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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 464676 matches for " Gary A. Decossas "
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The Effect of Structural Complexity, Prey Density, and “Predator-Free Space” on Prey Survivorship at Created Oyster Reef Mesocosms
Austin T. Humphries, Megan K. La Peyre, Gary A. Decossas
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028339
Abstract: Interactions between predators and their prey are influenced by the habitat they occupy. Using created oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef mesocosms, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments that created structure and manipulated complexity as well as prey density and “predator-free space” to examine the relationship between structural complexity and prey survivorship. Specifically, volume and spatial arrangement of oysters as well as prey density were manipulated, and the survivorship of prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio) in the presence of a predator (wild red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus) was quantified. We found that the presence of structure increased prey survivorship, and that increasing complexity of this structure further increased survivorship, but only to a point. This agrees with the theory that structural complexity may influence predator-prey dynamics, but that a threshold exists with diminishing returns. These results held true even when prey density was scaled to structural complexity, or the amount of “predator-free space” was manipulated within our created reef mesocosms. The presence of structure and its complexity (oyster shell volume) were more important in facilitating prey survivorship than perceived refugia or density-dependent prey effects. A more accurate indicator of refugia might require “predator-free space” measures that also account for the available area within the structure itself (i.e., volume) and not just on the surface of a structure. Creating experiments that better mimic natural conditions and test a wider range of “predator-free space” are suggested to better understand the role of structural complexity in oyster reefs and other complex habitats.
Improved Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Wild-Type and Phosphorylated Phospholamban Using a Pseudoproline Dipeptide  [PDF]
Shadi Abu-Baker, Gary A. Lorigan
Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications (OJSTA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojsta.2012.12002
Abstract: In this study, we report that the insertion of a pseudoproline dipeptide for the solid-phase peptide synthesis of wild-type Phospholamban protein (WT-PLB) has two important advantages. First, it disrupts the formation of different secondary structures, which is responsible for poor couplings during the preparation of highly aggregated sequences. Second, it enhances the purities and solubility of crude products leading to easier HPLC purification.
Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Approaches to Investigate Dynamics, Secondary Structure and Topology of Membrane Proteins  [PDF]
Shadi Abu-Baker, Gary A. Lorigan
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2012.24014
Abstract: Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is routinely used to determine the structural and dynamic properties of both membrane proteins and peptides in phospholipid bilayers [1-26]. From the perspective of the perpetuated lipids, 2H solid-state NMR spectroscopy can be used to probe the effect of embedded proteins on the order and dynamics of the acyl chains of phospholipid bilayers [8-13]. Moreover, 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy can be used to investigate the interaction of peptides, proteins and drugs with phospholipid head groups [11-14]. The secondary structure of 13C = O site-specific isotopically labeled peptides or proteins inserted into lipid bilayers can be probed utilizing 13C CPMAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy [15-18]. Also, solid-state NMR spectroscopic studies can be utilized to ascertain pertinent informa- tion on the backbone and side-chain dynamics of 2H- and 15N-labeled proteins, respectively, in phospholipid bilayers [19-26]. Finally, specific 15N-labeled amide sites on a protein embedded inside oriented bilayers can be used to probe the alignment of the helices with respect to the bilayer normal [2]. A brief summary of all these solid-state NMR ap- proaches are provided in this minireview.
Anatomic and functional leg-length inequality: A review and recommendation for clinical decision-making. Part II, the functional or unloaded leg-length asymmetry
Gary A Knutson
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1340-13-12
Abstract: Online databases: Medline, CINAHL and Mantis. Plus library searches for the time frame of 1970–2005 were done using the term "leg-length inequality".The evidence suggests that an unloaded leg-length asymmetry is a different phenomenon than an anatomic leg-length inequality, and may be due to suprapelvic muscle hypertonicity. Anatomic leg-length inequality and unloaded functional or leg-length alignment asymmetry may interact in a loaded (standing) posture, but not in an unloaded (prone/supine) posture.The unloaded, functional leg-length alignment asymmetry is a likely phenomenon, although more research regarding reliability of the measurement procedure and validity relative to spinal dysfunction is needed. Functional leg-length alignment asymmetry should be eliminated before any necessary treatment of anatomic LLI.In Part I of this review, the literature regarding the prevalence, magnitude, effects and clinical significance of anatomic leg-length inequality (LLI) was examined. Using data on leg-length inequality obtained by accurate and reliable x-ray methods, the prevalence of anatomic inequality was found to be 90%; the mean was 5.2 mm (SD 4.1). The evidence suggested that, for most people, anatomic leg-length inequality is not clinically significant until the magnitude reaches ~20 mm (~3/4"). The phenomenon of the functional "short leg" will be considered in Part II of this review. The objective is to define functional "short leg", how it differs from anatomic LLI and explore any association with neuromuscular dysfunction. In addition we will review the apparent efficacy of heel lifts in some cases of mild anatomic LLI, plus muscular reactions to, and causes of, pelvic torsion.The functional short leg, or unloaded leg-length alignment asymmetry (hereafter abbreviated as LLAA) is itself a phenomenon much discussed and little understood. Essentially, when a subject lies prone or supine, unloading the pelvis, the feet are examined, most often at the welt (heel-sole
Anatomic and functional leg-length inequality: A review and recommendation for clinical decision-making. Part I, anatomic leg-length inequality: prevalence, magnitude, effects and clinical significance
Gary A Knutson
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1340-13-11
Abstract: Online database – Medline, CINAHL and MANTIS – and library searches for the time frame of 1970–2005 were done using the term "leg-length inequality".Using data on leg-length inequality obtained by accurate and reliable x-ray methods, the prevalence of anatomic inequality was found to be 90%, the mean magnitude of anatomic inequality was 5.2 mm (SD 4.1). The evidence suggests that, for most people, anatomic leg-length inequality does not appear to be clinically significant until the magnitude reaches ~ 20 mm (~3/4").Anatomic leg-length inequality is near universal, but the average magnitude is small and not likely to be clinically significant.Leg-length inequality (LLI) is a topic that seemingly has been exhaustively examined; yet much is left to be understood. Reviews by Mannello [1] and Gurney [2] on leg-length inequality and Cooperstein and Lisi on pelvic torsion [3] are highly recommended as sources to provide expanded and longer time-frame background information on this topic. The information provided by these authors, however extensive, is incomplete relative to clinical decision-making. Further, several questions have remained largely unanswered regarding anatomic leg-length inequality and the so-called functional short leg, or more accurately, unloaded leg-length alignment asymmetry (LLAA). These include: how common is anatomic LLI, what is the average amount of anatomic LLI, what are the effects of anatomic LLI, how much anatomic LLI is necessary to be clinically significant, and what are the incidental and functional relationships of anatomic LLI to unloaded leg-length alignment asymmetry? The purpose of this review is to highlight current research to answer these questions and help in clinical decision-making.In the 1970's studies began to show that clinical measurements of LLI were inaccurate and the use of x-ray, controlling for magnification and distortion, was necessary [4-6]. By 1980 the accuracy of the measurements with the standing x-ray had been es
Limits of policy intervention in a world of neoliberal mechanism designs: Paradoxes of the global crisis
Dymski Gary A.
Panoeconomicus , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/pan1103285d
Abstract: The current global context poses several paradoxes: the recovery from the 2009 recession was not a recovery; investment, normally driven by profit rates, is lagging and not leading economic activity; the crisis is global but debate involves sub-global levels; and public safety-nets, which have helped to stabilize national income, are being cut. These paradoxes can be traced, in part, to the impact of the “truce” that followed the Keynesian-Monetarist controversy on economists’ ideas about policy activism. This implicit “truce” has removed activist macro policy from discussion, and shifted attention toward institutions as mechanisms for solving game-theoretic coordination problems. Policy activism then centers on how the “agents” (nations) can achieve optimal use of their available resources (or optimal access to resources) at the global level; and this involves creating and fine-tuning compacts - neoliberal mechanism designs - that can capture rents and attract globally mobile capital. This approach leads economists to see the key problem in the current global crisis as fixing broken neoliberal mechanisms. However, a global economy dominated by mechanisms that feed on aggregate demand without generating it faces the prospect of stagnation or collapse.
Distance Learning in Higher Education
Gary A. Berg
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 1998,
Abstract: The Western Governors University (WGU) and the California Virtual University (CVU) are revealing examples of the complex issues involved in implementing distance learning on the public policy level. Although technology is certainly important, it has masked the fact that the WGU and CVU initiatives mark the rise of learner-centered higher education and the increased role of business in the academy. In comparing and contrasting WGU and CVU, it is clear that the WGU is a more radical proposition because of competency-based credit and the connection with private industry. Two important issues driving public policy are raised in these two efforts: First, are the California and Western Governors Association initiatives the product of the commercialization of education or the result of a reform of higher education that may lead to an increased learner-centered orientation? Second, what is the appropriate role of private industry in higher education?
The Role of the Study of Exercise in Defining the Frontier of Integrative Biology
Gary A. Iwamoto
Frontiers in Physiology , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2010.00142
Groups and Clusters in the Near-Infrared
Gary A. Mamon
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1007/BF00990062
Abstract: Massive multicolor digital surveys in the near infrared provide new opportunities for statistical analyses of the properties of groups and clusters. These galaxy systems provide a natural laboratory for studying dynamical processes and galaxy evolution, and serve as powerful cosmological diagnostics. The immediate scientific returns to be expected from near-infrared surveys such as DENIS and 2MASS are presented, and illustrated with simulated images of a Coma-like rich cluster.
Vortex Loop Phase Transitions in Liquid Helium, Cosmic Strings, and High-T_c Superconductors
Gary A. Williams
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1201
Abstract: The distribution of thermally excited vortex loops near a superfluid phase transition is calculated from a renormalized theory. The number density of loops with a given perimeter is found to change from exponential decay with increasing perimeter to algebraic decay as T_c is approached, in agreement with recent simulations of both cosmic strings and high-T_c superconductors. Predictions of the value of the exponent of the algebraic decay at T_c and of critical behavior in the vortex density are confirmed by the simulations, giving strong support to the vortex-folding model proposed by Shenoy.
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