live with HIV and 1.8 million deaths due to AIDS occurred in 2009. The total number of new infections in 2009 was 2.6 million. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support in this part of the world remains a major priority in global health [1,2].Heterosexual transmission accounts for more than 80% of all new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa [3]. Traditional HIV preventive methods such as condom us
Empirical Modeling of Annual Fishery Landings  [PDF]
Eric Adjei Lawer
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.74018
Abstract: Forecasting plays an essential role in policy formulation and implementation especially in the management of fisheries resources. In this paper, various techniques of forecasting using time series analysis were evaluated on annual fishery production data. In addition to the Box-Jenkins approach, other methods such as the feed forward neural network and exponential smoothing approaches were also examined. A parsimonious model for each forecasting approach was then selected using penalized likelihoods. The chosen models were then evaluated based on their ability to produce accurate forecasts. Implications of the findings as discussed revealed that no particular method was ideal for modeling all landings. Hence when forecasting fishery landings, it is recommended that different structural approaches be compared before selecting an appropriate one for use.
Impacts of Changing Climate on Maize Production in the Transitional Zone of Ghana  [PDF]
Victor Adjei, Rosina Kyerematen
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2018.73028
Abstract: This study sought to assess the challenges and opportunities that come with climate change and variability impacts on maize farming in the Nkoranza South Municipality in the Transitional Zone of Ghana. The mixed method approach (qualitative and quantitative) was used in collecting the data. Rainfall data obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet) indicated that the dry cell between the major and minor rainy seasons was getting wetter and the two seasons were gradually merging whereas the first and last quarters of the year were getting drier over the last couple of decades. The situation over the last five years (2010-2015) had worsened as the amount of total rainfall had reduced by 22% compared to the 30 year period between 1960 and 1982. The results of the study showed that farmers had perceived changes in climate in the form of decreasing rainfall, rising air temperatures and seasonal changes in rainfall pattern which were affecting their maize farming operations. The major setbacks within the area were deficit in rainy days and intermittent erratic rainfall affecting maize production. The major opportunity available to farmers in the face of changing climate in this agroecological zone was cashew production. About 76.8% of the respondents had diversified into cashew farming as a result of rainfall failure and strong resistance of the cashew trees to changing and variable climate.
Acceptability of Rapid Diagnostic Test-Based Management of Malaria among Caregivers of Under-Five Children in Rural Ghana
Frank Baiden, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Eunice Okyere, Mathilda Tivura, George Adjei, Daniel Chandramohan, Jayne Webster
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045556
Abstract: Introduction WHO now recommends test-based management of malaria (TBMM) across all age-groups. This implies artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT) should be restricted to rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-positive cases. This is a departure from what caregivers in rural communities have been used to for many years. Methods We conducted a survey among caregivers living close to 32 health centres in six districts in rural Ghana and used logistic regression to explore factors likely to influence caregiver acceptability of RDT based case management and concern about the denial of ACT on account of negative RDT results. Focus group discussions were conducted to explain the quantitative findings and to elicit further factors. Results A total of 3047 caregivers were interviewed. Nearly all (98%) reported a preference for TBMM over presumptive treatment. Caregivers who preferred TBMM were less likely to be concerned about the denial of ACT to their test-negative children (O.R. 0.57, 95%C.I. 0.33–0.98). Compared with caregivers who had never secured national health insurance cover, caregivers who had valid (adjusted O.R. 1.30, 95% CI 1.07–1.61) or expired (adjusted O.R. 1.38, 95% CI 1.12–1.73) insurance cover were more likely to be concerned about the denial of ACT to their RDT-negative children. Major factors that promote TBMM acceptability include the perception that a blood test at health centre level represents improvement in the quality of care, leads to improvement in treatment outcomes, and offers opportunity for better communication between health workers and caregivers. Acceptability is also enhanced by engaging caregivers in the procedures of the test. Apprehensions about negative health worker attitude could however undermine acceptance. Conclusion Test (RDT)-based management of malaria in under-five children is likely to be acceptable to caregivers in rural Ghana. The quality of caregiver-health worker interaction needs to be improved if acceptability is to be sustained.
Prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk Ghanaian newborns: a cross-sectional study
Enweronu-Laryea Christabel C,Adjei George O,Mensah Benjamin,Duah Nancy
Malaria Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-17
Abstract: Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%). Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July) of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i) Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii) histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii) polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2%) newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (≤50 per microlitre). In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12%) cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.
Electrocardiographic study in Ghanaian children with uncomplicated malaria, treated with artesunate-amodiaquine or artemether-lumefantrine
Adjei George O,Oduro-Boatey Collins,Rodrigues Onike P,Hoegberg Lotte C
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-420
Abstract: Background Several anti-malarial drugs are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. These effects may be exacerbated when different anti-malarials are used in combination. There has been no report yet on the potential cardiac effects of the combination artesunate-amodiaquine. Methods Electrocardiographic (ECG) intervals in Ghanaian children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artesunate-amodiaquine (n=47), were compared with that of children treated with artemether-lumefantrine (n=30). The ECG measurements were repeated one, two, three, seven and 28 days after treatment. The ECG intervals of artesunate-amodiaquine treated subjects were correlated with plasma concentrations of desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ), the main metabolite of amodiaquine. Results The mean ECG intervals were similar in both groups before treatment. After treatment (day 3), ECG intervals changed significantly from baseline in all subjects, but there were no differences between the two treatment groups. A significantly higher proportion of children treated with artesunate-amodiaquine developed sinus bradycardia compared with artemether-lumefantrine treated subjects (7/47 vs 0/30; χ2 p=0.03). Subjects who developed bradycardia were significantly older, and had higher DEAQ concentrations than those who did not develop bradycardia. The proportion of subjects with QTc interval prolongations did not differ significantly between the groups, and no relationship between prolonged QTc intervals and DEAQ levels were observed. No clinically significant rhythm disturbances were observed in any of the subjects. Conclusion Artesunate-amodiaquine treatment resulted in a higher incidence of sinus bradycardia than artemether-lumefantrine treatment in children with uncomplicated malaria, but no clinically significant rhythm disturbances were induced by combining artesunate with amodiaquine. These findings, although reassuring, may imply that non-amodiaquine based artemisinin combination therapy may be preferable for malaria treatment in patients who are otherwise at risk of cardiac effects.
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