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Voltage profile generation for simultaneous multi-protein detection in western blot analysis  [PDF]
Matthew Blair, Mina Wanis, Gaurav Swarnkar, Hiroki Yokota, Stanley Chien
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.59067
Abstract: Western blotting is a popular technique for examining expression levels of proteins using gel-based electrophoretic fractionation followed by blotting and antibody reactions. Although this is a mature technique, one of the major limitations is the need to prepare an individual electrophoretic gel for each of the protein species to be analyzed. Since most analyses require the detection of multiple protein species, a procedure that allows utilization of a single gel for detecting multiple protein species should significantly save time and resources. In this paper, we developed a novel multiprotein detection device, which enabled simultaneous detection of several proteins species from a single electrophoretic gel. In this device, a protein transfer unit utilized a multi-anode plate that generated a non-uniform voltage profile. This voltage profile enabled uniform transfer regardless of molecular mass of proteins. In vitro experiments using samples, isolated from boneforming osteoblast cells, showed that the expression levels of 5 - 7 different proteins were detectable in the presence and absence of mechanical stimulation that activated genes necessary for bone formation. The result supports the notion that through simultaneous detection of multiple protein species, the described device contributes to reduction in procedural time and sample amounts, as well as a removal of variations among multiple gels.
Constitutive Activation of IKK2/NF-κB Impairs Osteogenesis and Skeletal Development
Gaurav Swarnkar, Kaihua Zhang, Gabriel Mbalaviele, Fanxin Long, Yousef Abu-Amer
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091421
Abstract: Pathologic conditions impair bone homeostasis. The transcription factor NF-κB regulates bone homeostasis and is central to bone pathologies. Whereas contribution of NF-κB to heightened osteoclast activity is well-documented, the mechanisms underlying NF-κB impact on chondrocytes and osteoblasts are scarce. In this study, we examined the effect of constitutively active IKK2 (IKK2ca) on chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. We show that retroviral IKK2ca but not GFP, IKK2WT, or the inactive IKK2 forms IKK2KM and IKK2SSAA, strongly suppressed osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, in vitro. In order to explore the effect of constitutive NF-κB activation on bone formation in vivo, we activated this pathway in a conditional fashion. Specifically, we crossed the R26StopIKK2ca mice with mice carrying the Col2-cre in order to express IKK2ca in osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Both chondrocytes and osteoblasts derived from Col2Cre/IKK2ca expressed IKK2ca. Mice were born alive yet died shortly thereafter. Histologically, newborn Col2Cre+/RosaIKK2ca heterozygotes (Cre+IKK2ca_w/f (het)) and homozygotes (Cre+IKK2ca_f/f (KI)) showed smaller skeleton, deformed vertebrate and reduced or missing digit ossification. The width of neural arches, as well as ossification in vertebral bodies of Cre+IKK2ca_w/f and Cre+IKK2ca_f/f, was reduced or diminished. H&E staining of proximal tibia from new born pups revealed that Cre+IKK2ca_f/f displayed disorganized hypertrophic zones within the smaller epiphysis. Micro-CT analysis indicated that 4-wk old Cre+IKK2ca_w/f has abnormal trabecular bone in proximal tibia compared to WT littermates. Mechanistically, ex-vivo experiments showed that expression of differentiation markers in calvarial osteoblasts derived from newborn IKK2ca knock-in mice was diminished compared to WT-derived cells. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that the hypertrophic chondrocyte marker type-X collagen, the pre-hypertrophic chondrocyte markers Indian hedgehog and alkaline phosphatase, and the early markers Aggrecan and type-II collagen were reduced in Cre+IKK2ca_w/f and Cre+IKK2ca_f/f mice. Altogether, the in-vitro, in vivo and ex-vivo evidence suggest that IKK2ca perturbs osteoblast and chondrocyte maturation and impairs skeletal development.
Fault Characterization Based on Synchrophasor Data Using Heuristic Approach  [PDF]
Gaurav S. Chingale
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2014.512028
Abstract: With the advent of phasor measurement unit (PMU) technology, the grid observability has got a new dimension. This facet of technology helps in getting the real-time and dynamic scenario of the grid operations which was a remote possibility some decades before. Achieving this level of observability puts us at an advantage of responding to the system faults with reduced response time, and helps in restoring the grid stability within fraction of second. This paper demonstrates the detailed fault characterization from the PMU inputs, after illustrations from various real-time examples and different faults occurred in India. This paper tries to shed some light on areas where the accurate fault characterization can help the operator in taking the right decision for reliable grid operations.
Understanding Transmission Control Protocols: Basic Survey
Virendra Kumar Swarnkar,,K. J. Satao
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Data transfer from one system to another has always been a challenging task. Multiple protocols have been developed to transmit data from one system to another, considering the security, convenience, and speed criteria. TCP (transmission control protocol) stands to be the most widely used and accepted protocol. In this paper we have discussed various commonly employed protocols for data transfer. Many algorithms and protocols have been stated which are capable in providing high speed data transfer along with security, especially in terms of congestions (little or no congestion is desirable). We have studied various transmission control protocols in this paper.
Effect of Adaptation Gain in Model Reference Adaptive Controlled Second Order System
P. Swarnkar,S. Jain,R. K. Nema
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research , 2011,
Abstract: Adaptive control involves modifying the control law used by the controller to cope with the fact that the parameters of the system being controlled change drastically due to change in environmental conditions or in system itself. This technique is based on the fundamental characteristic of adaptation of living organism. The adaptive control process is one that continuously and automatically measures the dynamic behavior of plant, compares it with the desired output and uses the difference to vary adjustable system parameters or to generate an actuating signal in such a way so that optimal performance can be maintained regardless of system changes. Nature of adaptation mechanism for controlling the system performance is greatly affected by the value of adaptation gain. It is observed that for the lower order system wide range of adaptation gain can be used to study the performance of the system. As the order of the system increases the applicable range of adaptation gain becomes narrow. This paper deals with application of model reference adaptive control scheme to second order system with different values of adaptation gain. The rule which is used for this application is MIT rule. Simulation is done in MATLAB and simulink and the results are compared for varying adaptation mechanism due to variation in adaptation gain.
New Semi-IPN Hydrogels Based on Cellulose for Biomedical Application
S. K. Bajpai,M. P. Swarnkar
Journal of Polymers , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/376754
Abstract: Cellulose pulp, obtained from a paper industry, has been dissolved in PEG/NaOH system and the resulting solution has been polymerized in the presence of monomer acrylic acid (AA) and crosslinker N,N′ methylene bisacrylamide via free radical polymerization. The Cell/PEG/poly (SA) ternary semi-IPN hydrogel, so prepared, was characterized by FTIR and TG analysis. The dynamic water uptake of various hydrogels, having different compositions, was investigated in the physiological buffer of pH 7.4 at 37°C. The various hydrogels exhibited chain-relaxation controlled swelling behavior. The uptake data was best interpreted by Schott kinetic model. The various diffusion coefficients, that is, initial , average , and late time , were also calculated using the dynamic water uptake data. The hydrogels showed fair pH and salt-dependent swelling behavior. 1. Introduction Cellulose is one of the most abundant renewable organic materials with annual production of about 5 × 1011 metric tons [1]. Cellulose is a linear syndiotactic homopolymer composed of D-anhydroglucopyranose units, which are linked by -(1 4)-glycosidic bonds. This biopolymer exhibits some excellent properties such as mechanical robustness, biodegradability, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility [2]. These properties are mainly responsible for extensive use of cellulose in a wide spectrum of applications that include pharmacy, agriculture, medical science, industries, and so many other related branches. Some of the major applications include water reservoirs in agriculture [3], body water retainers [4], ocular bandages [5], artificial cartilage [6], controlled drug delivery [7, 8], scaffolds for regenerative medicine [9], stomach bulking agents [10], and wound dressings [11]. Most of the applications of cellulose-based hydrogels, mentioned above, exploit water absorption property of cellulose and so it is essential to have full control on the swellability of this biopolymer in these applications. But insolubility of cellulose in water (due to extensive inter- and intramolecular H-bonding between O and H atoms of cellulose) and lack of ionizable functional groups in cellulose backbone are the major barriers that must be crossed to make this polymer useful in various fields. In recent past, several solvent systems have been used for dissolution of cellulose in effective manners. These include NaOH-urea/thiourea system [12] and ionic liquids [13], which are limited to laboratory use only due to volatility, toxicity, and high cost. In addition, the introduction of desired functionality into cellulose backbone
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Some 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity
Deepak Swarnkar,Rakshit Ameta,Ritu Vyas
Organic Chemistry International , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/694060
Abstract: A series of substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (3a–f) and (6a–f) have been synthesized from diphenylacetic acid hydrazide under microwave irradiation in various reaction conditions. The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, and 1H NMR. These targeted compounds have been tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to ampicillin and griseofulvin as standard drug. Compounds 3a, 3e, 3f, 6c, 6d, 6e, and 6d exhibited the maximum antibacterial activities while 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 6a, 6d, and 6e exhibited the maximum antifungal activities. 1. Introduction Oxadiazole has occupied a unique place in the field of medicinal and pesticide chemistry due to its wide range of activities. Bhandari et al. [1] have reported the design, synthesis, and evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and ulcerogenicity of novel S-substituted phenacyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol and Schiff bases of diclofenac acid as nonulcerogenic derivatives whereas Narayana et al. [2] have synthesized some new 2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles as possible nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Synthesis and evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic, and lipid peroxidation properties of ibuprofen derivatives have been studied by Amir and Kumar [3] while Hui et al. [4] have carried out the synthesis and antibacterial activities of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing 5-methylisoxazole moiety. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives have been synthesized by ?ahin et al. [5] and they have also studied their antifungal activity. Novel chiral and achiral benzenesulfonamides bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties have been synthesized by Zareef et al. [6] and studied for their antimalarial activity. Husain and Ajmal [7] have synthesized novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives and investigated their anticonvulsant properties. Burbuliene et al. [8] have reported the synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of derivatives of 5-[(2-disubstituted amino-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl)-sulfanylmethyl]-3H-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiones while Padmaja et al. [9] have studied the synthesis and antioxidant activity of disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles, and 1,2,4-triazoles. El-Emam et al. [10] have synthesized certain 5-(1-adamantyl)-2-substitutedthio-1-3-4-oxadiazoles and 5-(1-adamantyl)-3-substituted aminomethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-2-thiones and studied their anti-HIV-1 activity whereas synthesis and antitumor activity of some new 1,3,4-oxadiazole, pyrazole, and pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives
Development of Application Specific Continuous Speech Recognition System in Hindi  [PDF]
Gaurav Gaurav, Devanesamoni Shakina Deiv, Gopal Krishna Sharma, Mahua Bhattacharya
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.33052
Abstract: Application specific voice interfaces in local languages will go a long way in reaching the benefits of technology to rural India. A continuous speech recognition system in Hindi tailored to aid teaching Geometry in Primary schools is the goal of the work. This paper presents the preliminary work done towards that end. We have used the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients as speech feature parameters and Hidden Markov Modeling to model the acoustic features. Hidden Markov Modeling Tool Kit —3.4 was used both for feature extraction and model generation. The Julius recognizer which is language independent was used for decoding. A speaker independent system is implemented and results are presented.
The Development of Services in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Environment from ‘Technology’ Perspective  [PDF]
Gaurav K. Agrawal, Daniel Berg
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.24052
Abstract: The service sector is receiving much deserved attention resulting from its inevitable role in a country’s economic de-velopment. Despite all the efforts gaps such as the relationship between technological advances and service development are yet to be revealed from the perspective of new applications that organizations want to develop and implement. This paper explores opportunities using a comprehensive model (and CRM, as an example) that can be used to extend the research relating service development to the technology development aspects of the market.
Stage III and IV Head and Neck Cancer: Does Everyone Need Chemotherapy?  [PDF]
Gaurav Marwaha, William L. Barrett
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2014.31006

Objectives: Definitive treatment of Stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma can be with surgical resection, definitive radiation therapy alone or combined radiation therapy with chemotherapy. Radiation and concomitant platinum-based chemotherapy are the accepted gold standard. The purpose of this study was to determine how often patients treated with radiation therapy alone developed locoregionally recurrent disease that in retrospect possibly could have been prevented with the addition of chemotherapy. Methods: 116 consecutive patients with known Stage III and Stage IV head and neck cancers were treated with curative intent with radiation therapy alone. Results of the treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 116 patients treated with radiation alone, 11 (9.48%) died from locally recurrent disease, 6 (5.17%) died from local disease and were never disease-free, 7 (6.03%) died from metastatic disease, 9 (7.75%) died from disease NOS, 6 (5.17%) died from secondary malignancy, 10 (8.62%) died from ICD (2 oropharynx; 8 larynx), 6 (5.17%) died from uncertain causes, 51 (43.96%) are alive and disease-free, and 10 (8.62%) patients’ final outcome data were not recoverable. Conclusions: Cure rates in selected patients with advanced head and neck cancer may be similar with radiation alone compared to radiation with the addition of chemotherapy.

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