Abstract:
The European Union tries to be a responsible, technocratic, scientific regulator. As national governments struggle with populist calls for protectionism and state aid it preaches a co-ordinated, economically defensible recovery policy. Yet the paradox is that it was the experts who created the crisis, with complex systems and models that are now discredited. Does the solution really lie in more advice from the same people, or is the crisis also one of ideas, showing that we cannot understand or manage the world using only quantitative sciences, and human and political judgment still need to be central? Not only the EU, but also a technocratic model of government, is now facing a test. Success will bring great political capital for both, whereas failure will require a rethinking of the way we make rules, as well as of where we make them.

Abstract:
It is well known that EU citizenship is parasitic upon national citizenship. To become an EU citizen it is necessary to be a citizen of one of the Member States, and the states have exclusive competence to decide who their own citizens are. They therefore function as gatekeepers, and jealously guard this role. However, in practice national citizenship and nationality laws are influenced by EU membership. Firstly, this influence comes from other Member States, who recognise that the decision on citizenship taken by their neighbours have, as a result of rights of free movement and non-discrimination a direct impact upon themselves. Secondly, there is an influence from the EU institutions and EU legislation, for example by granting rights to long-term third country national residents. Since periods of residence are often a central criterion for gaining nationality, EU residence rights effectively amount to EU support for national citizenship for these residents. These points are made using the examples of Spain, Ireland and Germany, all of which have made changes to nationality laws, or exercised nationality decisions, in a way where the influences above can be demonstrated. The long-term residents directive is used to show the influence of the EU itself. These empirical findings are placed in the context of current debates on the nature of citizenship, and on methods of harmonisation, in particular the increasing use of soft and reflexive methods.

Abstract:
We relate two measures of complexity of regular languages. The first is syntactic complexity, that is, the cardinality of the syntactic semigroup of the language. That semigroup is isomorphic to the semigroup of transformations of states induced by non-empty words in the minimal deterministic finite automaton accepting the language. If the language has n left quotients (its minimal automaton has n states), then its syntactic complexity is at most n^n and this bound is tight. The second measure consists of the quotient (state) complexities of the atoms of the language, where atoms are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients. A regular language has at most 2^n atoms and this bound is tight. The maximal quotient complexity of any atom with r complemented quotients is 2^n-1, if r=0 or r=n, and 1+\sum_{k=1}^{r} \sum_{h=k+1}^{k+n-r} \binom{h}{n} \binom{k}{h}, otherwise. We prove that if a language has maximal syntactic complexity, then it has 2^n atoms and each atom has maximal quotient complexity, but the converse is false.

Abstract:
The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.

Abstract:
A right ideal is a language L over an alphabet A that satisfies L = LA*. We show that there exists a stream (sequence) (R_n : n \ge 3) of regular right ideal languages, where R_n has n left quotients and is most complex under the following measures of complexity: the state complexities of the left quotients, the number of atoms (intersections of complemented and uncomplemented left quotients), the state complexities of the atoms, the size of the syntactic semigroup, the state complexities of the operations of reversal, star, and product, and the state complexities of all binary boolean operations. In that sense, this stream of right ideals is a universal witness.

Abstract:
For a continuous map f on a compact metric space (X,d), a subset D of X is internally chain transitive if for every x and y in D and every delta > 0 there is a sequence of points {x=x_0,x_1, ...,x_n=y} such that d(f(x_i),x_{i+1}) < delta for i=0,1, ...,n-1. It is known that every omega-limit set is internally chain transitive; in earlier work it was shown that for X a shift of finite type, a closed subset D of X is internally chain transitive if and only if D is an omega-limit set for some point in X, and that the same is also true for the tent map with slope equal to 2. In this paper, we prove that for tent maps whose critical point c=1/2 is periodic, every closed, internally chain transitive set is necessarily an omega-limit set. Furthermore, we show that there are at least countably many tent maps with non-recurrent critical point for which there is a closed, internally chain transitive set which is not an omega-limit set. Together, these results lead us to conjecture that for those tent maps with shadowing (or pseudo-orbit tracing), the omega-limit sets are precisely those sets having internal chain transitivity.

Abstract:
The Paediatric Observation Priority Score (POPS) is a bespoke assessment tool for use in Paediatric
Emergency Departments incorporating traditional physiological parameters alongside more
subjective observational criteria. Initial performance characteristics of POPS were analysed in a
convenience sample of 936 presentations to ED. Triage on the basis of gut instinct parameters
identified an additional 261 patients deemed of lowest acuity compared to analysis by physiology
scores. Resource consumption increased with increasing acuity on presentation. POPS shows
promise in assisting in the assessment process of children presenting to Emergency Departments.
Inclusion of subjective triage criteria helps contextualise the physiological parameter scoring by
using the experience of staff conducting triage. Initial interpretation of presenting physiology
gives a more informed assessment of initial acuity, and thus is better able to identify a child who
can be safely managed in the community. The system also allows for rapid detection of those most
unwell.

Abstract:
No patients involvedThis paper describes a simple approach to emergency burr hole evacuation of extra-axial intracranial haematoma that can be used in the uncommon situation when life saving specialist neurosurgical intervention is not available.Rapidly expanding intracranial haematomas associated with fixed dilated pupils are rapidly fatal. A recently fixed dilated pupil with corresponding imaging evidence of an extra-axial haematoma is considered an indication for emergency targeted burr hole placement.Extra-axial haematomas (extradural/subdural) by definition are outside the brain and hence are not a primary brain injury. It is the delay in removing the compression of the brain by the clot that causes brain injury and death.Ideal treatment is provided by immediate specialist neurosurgical care. However in many parts of the world, this is not always available and the risks of delay associated with secondary transfer have to be balanced with the risks of the procedure being done by a non-specialist. At one UK neurosurgical centre, the median transfer time was 5.25 hours for patients with extradural haematoma and 6 hours for subdural haematoma [1]. The prolonged transfer of a patient with fixed/dilated pupils is unlikely to have a good outcome. Transfer of this type of patient is analogous to transferring a patient with other time critical but reversible pathology such as a tension pneumothorax. There are many reports of non-specialists successfully performing emergency burr holes [2]. These are often done with household drills and other makeshift tools which, when successful, has created media interest [3]. Although there have been significant technical advances in the safety of the procedure since the time of "exploratory" burr holes, there has simultaneously been a reduction in the number of surgeons either having experience in or being willing to perform the procedure. A number of general surgeons working in remote areas of Australia are more confident in perfor

Abstract:
A simple intubatable mannequin or student volunteers are used together with a training version of the equipment used on a routine basis by the pre-hospital care team (doctor + paramedic).Training is conducted outdoors at the base location all year round. The scenarios are led by scenario facilitators who are predominantly senior physicians. Their role is to brief the training team and guide the scenario, results of patient assessment and the simulated responses to interventions and treatment. Pilots, fire-fighters and medical students are utilised in scenarios to enhance realism by taking up roles as bystanders, additional ambulance staff and police. These scenario participants are briefed and introduced to the scene in a realistic manner. After completion of the scenario, the training team would usually be invited to prepare and deliver a hospital handover as they would in a real mission. A formal structured debrief then takes place.This training method technique has been used for the training of all London Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (London HEMS) doctors and paramedics over the last 24 months. Informal participant feedback suggests that this is a very useful teaching method, both for improving motor skills, critical decision-making, scene management and team interaction. Although formal assessment of this technique has not yet taken place we describe how this type of training is conducted in a busy operational pre-hospital trauma service.The teaching and maintenance of pre-hospital care skills is essential to an effective pre-hospital trauma care system. Simple mannequin based scenario training is feasible on a day-to-day basis and has the advantages of low cost, rapid set up and turn around. The scope of scenarios is limited only by the imagination of the trainers. Significant effort is made to put the participants into "the Zone" - the psychological mindset, where they believe they are in a realistic setting and treating a real patient, so that they ga

Abstract:
Repeated exposure to inhaled allergen can cause airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction that manifests as the symptoms of allergic asthma. We have investigated the role of the cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13) in the generation and persistence of airway cellular inflammation, bronchial remodeling and deterioration in airway function in a model of allergic asthma caused by chronic exposure to the aeroallergen House Dust Mite (HDM).