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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7360 matches for " Gary White "
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The Baboon (Papio spp.) as a Model of Human Ebola Virus Infection
Donna L. Perry,Laura Bollinger,Gary L.White
Viruses , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/v4102400
Abstract: Baboons are susceptible to natural Ebola virus (EBOV) infection and share 96% genetic homology with humans. Despite these characteristics, baboons have rarely been utilized as experimental models of human EBOV infection to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactics and therapeutics in the United States. This review will summarize what is known about the pathogenesis of EBOV infection in baboons compared to EBOV infection in humans and other Old World nonhuman primates. In addition, we will discuss how closely the baboon model recapitulates human EBOV infection. We will also review some of the housing requirements and behavioral attributes of baboons compared to other Old World nonhuman primates. Due to the lack of data available on the pathogenesis of Marburg virus (MARV) infection in baboons, discussion of the pathogenesis of MARV infection in baboons will be limited.
Towards a protocol for community monitoring of caribou body condition
Gary Kofinas,Phil Lyver,Don Russell,Robert White
Rangifer , 2003,
Abstract: Effective ecological monitoring is central to the sustainability of subsistence resources of indigenous communities. For caribou, Arctic indigenous people's most important terrestrial subsistence resource, body condition is a useful measure because it integrates many ecological factors that influence caribou productivity and is recognized by biologists and hunters as meaningful. We draw on experience working with indigenous communities to develop a body condition monitoring protocol for harvested animals. Local indigenous knowledge provides a broad set of caribou health indicators and explanations of how environmental conditions may affect body condition. Scientific research on caribou body condition provides a basis to develop a simple dichotomous key that includes back fat, intestinal fat, kidney fat and marrow fat, as measures of body fat, which in autumn to early winter correlates with the likelihood of pregnancy. The dichotomous key was formulated on "expert knowledge" and validated against field estimates of body composition. We compare local indigenous knowledge indicators with hunter documented data based on the dichotomous key. The potential con tribution of community body condition monitoring can be realized through the continued comparative analysis of datasets. Better communication among hunters and scientists, and refinement of data collection and analysis methods are recommended. Results suggest that specific local knowledge may become generalized and integrated between regions if the dichotomous key is used as a generalized (semi-quantitative) index and complemented with other science and community-based assessments.
Why People Do, or Do Not, Immediately Contact Emergency Medical Services following the Onset of Acute Stroke: Qualitative Interview Study
Joan E. Mackintosh, Madeleine J. Murtagh, Helen Rodgers, Richard G. Thomson, Gary A. Ford, Martin White
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046124
Abstract: Objectives To identify the reasons why individuals contact, or delay contacting, emergency medical services in response to stroke symptoms. Design Qualitative interview study with a purposive sample of stroke patients and witnesses, selected according to method of accessing medical care and the time taken to do so. Data were analysed using the Framework approach. Setting Area covered by three acute stroke units in the north east of England. Participants Nineteen stroke patients and 26 witnesses who had called for help following the onset of stroke symptoms. Results Factors influencing who called emergency medical services and when they called included stroke severity, how people made sense of symptoms and their level of motivation to seek help. Fear of the consequences of stroke, including future dependence or disruption to family life, previous negative experience of hospitals, or involving a friend or relations in the decision to access medical services, all resulted in delayed admission. Lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms was also an important determinant. Perceptions of the remit of medical services were a major cause of delays in admission, with many people believing the most appropriate action was to telephone their GP. Variations in the response of primary care teams to acute stroke symptoms were also evident. Conclusions The factors influencing help-seeking decisions are complex. There remains a need to improve recognition by patients, witnesses and health care staff of the need to treat stroke as a medical emergency by calling emergency medical services, as well as increasing knowledge of symptoms of stroke among patients and potential witnesses. Fear, denial and reticence to impose on others hinders the process of seeking help and will need addressing specifically with appropriate interventions. Variability in how primary care services respond to stroke needs further investigation to inform interventions to promote best practice. Trial Registration UK Clinical Research Network UKCRN 6590
Systematic review of mass media interventions designed to improve public recognition of stroke symptoms, emergency response and early treatment
Jan Lecouturier, Helen Rodgers, Madeleine J Murtagh, Martin White, Gary A Ford, Richard G Thomson
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-784
Abstract: Systematic review of mass media interventions aimed at improving emergency response to stroke, with narrative synthesis and review of intervention development.Ten studies were included (six targeted the public, four both public and professionals) published between 1992 and 2010. Only three were controlled before and after studies, and only one had reported how the intervention was developed. Campaigns aimed only at the public reported significant increase in awareness of symptoms/signs, but little impact on awareness of need for emergency response. Of the two controlled before and after studies, one reported no impact on those over 65 years, the age group at increased risk of stroke and most likely to witness a stroke, and the other found a significant increase in awareness of two or more warning signs of stroke in the same group post-intervention. One campaign targeted at public and professionals did not reduce time to presentation at hospital to within two hours, but increased and sustained thrombolysis rates. This suggests the campaign had a primary impact on professionals and improved the way that services for stroke were organised.Campaigns aimed at the public may raise awareness of symptoms/signs of stroke, but have limited impact on behaviour. Campaigns aimed at both public and professionals may have more impact on professionals than the public. New campaigns should follow the principles of good design and be robustly evaluated.Given the evidence of effectiveness of thrombolysis for acute stroke and of stroke units, stroke should be treated as a medical emergency in the same way as myocardial infarction [1-3]. However, many patients are seen too late to benefit from early treatment, often because of a lack of knowledge or awareness of stroke symptoms, or lack of emergency response to them, on the part of both the public and professionals [4]. Other factors such as a belief that the symptoms will subside or that nothing can be done may also play a part in dela
Immune Response Testing of Electrospun Polymers: An Important Consideration in the Evaluation of Biomaterials
Matthew J. Smith,Donna C. Smith,Kimber L. White, Jr.,Gary L. Bowlin
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics , 2007,
Abstract: Due primarily to cell sourcing issues, many in the field of tissue engineering have opted to create scaffolds that promote in situ regeneration, using the body as both the bioreactor and the cell source for the remodeling of scaffolds, resulting in the formation of native tissue. This practice raises many concerns, with the body’s immune response to such an implant often being neglected as a potential problem in preliminary design and biocompatibility testing. More importantly, what happens over time in terms of the immune responses as the biodegradable scaffold structures being utilized to promote in situ regeneration begin to degrade, forming structural fragments and degradation products? In summary, immune response evaluations are critical considerations that must be conducted when evaluating bioresorbable scaffolds. In addition, it is essential that these evaluations analyze materials for their potential dose-response and time-course effects on the various components of innate and acquired immunity.
Coronal Magnetography of a Simulated Solar Active Region from Microwave Imaging Spectropolarimetry
Zhitao Wang,Dale E. Gary,Gregory D. Fleishman,Stephen M. White
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/93
Abstract: We have simulated the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) radio images generated at multiple frequencies from a model solar active region, embedded in a realistic solar disk model, and explored the resulting datacube for different spectral analysis schemes to evaluate the potential for realizing one of EOVSA's most important scientific goals--coronal magnetography. In this paper, we focus on modeling the gyroresonance and free-free emission from an on-disk solar active region model with realistic complexities in electron density, temperature and magnetic field distribution. We compare the magnetic field parameters extrapolated from the image datacube along each line of sight after folding through the EOVSA instrumental profile with the original (unfolded) parameters used in the model. We find that even the most easily automated, image-based analysis approach (Level 0) provides reasonable quantitative results, although they are affected by systematic effects due to finite sampling in the Fourier (uv) plane. Finally, we note the potential for errors due to misidentified harmonics of the gyrofrequency, and discuss the prospects for applying a more sophisticated spectrally-based analysis scheme (Level 1) to resolve the issue in cases where improved uv coverage and spatial resolution are available.
Introduction of an agent-based multi-scale modular architecture for dynamic knowledge representation of acute inflammation
Gary An
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-5-11
Abstract: ABM development followed a sequence starting with relatively direct translation from in-vitro derived rules into a cell-as-agent level ABM, leading on to concatenated ABMs into multi-tissue models, eventually resulting in topologically linked aggregate multi-tissue ABMs modeling organ-organ crosstalk. As an underlying design principle organs were considered to be functionally composed of an epithelial surface, which determined organ integrity, and an endothelial/blood interface, representing the reaction surface for the initiation and propagation of inflammation. The development of the epithelial ABM derived from an in-vitro model of gut epithelial permeability is described. Next, the epithelial ABM was concatenated with the endothelial/inflammatory cell ABM to produce an organ model of the gut. This model was validated against in-vivo models of the inflammatory response of the gut to ischemia. Finally, the gut ABM was linked to a similarly constructed pulmonary ABM to simulate the gut-pulmonary axis in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure. The behavior of this model was validated against in-vivo and clinical observations on the cross-talk between these two organ systemsA series of ABMs are presented extending from the level of intracellular mechanism to clinically observed behavior in the intensive care setting. The ABMs all utilize cell-level agents that encapsulate specific mechanistic knowledge extracted from in vitro experiments. The execution of the ABMs results in a dynamic representation of the multi-scale conceptual models derived from those experiments. These models represent a qualitative means of integrating basic scientific information on acute inflammation in a multi-scale, modular architecture as a means of conceptual model verification that can potentially be used to concatenate, communicate and advance community-wide knowledge.The sheer volume of biomedical research threatens to overwhelm the capacity of individuals to process this information
A Review of the Impact of Requirements on Software Project Development Using a Control Theoretic Model  [PDF]
Anthony White
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.39099
Abstract: Software projects have a low success rate in terms of reliability, meeting due dates and working within assigned budgets with only 16% of projects being considered fully successful while Capers Jones has estimated that such projects only have a success rate of 65%. Many of these failures can be attributed to changes in requirements as the project progresses. This paper reviews several System Dynamics models from the literature and analyses the model of Andersson and Karlsson, showing that this model is uncontrollable and unobservable. This leads to a number of is-sues that need to be addressed in requirements acquisition.
Elevated Mercury in Ambient Air and Soils Impacts of Historical Air Emissions (1897-1991) from a Chlor-Alkali Plant (CAP)  [PDF]
Gary Hunt
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.73038
Abstract:

Mercury contamination was found to be widespread in soils at a property in Upstate New York. Historical site use suggested that the mercury did not result from prior industrial use of the property. Soil contamination may have resulted from atmospheric deposition of mercury released from properties in close proximity to the contaminated property. The purpose of this forensics investigation was to examine to what extent atmospheric deposition of elemental mercury may have influenced mercury levels found in surficial soils on the contaminated property and further to identify the source(s) of the mercury. Work efforts included an examination of historical records available for a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) upwind of the contaminated property to establish historical use and disposal practices for elemental mercury. Mercury emissions test data from the Upstate New York chlor-alkali facility were modeled (USEPA ISC3) as a means of estimating impacts on ambient air and soils vicinal to the facility. Mercury emissions from the facility were modeled as both a point source and volume source. For example, at a location 305 meters to the east and 30 meters to the north of the modeled source centerline elemental mercury concentrations in ambient air were estimated at 270 ng/m3 (average results based upon 5 years of meteorological data). This value is contrasted to a background concentration of 1.6 ng/m3 (USEPA Report to Congress 1997). As a result of the modeling data in combination with findings related to mercury use and disposal practices at the NY CAP documented from the records review, it was concluded that emissions from the CAP facility during the period of operation (1897-1991) most likely accounted for the concentrations of elemental mercury found in surficial soils at properties situated downwind of the CAP. These findings were further corroborated by information available in the open literature for CAPs world-wide.


A Note on a Natural Correspondence of a Determinant and Pfaffian  [PDF]
Gary Miller
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2016.71001
Abstract: A familiar and natural decomposition of square matrices leads to the construction of a Pfaffian with the same value as the determinant of the square matrix.
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