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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13685 matches for " Genetic Polymorphism "
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DNA Finger Printing of Prosopis cineraria and Prosopis juliflora Using ISSR and RAPD Techniques  [PDF]
Khaled Elmeer, Ameena Almalki
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.24062
Abstract: Diversity within and among the populations of Prosopis cineraria and Prosopis juliflora collected from different loca-tion of Qatar were explored using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of one hundred and nine bands were generated from twenty nine ISSR and nineteen bands from seven RAPD primers with an average polymorphism of more than ninety nine percent across all the genotypes. ISSR techniques were capable of distinguishing between P. cineraria and P. juliflora, through twenty one bands. How-ever, of the seven RAPD markers, only three bands were able to distinguish between Prosopis species. The dendro-grams for the analysis of genetic similarity show that the individuals from both species can be separated in two highly related groups. Our observations suggest that genetic variations among different accessions of Prosopis are identified using ISSR and RAPD analysis.
USO DE MARCADORES BIOQUíMICOS Y MOLECULARES EN ESTUDIOS DE DIVERSIDAD GENéTICA.
Becerra V.,Viviana; Paredes C.,Mario;
Agricultura Técnica , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072000000300007
Abstract: in the past decade there has been a remarkable increase in the use of genetic markers to characterize genetic diversity in different species. some of these genetic markers have a different molecular basis, but all of them are focused to understand the organization of genetic structure of natural and cultivated populations. in addition, these markers have been used to determine the genetic similarity among and within populations avoiding environmental influence. knowing the similarity between individuals and populations is of great utility in genetic improvement programs, because it allows the organization of material for the adequate selection of superior genotypes and the completion with phenotypic and agronomic data for the development of improved populations. this paper reviews the background of these markers based on their methodologies, and discusses their principal advantages and disadvantages.
Genetic risk factors for human susceptibility to infections of relevance in dermatology
Sardinha, José Felipe Jardim;Tarlé, Roberto Gomes;Fava, Vinícius Medeiros;Francio, Angela Schneider;Ramos, Geovana Brotto;Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima;Schriefer, Nicolaus Albert Borges;Mira, Marcelo Távora;Talhari, Sinésio;
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0365-05962011000400013
Abstract: background: in the pre-microbiological era, it was widely accepted that diseases, today known to be infectious, were hereditary. with the discovery of microorganisms and their role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, it was suggested that exposure to the pathogen was enough to explain infection. nowadays, it is clear that infection is the result of a complex interplay between pathogen and host, therefore dependant on the genetic make-up of the two organisms. dermatology offers several examples of infectious diseases in different stages of understanding of their molecular basis. in this review, we summarize the main advances towards dissecting the genetic component controlling human susceptibility to infectious diseases of interest in dermatology. widely investigated diseases such as leprosy and leishmaniasis are discussed from the genetic perspective of both host and pathogen. others, such as rare mycobacterioses, fungal infections and syphilis, are presented as good opportunities for research in the field of genetics of infection.
El papel de la genética en la aparición y desarrollo de la periodontitis: II: Polimorfismos asociados a la enfermedad periodontal
Rodrigo-Gómez,D.; Oteo-Calatayud,A.; Alonso-Rosado,A.; Bascones-Martínez,A.;
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral , 2008, DOI: 10.4321/S1699-65852008000200005
Abstract: periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which the interaction of periodontal pathogens with the host immune defense machanism characterizes an inflamatory reaction that affects the attachment apparatus of the tooth. multifactorial diseases normally involve complex genetic-enviromental interactions. the type of genetic variations described in these diseases are defined as polymorphisms. different polymorphysm have been observed and normally the phenotypic consequences are limited. in the first part of this review the evidence of association between periodontitis and genetics is analyzed. in the second part a special focus will be dedicated to research on polymorphysm and the clinical projection related to periodontitis.
Characterization of onion genotypes by use of RAPD markers
Pavlovi? Nenad,Zdravkovi? Jasmina,Cviki? Dejan,Zdravkovi? Milan
Genetika , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/gensr1202269p
Abstract: In order to estimate, at the molecular level, the divergence of parental lines that were used in diallel crossbreeding for production of superior offspring (F1 generation hybrids) at the Institute for Vegetable Crops, the molecular analysis using five RAPD markers for five pairs of parents has been performed. It gives an insight into their genetic polymorphism and the possibility of their further use in breeding programs. Information from this research has pioneered the application of molecular markers of onion in Serbia. Analyses were performed using the RAPD primers, which in previous studies established a high degree of polymorphism. In all five cases there was a corresponding amplification of DNA segments. From totally 50 bands analyzed, the length of fragments ranged from 500 to 3000 bp. Number of polymorphic band per example was 8 to 13. In our research at the level of the analyzed primers, a high degree of polymorphism between analyzed genotypes has been found. Based on UPGMA dendogram, analyzed genotypes were divided into two main clusters and two subclusters.
Softwares and methods for estimating genetic ancestry in human populations
Liu Yushi,Nyunoya Toru,Leng Shuguang,Belinsky Steven A
Human Genomics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1479-7364-7-1
Abstract: The estimation of genetic ancestry in human populations has important applications in medical genetic studies. Genetic ancestry is used to control for population stratification in genetic association studies, and is used to understand the genetic basis for ethnic differences in disease susceptibility. In this review, we present an overview of genetic ancestry estimation in human disease studies, followed by a review of popular softwares and methods used for this estimation.
Distribution of 22 Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Roma from the Republic of Macedonia
Dejan Trajkov,Aleksandar Petlichkovski,Olivija Efinska-Mladenovska,Slavica Hristomanova
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze 22 cytokine polymorphisms in the Roma population from the Republic of Macedonia. The Roma popula-tion consists of 77 healthy unrelated individuals, residents of different geographical regions of the Republic of Macedonia (Skopje, Gostivar, and Kochani).Blood samples were collected after obtaining written consent. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and 22 polymorphisms were typed: IL1A -889, IL1B -511, IL1B +3962, IL1R pst1 1970, IL1RN mspa11100, IL4RA +1902, IL12 -1188, IFNG utr5644, TGF-β1 cdn10, TGF-β1 cdn25, TNF-α -308, TNF-α -238, IL-2 -330, IL-2 +166, IL-4 -1098, IL-4 -590, IL-4 -33, IL-6 -174, IL-6 565, IL-10 -1082, IL-10 -819, and IL-10 -592. Cytokine genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP. The population genetics analysis package, PyPop, was used for analysis of the cytokine data.Fnd was negative and significantly different from 0 for IL-4 -590 (p of F=0.006), IL-10 -1082 (p of F=0.010), IFNg utr5644 (p of F=0.024), IL-4 -1098 (p of F=0.026) and TGF-b1 cdn25 (p of F=0.001) alleles, as well as for IL-2 haplotypes (p=0.025). Several SNPs (IL-12B -1188, IL-2 -330, IL-4 -1098, IL-4 -590, and IL-10 -1082) were not in HWP (p<0.05). A few SNPs (IL-12B -1188, IL-2 -330, IL-4 -1098, IL-4 -590, and IL-10 -1082) and several observed frequencies of cytokine diplotypes (IL-2/GG:TG, IL-2/TG:TG, IL-4/GCC:GCC, IL-4/TTC:TTC, IL-4/TTT:TTC, IL-10/GCC:GCC, IL-10/ATA:GCC, IL-10/ACC:GCC, and IL-10/ACC:ATA) were not in HWP and were significantly different from the expectations. Hardy Weinberg proportion could not be calculated for TNFa genotypes and diplotypes because nearly all genotypes and diplotypes belong to GG genotype or GG:GG diplotype.The results of cytokine polymorphisms in Roma population can be used for characterization of the current genetic profile of the Gypsies, anthropological comparisons, as well as for the association studies with different diseases.
Genetic Polymorphisms of Hepatic ABC-Transporter in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma  [PDF]
Minoru Fukuda, Yasutsugu Kawahara, Takeshi Hirota, Setsuko Akizuki, Shigeto Shigeto, Hisato Nakajima, Ichiro Ieiri, Akihiro Ohnishi
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.13019
Abstract: We examined whether genetic polymorphisms of efflux transporters in hepatocytes are associated with susceptibility to develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Genetic polymorphisms of drug transporters expressed in hepatocytes were analyzed using DNA samples from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-seropositive cirrhotic patients with HCC (n = 58), and allele and haplotype frequencies were compared with those in healthy subjects (n = 61). To search for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HCC susceptibility genes, 34 SNPs in 6 efflux transporters [MDR1 (ABCB1), ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCG2 and ABCB11] were determined. No significant association was observed for any single SNP; however, some haplotypes in ABCC1 and ABCB11 were associated with HCC. Furthermore, three combinations of SNPs (3435C > T in ABCB1 and 825T > C in ABCC1), (3435C > T in ABCB1 and -15281_-15278CTCT > delete in ABCB11), and (825T > C in ABCC1 and -15281_-15278CTCT > delete in ABCB11) were significantly associated with HCC. The present study suggests that genetic variations of ABC transporters such as ABCB1, ABCB11, and ABCC1 are associated with susceptibility to develop HCC, implying that aberrant hepatic clearance of toxic substances may increase the risk of hepatocarcinogenesis. Further studies of how these polymor-phisms are associated with phenotypic differences are warranted.
Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Nepalese Populations of Swertia chirayita (Roxb. Ex Fleming) H. Karst Using RAPD-PCR Technique  [PDF]
J. K. Chhipi Shrestha, T. Bhattarai, J. Sijapati, N. Rana, J. Maharjan, D. S. Rawal, B. B. Raskoti, S. Shrestha
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.48196
Abstract:

Owing to the high demand, Swertia chirayita populations in the wild are being depleted beyond its regeneration capacity. S. chirayita is one of the most valuable medicinal plants of Nepal in trade. Present Molecular investigation was undertaken to understand the level of genetic diversity in five S. chirayita populations of Nepal using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Thirty four accessions of S. chirayita along with six outlier accessions were analyzed using 26 arbitrary primers. Of the total 285 amplified bands scored for S. chirayita, 263 bands (92.28%) were polymorphic. Two major clusters were revealed in the phenogram generated from cluster analysis using NTSYS-PC software (version 2.21i) for the geographic populations under study. Principal Coordinate Analysis further substantiated the results of the phenograms. Swertia chirayita populations from Sankhuwasabha and Terathum were

The Influence of Gene Polymorphisms on Tobacco and Alcohol-Induced Oral Cancer Risk  [PDF]
Otávio A. Curioni, Marcos B. de Carvalho, Roge?rio A. Dedivitis, Abra?o Rapoport, Gilka J. F. Gattas
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.45112
Abstract:

Aims: This study examined whether genetic polymorphisms of tobacco and alcohol-related metabolic genes such as GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and DNA repair genes (XRCC1 194Trp, XRCC1 399Gln, and XRCC3 Met) contribute to the risk of developing OSCC. Methods: Patients eligible for inclusion were over 18 years, had pathologically confirmed OSCC and were followed prospectively for at least two years or until death, from December 2000 to December 2004. Ninety-two OSCC patients were included along with 244 subjects from the same hospital, evaluated in the same period as patients without cancer, as the control group. Results: GSTM1 null and XRCC1-194Trp alone increased the risk of OSCC (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.2 - 3.6 and OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.01 - 4.03, respectively). The joint effect of GSTM1 null with CYP1A1 or CYP2E1 polymorphism increased the risk two to threefold. Similar results were observed when XRCC1-194Trp was combined with GSTM1 null or the CYP2E1 polymorphism. By contrast, XRCC1- 399Gln was associated with protection against OSCC. Gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions were mainly detected for CYP1A1 and GSTP1 associated with more than 20 p/y of tobacco and XRCC1-194Trp when more than 30 g/L/d of alcohol was consumed (OR, 8.8; 95% CI; 1.3 - 45.7). Conclusions: The drug metabolizing and DNA repair enzyme polymorphisms may be informative for clinicians in the preventive management of patients at risk, particularly those with strong smoking and drinking habits.

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