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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224509 matches for " Gavin R Sandercock "
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The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all
Valerie F Gladwell, Daniel K Brown, Carly Wood, Gavin R Sandercock, Jo L Barton
Extreme Physiology & Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2046-7648-2-3
Abstract: Most discussions of human interactions with the environment concern the potential challenges they place on one another. These usually concern the extreme environmental demands such as those seen at high altitude, at depth or in extremes of temperature. Alternatively, they express the growing human population’s ongoing tendency to negatively influence the delicate balance of nature, which developed for millions of years prior to our evolutionary invasion.With the multiplicity of the ‘great outdoors’ including forests, seaside, countryside, parks, local green areas and even gardens, another conversation considers the role of environment in benefiting human health. Green or natural spaces have been considered to be advantageous for health for many years. For example, in the UK during the 19th century Industrial Revolution, wealthy philanthropists developed urban parks for the benefit of the public’s health, and hospital gardens were considered an important addition for their believed healing properties [1,2]. A study in the early 21st century has further supported this belief, demonstrating an association between improved health outcomes and amount of surrounding ‘green space’ [3,4]. Subsequently, how and why the great outdoors may elicit health benefits has become a focal point for research.Our hunter-gatherer ancestors existed with the outdoor natural environment for thousands of years, and it is hypothesised that this provides present day humans with an innate affiliation with nature [5]. In addition, nature provides an environment that does not require our direct attention, giving nature restorative properties therefore allowing recovery from mental fatigue [6] and attention restoration [7]. Although in the Western world, less people are involved in the natural environment on a daily basis, in particular reduced numbers working on the land, many people seek out nature and undertake outdoor recreational activities. Currently, there is an increasing trend for people
THE IMPACT OF SHORT TERM SUPERVISED AND HOME-BASED WALKING PROGRAMMES ON HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASET
Gavin R.H. Sandercock,Lynette D. Hodges,Saroj K. Das,David A. Brodie
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: The aims of the study were to determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) measured at rest and during exercise could be altered by an exercise training programme designed to increase walking performance in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Forty-four volunteers were randomised into 12 weeks of either: supervised walking training twice weekly for 30 min at 75% VO2peak (SU), home-based walking training sessions: twice weekly, 30 min per week (HB) or no exercise (CT). HRV measures were calculated from a 5-min resting ECG. Each patient then underwent maximal, graded exercise treadmill testing. All measures were repeated after 12 weeks. The SU group showed significantly (p < 0.001) increased maximal walking time (MWT) but no change in VO2peak. There were no statistically significant changes in any of the measures of HRV in any group. Effect sizes for change in HRV measures were all very small and in some cases negative. Improved walking performance was not accompanied by central cardiorespiratory or neuroregulatory adaptations in the present study. The lack of any change in HRV was possibly due to either the low intensity or discontinuous nature of exercise undertaken
A Repeated Measures Experiment of Green Exercise to Improve Self-Esteem in UK School Children
Katharine Reed, Carly Wood, Jo Barton, Jules N. Pretty, Daniel Cohen, Gavin R. H. Sandercock
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069176
Abstract: Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called ‘green exercise’ affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run) and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A) in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75). Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74), = 12.2, p<0.001), for the increase in self-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74), = 0.13, p = 0.72). There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = ?0.26, p = 0.04) between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = ?0.07, p = 0.55). Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.
Review of "Karyotypes of Parasitic Hymenoptera" by Vladimir E. Gokhman
Gavin R Broad
Parasites & Vectors , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-2-37
Abstract: This book is principally the summary of a large body of work, spanning nearly 25 years, by Vladimir Gokhman [1]. He has carved a niche in karyology of parasitoid wasps and this book has much to offer in the way of chromosome data. The findings are explicitly linked to phylogenetic hypotheses and we are presented with some interesting theories about the evolution of chromosome form and number within the Hymenoptera. Within the insect order Hymenoptera more has been published on the aculeate, i.e. stinging, ants, bees and wasps. Gokhman summarises this information in an extensive introduction. In fact, so much information is provided on the aculeates and the plant-feeding sawflies that I am not really sure why the title of the book is restricted to parasitic [sic] Hymenoptera. Nevertheless, the principal interest of the author lies with the parasitoid wasps, those species that develop at the expense of another insect host, sometimes with very intimate physiological interactions. Throughout the book (including the title), these wasps are referred to as 'parasitic Hymenoptera'. I dislike the term 'parasitic' when applied to these insects when 'parasitoid' is a much more informative term and draws attention to the fact that they are not classic parasites but are more like highly specialised predators. Anyway, there are many interesting facts to be gleaned, such as that haploid chromosome numbers for just one family, the ants (Formicidae) range from 1 to 60. You may be interested to know that the large clade of 'microhymenoptera', generally tiny species of parasitoid wasps, have a much reduced chromosome set compared to their larger relatives.Given the taxonomically restricted scope of the book, presumably it is intended mainly to be read by hymenopterists, rather than cytogeneticists. Given this readership, it is a shame that there is very little in the way of explanation or, especially, illustration of karyological terms and features. But what are the main uses of the b
Considerations for clinical read alignment and mutational profiling using next-generation sequencing
Gavin R Oliver
F1000Research , 2012, DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.1-2.v1
Abstract: Next-generation sequencing technologies are increasingly being applied in clinical settings, however the data are characterized by a range of platform-specific artifacts making downstream analysis problematic and error prone. One major application of NGS is in the profiling of clinically relevant mutations whereby sequences are aligned to a reference genome and potential mutations assessed and scored. Accurate sequence alignment is pivotal in reliable assessment of potential mutations however selection of appropriate alignment tools is a non-trivial task complicated by the availability of multiple solutions each with its own performance characteristics. Using BRCA1 as an example, we have simulated and mutated a test dataset based on Illumina sequencing technology. Our findings reveal key differences in the performances of a range of common commercial and open source tools and will be of importance to anyone using NGS to profile mutations in clinical or basic research.
Charmonium Suppression by Comover Scattering in Pb+Pb Collisions
S. Gavin,R. Vogt
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.1006
Abstract: The first reports of $\psi$ and $\psi'$ production from experiment NA50 at the CERN SPS are compared to predictions based on a hadronic model of charmonium suppression. Data on centrality dependence and total cross sections are in good accord with these predictions.
$J/ψ$ and $ψ'$ suppression by comovers in Pb+Pb collisions
S. Gavin,R. Vogt
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(96)00376-4
Abstract: Measurements of $\psi$ and $\psi'$ production at the CERN SPS are compared to predictions based on a hadronic model of charmonium suppression. Detailed information is presented to facilitate comparison to other analyses. Sensitivity of these conclusions to the model parameters is discussed.
CFD Simulations for Sensitivity Analysis of Different Parameters to the Wake Characteristics of Tidal Turbine  [PDF]
Mulualem G. Gebreslassie, Gavin R. Tabor, Michael R. Belmont
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2012.23006
Abstract: This paper investigates the sensitivity of width proximity and mesh grid size to the wake characteristics of Momentum Reversal Lift (MRL) turbine using a new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based Immersed Body Force (IBF) model. This model has been added as a source term into the large eddy simulation (LES), which is developed for solving two phase fluids. The open source CFD code OpenFOAM was used for the simulations. The simulation results showed that the grid size and width proximity have had massive impact on the flow characteristics and the computational cost of the tidal turbine. A fine grid size and large width inflicted longer computational time. In contrast, a coarse grid size and small width reduced the computational time but showed poor description of the flow features. In addition, a close proximity of the domain’s wall boundary to the turbine affected the free surface, the air body, and the flow characteristics at the interface between the two phases. These results showed that careful investigation of a suitable grid size and spacing between the wall boundary and the turbine is important to minimise the effect of these parameters on the simulation results.
In search of causality: a systematic review of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity among adults
Gavin R McCormack, Alan Shiell
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-125
Abstract: In September 2010, we searched for English-language studies on built environments and physical activity from all available years in health, leisure, transportation, social sciences, and geographical databases. Twenty cross-sectional and 13 quasi-experimental studies published between 1996 and 2010 were included in the review.Most associations between the built environment and physical activity were in the expected direction or null. Land use mix, connectivity and population density and overall neighborhood design were however, important determinants of physical activity. The built environment was more likely to be associated with transportation walking compared with other types of physical activity including recreational walking. Three studies found an attenuation in associations between built environment characteristics and physical activity after accounting for neighborhood self-selection.More quasi-experiments that examine a broader range of environmental attributes in relation to context-specific physical activity and that measure changes in the built environment, neighborhood preferences and their effect on physical activity are needed.Despite the continued effort of health professionals and agencies to encourage people to participate in physical activity many adults are not active enough to achieve optimal health benefits [1,2]. Improved strategies for increasing physical activity at the population level are necessary. In the last 15 years there has been a growing interest into the role of the built environment in supporting physical activity. Compared with other health promotion approaches, the creation of built environments that support physical activity is a sustainable strategy for encouraging people to adopt, or further increase levels of, physical activity. One's neighborhood is especially important as it is here where the majority of physical activity, including walking, is undertaken [3].Recent land development patterns have increased distances between
The large scale CMB cut-off and the tensor-to-scalar ratio
Nicholson, Gavin;Contaldi, Carlo R.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2008/01/002
Abstract: We show that if inflation lasted just longer than the required 60 or so e-folds $N$ both scalar and tensor contributions to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) power spectra are expected to show a cut-off. However the behaviour of the scalar-to-tensor ratio on large scale depends on whether inflation is preceded by a Kinetic Dominated (KD) or Radiation Dominated (RD) stage. Future experiments may be able to distinguish between the two behaviours and thus shed light on the nature of the low-$\ell$ cutoff. In particular if the cut-off is due to a KD stage the ratio is expected to grow on large scales. If observed this would challenge our current understanding of the overall probability of inflation lasting for $N$ greater than 60.
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