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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 29593 matches for " Gary Kee Khoon Lee "
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Comparability of Results from Pair and Classical Model Formulations for Different Sexually Transmitted Infections
Jimmy Boon Som Ong, Xiuju Fu, Gary Kee Khoon Lee, Mark I-Cheng Chen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039575
Abstract: The “classical model” for sexually transmitted infections treats partnerships as instantaneous events summarized by partner change rates, while individual-based and pair models explicitly account for time within partnerships and gaps between partnerships. We compared predictions from the classical and pair models over a range of partnership and gap combinations. While the former predicted similar or marginally higher prevalence at the shortest partnership lengths, the latter predicted self-sustaining transmission for gonorrhoea (GC) and Chlamydia (CT) over much broader partnership and gap combinations. Predictions on the critical level of condom use (Cc) required to prevent transmission also differed substantially when using the same parameters. When calibrated to give the same disease prevalence as the pair model by adjusting the infectious duration for GC and CT, and by adjusting transmission probabilities for HIV, the classical model then predicted much higher Cc values for GC and CT, while Cc predictions for HIV were fairly close. In conclusion, the two approaches give different predictions over potentially important combinations of partnership and gap lengths. Assuming that it is more correct to explicitly model partnerships and gaps, then pair or individual-based models may be needed for GC and CT since model calibration does not resolve the differences.
The Emergence of Urban Land Use Patterns Driven by Dispersion and Aggregation Mechanisms
James Decraene, Christopher Monterola, Gary Kee Khoon Lee, Terence Gih Guang Hung, Michael Batty
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080309
Abstract: We employ a cellular-automata to reconstruct the land use patterns of cities that we characterize by two measures of spatial heterogeneity: (a) a variant of spatial entropy, which measures the spread of residential, business, and industrial activity sectors, and (b) an index of dissimilarity, which quantifies the degree of spatial mixing of these land use activity parcels. A minimalist and bottom-up approach is adopted that utilizes a limited set of three parameters which represent the forces which determine the extent to which each of these sectors spatially aggregate into clusters. The dispersion degrees of the land uses are governed by a fixed pre-specified power-law distribution based on empirical observations in other cities. Our method is then used to reconstruct land use patterns for the city state of Singapore and a selection of North American cities. We demonstrate the emergence of land use patterns that exhibit comparable visual features to the actual city maps defining our case studies whilst sharing similar spatial characteristics. Our work provides a complementary approach to other measures of urban spatial structure that differentiate cities by their land use patterns resulting from bottom-up dispersion and aggregation processes.
Evaluating Temporal Factors in Combined Interventions of Workforce Shift and School Closure for Mitigating the Spread of Influenza
Tianyou Zhang, Xiuju Fu, Stefan Ma, Gaoxi Xiao, Limsoon Wong, Chee Keong Kwoh, Michael Lees, Gary Kee Khoon Lee, Terence Hung
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032203
Abstract: Background It is believed that combined interventions may be more effective than individual interventions in mitigating epidemic. However there is a lack of quantitative studies on performance of the combination of individual interventions under different temporal settings. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the problem, we develop an individual-based simulation model running on top of contact networks based on real-life contact data in Singapore. We model and evaluate the spread of influenza epidemic with intervention strategies of workforce shift and its combination with school closure, and examine the impacts of temporal factors, namely the trigger threshold and the duration of an intervention. By comparing simulation results for intervention scenarios with different temporal factors, we find that combined interventions do not always outperform individual interventions and are more effective only when the duration is longer than 6 weeks or school closure is triggered at the 5% threshold; combined interventions may be more effective if school closure starts first when the duration is less than 4 weeks or workforce shift starts first when the duration is longer than 4 weeks. Conclusions/Significance We therefore conclude that identifying the appropriate timing configuration is crucial for achieving optimal or near optimal performance in mitigating the spread of influenza epidemic. The results of this study are useful to policy makers in deliberating and planning individual and combined interventions.
Statistical Modeling Reveals the Effect of Absolute Humidity on Dengue in Singapore
Hai-Yan Xu,Xiuju Fu ,Lionel Kim Hock Lee,Stefan Ma,Kee Tai Goh,Jiancheng Wong,Mohamed Salahuddin Habibullah,Gary Kee Khoon Lee,Tian Kuay Lim,Paul Anantharajah Tambyah,Chin Leong Lim,Lee Ching Ng
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002805
Abstract: Weather factors are widely studied for their effects on indicating dengue incidence trends. However, these studies have been limited due to the complex epidemiology of dengue, which involves dynamic interplay of multiple factors such as herd immunity within a population, distinct serotypes of the virus, environmental factors and intervention programs. In this study, we investigate the impact of weather factors on dengue in Singapore, considering the disease epidemiology and profile of virus serotypes. A Poisson regression combined with Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM) was used to evaluate and compare the impact of weekly Absolute Humidity (AH) and other weather factors (mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and wind speed) on dengue incidence from 2001 to 2009. The same analysis was also performed on three sub-periods, defined by predominant circulating serotypes. The performance of DLNM regression models were then evaluated through the Akaike's Information Criterion. From the correlation and DLNM regression modeling analyses of the studied period, AH was found to be a better predictor for modeling dengue incidence than the other unique weather variables. Whilst mean temperature (MeanT) also showed significant correlation with dengue incidence, the relationship between AH or MeanT and dengue incidence, however, varied in the three sub-periods. Our results showed that AH had a more stable impact on dengue incidence than temperature when virological factors were taken into consideration. AH appeared to be the most consistent factor in modeling dengue incidence in Singapore. Considering the changes in dominant serotypes, the improvements in vector control programs and the inconsistent weather patterns observed in the sub-periods, the impact of weather on dengue is modulated by these other factors. Future studies on the impact of climate change on dengue need to take all the other contributing factors into consideration in order to make meaningful public policy recommendations.
Weather Impact on Heat-Related Illness in a Tropical City State, Singapore  [PDF]
Hai-Yan Xu, Xiuju Fu, Chin Leong Lim, Stefan Ma, Tian Kuay Lim, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah, Mohd Salahuddin Habibullah, Gary Kee Khoon Lee, Lee Ching Ng, Kee Tai Goh, Rick Siow Mong Goh, Lionel Kim Hock Lee
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2018.81007
Abstract: In this article we propose a novel hurdle negative binomial (HNB) regression combined with a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to model weather factors’ impact on heat related illness (HRI) in Singapore. AIC criterion is adopted to help select proper combination of weather variables and check their lagged effect as well as nonlinear effect. The process of model selection and validation is demonstrated. It is observed that the predicted occurrence rate is close to the observed one. The proposed combined model can be used to predict HRI cases for mitigating HRI occurrences and provide inputs for related public health policy considering climate change impact.
Haciendo científicos e ingenieros para propósitos nacionales en usa: desde la guerra fría hasta la competitividad económica
Juan Lucena,Gary Lee
Historia Crítica , 1995,
The Shaping of Traditions: Agriculture and Hmong Society
Gary Yia Lee
Hmong Studies Journal , 2006,
Abstract: This article argues that throughout Hmong history, Hmong agriculture and the associated economic system have been determining forces affecting and giving rise to many social customs and religiousbeliefs. The paper provides numerous historical and contemporary examples of how Hmong agriculture practices in Asia have shaped important aspects of Hmong culture and religious beliefs.
Cultural Identity In Post-Modern Society: Reflections on What is a Hmong?
Gary Yia Lee
Hmong Studies Journal , 1996,
Abstract: There is no easy answer to the question of what constitutes the cultural identity of a person or human group. When is someone a Hmong and what are the characteristics of such a person? How is this personal identity moulded into a shared image at the group level? Some may say that there is such a thing as a true Hmong, but many others will argue that there is no such a person today when many Hmong have been assimilated into the local cultures and languages ofthe majority societies in which they now live in China, Southeast Asia or in the West.To grapple with this issue, I will take a dialectic approach which will attempt to arrive at what is considered true by eliminating differences and by synthesising common grounds or potentialsimilarities. I will begin by looking at different concepts from a collective perspective, followed by a similar examination at the personal level focusing on what I regard as being the majorcharacteristics of the Hmong as individuals and as a people. I will then draw my conclusion in the light of the Hmong's diaspora and the globalisation of their contacts today.
Dreaming Across the Oceans: Globalization and Cultural Reinvention in the Hmong Diaspora
Gary Y. Lee
Hmong Studies Journal , 2007,
Abstract: The Hmong in Laos did not have any commercially produced media until after 1975 when 200,000 of them became refugees and were resettled in Western countries. Since then, they have produced many Hmong music cassettes, video documentaries and movies in America, Laos and Thailand for the eager consumption of the older members of the Hmong diaspora. These modern songs and videos often allude to aspects of Hmong life and culture in Asia which are missing in the new life in the West. This emphasis on "images' and texts from the past arises from a deep nostalgia for the homeland, the trauma of war and their relatively recent forced departure, guilt over those left behind,access to capital and modern media technology, and more importantly a world-wide market. It is argued that these moving video images and new singing voices constitute a form of cultural reinvention that connects the Hmong together as a global community, and brings them a new changing identity, a new level of transnational group consciousness both in the diaspora and in the homeland.
Diaspora and the Predicament of Origins: Interrogating Hmong Postcolonial History and Identity
Gary Yia Lee
Hmong Studies Journal , 2008,
Abstract: This paper examines two basic issues that have been of major concern to the Hmong in the diaspora: (1). What is their historical and geographic origin; and (2) are the Hmong part of the Miao nationality in China, and should they accept being known under this generic name?There have been many theories about where the Hmong originally came from, ranging from Mesopotamia in the Middle East during Biblical times, the North Pole, Siberia, to Mongolia and China. This paper consolidates these many propositions with their supporting evidence, and draws its own surprising conclusion as to the real location of the original homeland of the Hmong. Depending on what they regard as their origin and which history they wish to be aligned with, the Hmong may have to reconsider being known as Miao or Meo, a name which most have vehemently rejected because of its derogatory connotation, especially among the more politically conscious Hmong now living in Western countries.
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