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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6226 matches for " Gender "
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The Word of the Father / the Body of the Mother: Dimensions of Gender in Tarkovsky's Mirror
Alice Gavin
Opticon1826 , 2007, DOI: 10.5334/opt.020704
Abstract: Supposed to occur between the ages of six and eighteen months – but at the same time seen as seeping into the ongoing identity formation of the subject – Lacan’s theory of the ‘Mirror Stage’ involves the successful identification of one’s body as one’s own. Yet the wholeness of the body with which the infant identifies is a mirage; experienced as an exterior image, its unity does not correspond with the infant’s as yet underdeveloped physical coordination. Further, the moment of self-identification is, simultaneously, the moment in which the subject is irreducibly split, since the sense of a singular, self-contained self can only be produced by its doubling in some reflective object: the ‘I’ is thus established as dependent on an ‘other’. This article explores Tarkovsky’s Mirror – as a film overtly concerned with the idea of a problematic sense of self – in light of Lacan’s theory. Mixing childhood memories of the director’s mother with the poetry of his father, Arsennii Tarkovsky, the film presents the attempts of a middle-aged, apparently ill man – the film’s narrator – to come to terms with his past. In particular, it is interested in the part played by the mother in that past. Though the father is himself largely absent, his word, in the form of his poetry, still appears to structure the son’s sense of self; the narrator’s relation to his mother, on the other hand, is more ‘visible’, but nonetheless troublesome. Moreover, her significance as the son’s ‘other’ – an essential yet repressed figure in the formation of his identity – is underscored in the film by the association of her image with the motif of mirrors.
Behind the Muslim Veil: A Qualitative Analysis of Pakistani Female Students' Views towards Veiling
Yun Zhou
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2010, DOI: 10.3968/789
Abstract: The research is conducted after a ten-month stay in Islamabad, Pakistan. It intends to qualitatively demonstrate the veiled women’s own opinions towards issues regarding veiling and women’s rights in Islamic society. It also presents the functions of veils from a point of view of multiculturalism. Key words: Veil; Islam Feminism; Women’s Rights; Multiculturalism Résumé: Cette recherche est menée après un séjour de dix mois à Islamabad, au Pakistan. Il tente de démontrer qualitativement les propres opinions des femmes voilées à l'égard de questions liées au voile et aux droits de femmes dans la société islamique. Il présente également les fonctions de voile d'un point de vue du multiculturalisme. Mots-Clés: voile islamique; féminisme; droits de femme; multiculturalisme
Gender differences in recognising depression in a case vignette in a university student population: Interaction of participant and vignette subject gender with depressive symptomatology  [PDF]
Junko Andou, Toshinori Kitamura
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.34041
Abstract:

Objective: Gender difference in depression prevalence may be explained by variation in the recognition of depression due to differences in gender identity. Method: We distributed one of four questionnaires describing fictional cases of Major Depressive Episode (MDE) (2 predominant symptom types × 2 case vignette subject genders) to 72 students. Participants were asked whether and how much they thought the subject in the case was emotionally as well as somatically ill. They were also administered the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale and the Ito Sex Role Scale. Results: Participants scoring high in gender identity communion and ideal gender roles communion and delicacy were more likely to identify the vignette subject as ill. The severity of somatic illness was rated more highly for the case of predominantly somatic symptomatology. The recognition of severity of psychological illness was influenced by two interactive terms: the gender of the vignette subjects x gender of the participants and predominant symptoms x gender of the vignette subjects. Recognition of MDE case vignettes as indicating illness, particularly psychological illness, was more likely when the participant was female, scored highly in femininity, or was of the gender as the case subject. Conclusion: These findings may be concordant with the self-schema theory.

Gender Crisis in Poland, Catholic Ideology and the Media  [PDF]
Anna Odrow??-Coates
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2015.51004
Abstract: The author discusses the “anti-gender” debate initiated by the Catholic Church in Poland, which has proclaimed a deepening crisis of family and society and has accused gender ideology of being responsible. At the end of 2013, a campaign emerged within the Church to undermine gender theories and to put blame on gender theorists for societal flaws. The discourse has been elaborated on in the media and has created an atmosphere of friction and unrest between academics involved in gender studies and church representatives. The nation has been divided in its understanding and acceptance of gender, with people heavily influenced by sermons in local churches and by the Catholic press. This paper contains a critical analysis of the Church’s stand point on gender issues in Poland and the results of a survey of public opinion carried out by the author. Denial and rejection of gender theories by the Polish Catholic Church should not be ignored. This denial may have a negative impact on women’s rights and their position in Polish society and undermine the work of multiple generations of researchers, suffragettes and feminists. Moreover it is highly offensive to diverse communities and therefore should be highlighted and addressed in the wider context. The article should be treated as a viewpoint based on media discourse analysis and a small scale empirical research, based on interpretative paradigm.
Deindustrialization, Class, and Adolescents: Changing Gender Attitudes in Middletown  [PDF]
Lisa Winters, Wanda Rushing, Martin Levin, Troy Blanchard
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.13014
Abstract: Scholars have become increasingly interested in the role that economic change plays in the processes of self and collective identification. Previous studies show that the process of deindustrialization in the United States had specific consequences for individuals with a “working class” labor force identity, particularly in regard to in-creased financial stability. Using the High School Surveys from Middletown III and IV, collected from local high school students in Muncie, Indiana in 1977, 1989, and 1999, we examine how local adolescents’ expecta-tions regarding school and gender were affected by deindustrialization. In this study, we put forth the following hypotheses: 1) the educational aspirations of adolescents will increase over time, 2) attitudes about gender roles will become less traditional over time, and 3) students will show a greater recognition of the utility of college education over time. Finding support for all hypotheses indicates that adolescent attitudes about education and gender are significantly affected by deindustrialization in the hypothesized direction.
Gender Domination in Nigerian Public Relations  [PDF]
Bonachristus Umeogu, Ojiakor Ifeoma
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.22020
Abstract: Does gender influence practice? This paper using the theory of agenda setting and constructionist theory of representation assesses the public relations profession in relation to the value, treatment and power accorded to the different gender in the course of their professional duties. It was found out that even though there are fewer men in number, the males have more power than their female counterparts. Also, gender, directly or indirectly influence treatment and value. This paper is highly significant in the face of the global call for equal playing ground for both male and female in all spheres of life.
Increased Cortical Thickness in Male-to-Female Transsexualism  [PDF]
Eileen Luders, Francisco J. Sánchez, Duygu Tosun, David W. Shattuck, Christian Gaser, Eric Vilain, Arthur W. Toga
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.23040
Abstract: Background: The degree to which one identifies as male or female has a profound impact on one’s life. Yet, there is a limited understanding of what contributes to this important characteristic termed gender identity. In order to reveal factors influencing gender identity, studies have focused on people who report strong feelings of being the opposite sex, such as male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals. Method: To investigate potential neuroanatomical variations associated with transsexualism, we compared the regional thickness of the cerebral cortex between 24 MTF transsexuals who had not yet been treated with cross-sex hormones and 24 age-matched control males. Results: Results revealed thicker cortices in MTF transsexuals, both within regions of the left hemisphere (i.e., frontal and orbito-frontal cortex, central sulcus, perisylvian regions, paracentral gyrus) and right hemisphere (i.e., pre-/post-central gyrus, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, precuneus, fusiform, lingual, and orbito-frontal gyrus). Conclusion: These findings provide further evidence that brain anatomy is associated with gender identity, where measures in MTF transsexuals appear to be shifted away from gender-congruent men.
Density, Sex Ratio, Size, Weight, and Recruitment of Plicopurpura pansa (Gastropoda: Muricidae) in Costa Chica, Guerrero, México  [PDF]
Rafael Flores-Garza, Arcadio Valdés González, Pedro Flores-Rodríguez, Sergio García-Ibá?ez, Norma L. Cruz-Ramirez
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2012.24019
Abstract: Plicopurpura pansa is a cultural resource with economic importance since ink can be extracted from it to dye clothes. This snail inhabits the rocky intertidal zone of Mexican Pacific, is found attached to rocks in crevices and holes. The objective was to analyze the P. pansa population structure in Costa Chica of the State of Guerrero based in density, sex ratio, size and weight, besides to realize observations on mating and recruitment, for which quarterly sampling was made during an annual cycle in three beaches. The density was 4.83 snails/m2. Sex ratio ranged from 0.76:1.00 to 1.00: 0.96 (F:M). Average size was 20.91 mm. The best represented sizes in females were from 10.5 to 28.5 mm and in males 13.5 to 28.5 mm. Averaged weight was 1.99 g, females showed a coefficient of variation in weight of 96.53%. Recruitment occurred for the entire year. In December 2006 and September 2007 a larger frequency of recruits was shown. Sex ratio showed a 1:1 tendency. Snail population was characterized by being small sized and in high densities. Weight variations in females were found related to their reproductive cycle.
The association of adenosine deaminase with coronary artery disease: Effect of gender and diabetes  [PDF]
Fulvia Gloria-Bottini, Krzysztof Safranow, Maria Banci, Agnieszka Binczak-Kuleta, Patrizia Saccucci, Andrzej Ciechanowicz, Andrea Magrini, Zdzislawa Kornacewicz-Jach, Egidio Bottini, Dariusz Chlubek
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.52022
Abstract:

An association between ADA1 and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) has been observed in Polish and in Italian populations but in Italian population the association was present in males only. In order to enlighten these differences we have carried out a collaborative study in the two populations. In Italy 215 subjects admitted to the Hospital for CAD, 275 subjects with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) without CAD and 398 healthy new-borns were studied. In Poland 173 subjects with CAD and 200 healthy newborns were studied. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects or from their mothers to participate to the study that was approved by the I.R.B. ADA1 polymorphism was determined by DNA analysis. Three way contingency table analysis was performed by a log linear model. The association between CAD and ADA1 is present in non diabetic male subjects only: OR = 0.195, p = 0.007 in the Italian population and OR = 0.163, p = 0.004 in the Polish population. The data suggest a significant role of immunological mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CAD without diabetes. Gender differences in immune diseases could explain the lack of association in females.

Expression of Myoglobin in the Urine of Cocaine Users  [PDF]
Marie M. Bourgeois, Ira S. Richards
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.44038
Abstract:
Background: The possibility exists that cocaine use in the absence of frank clinical presentation of acute cardiac events may be associated with subclinical injury including the release of myoglobin which is a nonspecific marker for cardiac and skeletal muscle damage. Objectives: This investigation examined urine specimens for potential differences between cocaine use and the expression of myoglobin (a marker associated with cardiovascular damage, inflammation and oxidative stress). Methods:40 urine specimens were assayed for cocaine metabolites, creatinine, total protein (BSA) and myoglobin using ELISA and colorimetry. Results: We observed significant differences between male control and male cocaine positive urines for myoglobin. Interestingly, there was no statistically significant difference in females between control and cocaine positive urines. Conclusion: Differences in the urinary expression of myoglobin may be important in evaluating the gender based effects of cocaine use and may have potential clinical applications which may be related to gender differences in signs and symptoms of cocaine toxicity.
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