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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 202988 matches for " Geoffrey P. Savage "
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Oxalate Content of Miner’s Lettuce Irrigated with Water or Fertilizer Solutions  [PDF]
Madhuri Kanala, Geoffrey P. Savage
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.713118
Abstract: The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the small, large and cauline leaves and small and large stems of miner’s lettuce (Claytonia perfoliata ) plants which had been irrigated with tap water or a soluble fertilizer were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Overall, all plant parts of miner’s lettuce analyzed contained high levels of total and soluble oxalates; however plants irrigated with fertilizer contained lower levels of oxalates compared with plants irrigated with water. On a dry matter basis, the small leaves contained higher levels of total oxalate when compared to the total oxalate in the large leaves. Soluble oxalate in the leaves of plants irrigated with water ranged from 2.6 to 7.5 mg/100g dry matter (DM) and was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the leaves of the fertilizer-watered plants, which ranged from 1.8 to 2.8 mg/100g DM. The soluble oxalate in the small and large stems of the fertilizer-watered plants ranged from 1.20 to 1.5 mg/100g DM and was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the water-treated small and large stems, which ranged from 3.75 to 4.4 mg/100g DM. It is recommended that the leaves of miner’s lettuce should be consumed in moderation.
Fatty Acid Profile of New Zealand Grown Edible Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.)  [PDF]
Leo P. Vanhanen, Geoffrey P. Savage, Richard N. Hider
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.83020
Abstract:
Pine nuts are becoming a popular snack because of their interesting taste and positive nutritional profile. Their fatty acid profile has been reported but there is some confusion identifying named cultivars. This study presents the fatty acid profile of five different cultivars of pine nuts currently growing in the South Island of New Zealand. The data are compared to three different samples of pine nuts currently imported into NZ. Identification of the twelve different fatty acids extracted from these samples was identified by retention time using GC-FID and GC-MS methods. The peaks were further identified by comparison of the retention times with a MS Library match and their corresponding LRI value. All but two of the extracted fatty acids were identified by comparisons with a known pure fatty acid standard sample for each fatty acid. Botanical identification of the five locally grown pine nuts was confirmed by calculating the Diagnostic Index of each cultivar from its fatty acid composition.
Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand
Leo P. Vanhanen,Geoffrey P. Savage
Foods , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/foods2020143
Abstract: Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann’s pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%–89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.
Manufacture of a Low Oxalate Mitsumame-Type Dessert Using Rhubarb Juice and Calcium Salts  [PDF]
Sophie Faudon, Geoffrey Savage
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.517174
Abstract: Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) juice was used to make a Japanese soft mitsumame-type dessert sweet. The dessert was prepared from extracted rhubarb juice, which was cooked with sugar, agar and guar gum, then allowed to set in sweet moulds. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were determined in the ingredients and the final products using HPLC chromatography. To reduce the soluble oxalate content of the dessert while retaining the colour and taste of the final product, increments of CaCl2 and CaCO3 were added to the test dessert mixes. The addition of CaCl2 reduced the pH from 3.55 ± 0.03 to pH 3.09 ± 0.02 while addition of CaCO3 increased the pH from 3.55 ± 0.03 to 4.96 ± 0.01. In both cases, the incremental addition of calcium reduced the soluble oxalate content of the sweets by converting it to insoluble oxalate.
Calcium and Oxalate Contents of Curly Leaf ( Petroselinum crispum) and Flat Leaf ( P. crispum var. neapolitanum ) Parsley Cultivars  [PDF]
Geoffrey Savage, Leo Vanhanen
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.616161
Abstract: The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves and stems of curly leaf (Petroselinum crispum) and flat leaf (P. crispum var. neapolitanum) parsley cultivars were extracted from fresh tissue and measured using HPLC chromatography. There were no significant differences between the total and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves between the flat leaf and curly leaf cultivars. There was a small difference (P < 0.05) between the soluble oxalate contents of the leaves of the two cultivars. The mean total, soluble and insoluble oxalates of the leaves of the two cultivars were 1137.0, 177.9 and 959.3 mg/100 g dry matter (DM), respectively. The mean total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the stems were 1680.7, 386.2 and 1294.5 mg/100 g DM, respectively, and these were significantly higher than the mean values for the leaves of the two cultivars. Insoluble oxalate made up a mean of 77.0% of the curly leaf stems and leaves compared to a mean of 84.4% found in the flat-leaved cultivar. Unavailable calcium, that is, calcium bound to oxalate as insoluble oxalate, made up a mean of 26.9% of the total calcium in the leaves of both cultivars while the unavailable calcium made up 45.0% of the total calcium in the stems of the two cultivars. Overall, the oxalate contents of both parsley cultivars are relatively high, on a dry matter basis, but their overall contribution to dietary intake is likely to be quite small as parsley is an herb that is only used in small amounts to garnish foods.
Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit
Hà V? H?ng Nguy?n,Geoffrey P. Savage
Foods , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/foods2010076
Abstract: Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green ( Actinidia deliciosa L .) and golden ( Actinidia chinensis L .) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.
Investigation of Oxalate Levels in Sorrel Plant Parts and Sorrel-Based Products  [PDF]
Jema Tuazon-Nartea, Geoffrey Savage
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.48109
Abstract:

The oxalate content of the leaves and stems of green and variegated cultivars of sorrel (Rumex acetosa) were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. The larger, more mature leaves of both cultivars contained higher levels of total, soluble and insoluble oxalates. The stems also contained appreciable levels of oxalates. The mean soluble oxalate content of the variegated leaves was 14.7%, which was significantly higher than found in the leaves of the green-leaved cultivar (11.9%). The proportion of soluble oxalate to total oxalate in the stems ranged from 12.7% to 24.4% for both cultivars. Sorrel sprouts contained a much higher proportion of soluble oxalates than the green sorrel leaves but were similar in oxalate content to the variegated leaves. Pesto and soup made from sorrel leaves retained their characteristic sour taste despite containing much lower levels of oxalates. The levels of oxalates in sorrel leaves were high and it was recommended that the leaves should be consumed occasionally as a delicacy because of their unique taste rather than as a significant part of the diet. However, the products made from sorrel leaves were less of a problem as they contained lower levels of oxalates.

Oxalate Content of Stir Fried Silver Beet Leaves (Beta Vulgaris Var. Cicla) with and without Additions of Yoghurt
Evelyn Teo,Geoffrey Savage
Journal of Food Research (JFR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jfr.v1n1p126
Abstract: Total and soluble oxalic acids were extracted and analysed by HPLC chromatography following Asian cooking methods, which involved soaking, boiling and stir frying of silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) leaves. Autumn-grown silver beet leaves contained 1658 ± 114 mg/100 g dry matter (DM) of total oxalates, 954 ± 49 mg/100 g DM of soluble oxalates and 704 ± 98 mg/ 100 g DM insoluble oxalates. Soaking and boiling before stir frying reduced the soluble oxalate contents to a mean of 455 mg/100 g DM. Addition of standard or low fat yoghurt following the pre-treatments of soaking, boiling, stir frying and soaking, boiling and stir frying further reduced the soluble oxalate content to a mean of 190.8 ± 49.8 and 227.5. ± 47.0, respectively, for the standard and low fat yoghurt mixes.
Effect of Cooking on the Oxalate Content of Selected Thai Vegetables  [PDF]
Onladda Juajun, Leo Vanhanen, Chancherdchai Sangketkit, Geoffrey Savage
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.312213
Abstract: Total and soluble oxalate content levels were measured in thirteen selected vegetables purchased from a local market in Surin Province in the northeast of Thailand. Total oxalate contents of the leaves, shoots and roots of the fresh vegetables ranged from 249.5 ± 12.1 to 7597.9 ± 77.6 mg oxalate/100g dry matter (DM) while soluble oxalate content ranged from 205.0 ± 2.3 to 2677.6 ± 19.0 mg oxalate/100 g DM. Very high levels of total oxalates were found in three of the selected Thai vegetables, Polygonum odoratum (7597.9 ± 77.6 mg/100g DM), Piper aurantaucum (7026.6 ± 76.9 mg/100g DM) and Limnophila aromatic (6179.0 ± 23.6 mg/100g DM). However, the soluble oxalate content of L. aromatic was low and the highest soluble oxalate contents of fresh vegetables were found in P. odoratum, P. aurantuacum and Neptunia oleracea at 2677.6 ± 19.0, 2152.2 ± 65.3 and 1640.8 ± 3.4 mg/100g DM, respectively. Boiling the vegetables reduced the soluble oxalate content between 30.4 and 65.0%. The insoluble oxalate levels increased in eleven of the cooked vegetables while small decreases were observed in L. aromatic and N. oleracea.
Towards a Quantitative, Metabolic Theory for Mammalian Sleep
Van M. Savage,Geoffrey B. West
Quantitative Biology , 2005,
Abstract: Sleep is one of the most noticeable and widespread phenomena occurring in multicellular animals. Nevertheless, no consensus for a theory of its origins has emerged. In particular, no explicit, quantitative theory exists that elucidates or distinguishes between the myriad hypotheses proposed for sleep. Here, we develop a general, quantitative theory for mammalian sleep that relates many of its fundamental parameters to metabolic rate and body size. Most mechanisms suggested for the function of sleep can be placed in this framework, e.g., cellular repair of damage caused by metabolic processes and cortical reorganization to process sensory input. Our theory leads to predictions for sleep time, sleep cycle time, and REM (rapid-eye-movement) time as functions of body and brain mass, and explains, for example, why mice sleep \~14 hours per day relative to the 3.5 hours per day that elephants sleep. Data for 96 species of mammals, spanning six orders of magnitude in body size, are consistent with these predictions and provide strong evidence that time scales for sleep are set by the brain's, not the whole-body, metabolic rate.
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