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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1796 matches for " Gabriele Wunderbaldinger "
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Effects of peripheral inflammation on the blood-spinal cord barrier
Dimitris N Xanthos, Isabella Püngel, Gabriele Wunderbaldinger, Jürgen Sandkühler
Molecular Pain , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-8-44
Abstract: After peripheral carrageenan inflammation, but not capsaicin inflammation, immunohistochemistry shows occludin protein in lumbar spinal cord to be significantly altered at 72?hours post-injection. In addition, there is also significant immunoglobulin G detected in lumbar and thoracic spinal cord at this timepoint in both male and female rats. However, acute administration of sodium fluorescein or Evans Blue dyes is not detected in the parenchyma at this timepoint.Our results show that carrageenan inflammation induces changes in tight junction protein and immunoglobulin G accumulation, but these may not be indicative of a blood-spinal cord barrier breakdown. These changes appear transiently after peak nociception and may be indicative of reversible pathology that resolves together with inflammation.
Impaired Excitatory Drive to Spinal Gabaergic Neurons of Neuropathic Mice
J?rg Leitner, S?ren Westerholz, Bernhard Heinke, Liesbeth Forsthuber, Gabriele Wunderbaldinger, Tino J?ger, Doris Gruber-Schoffnegger, Katharina Braun, Jürgen Sandkühler
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073370
Abstract: Adequate pain sensitivity requires a delicate balance between excitation and inhibition in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. This balance is severely impaired in neuropathy leading to enhanced pain sensations (hyperalgesia). The underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we explored the hypothesis that the excitatory drive to spinal GABAergic neurons might be impaired in neuropathic animals. Transgenic adult mice expressing EGFP under the promoter for GAD67 underwent either chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve or sham surgery. In transverse slices from lumbar spinal cord we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from identified GABAergic neurons in lamina II. In neuropathic animals rates of mEPSC were reduced indicating diminished global excitatory input. This downregulation of excitatory drive required a rise in postsynaptic Ca2+. Neither the density and morphology of dendritic spines on GABAergic neurons nor the number of excitatory synapses contacting GABAergic neurons were affected by neuropathy. In contrast, paired-pulse ratio of Aδ- or C-fiber-evoked monosynaptic EPSCs following dorsal root stimulation was increased in neuropathic animals suggesting reduced neurotransmitter release from primary afferents. Our data indicate that peripheral neuropathy triggers Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways in spinal GABAergic neurons. This leads to a global downregulation of the excitatory drive to GABAergic neurons. The downregulation involves a presynaptic mechanism and also applies to the excitation of GABAergic neurons by presumably nociceptive Aδ- and C-fibers. This then leads to an inadequately low recruitment of inhibitory interneurons during nociception. We suggest that this previously unrecognized mechanism of impaired spinal inhibition contributes to hyperalgesia in neuropathy.
A Sieve for Prime Based on Extension Form of Not Prime  [PDF]
Gabriele Martino
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2013.31014

This paper will illustrate two versions of an algorithm for finding prime number up to N, which give the first version complexity

\"\" (1)

where c1, c2 are constants, and N is the input dimension, and gives a better result for the second version. The method is based on an equation that expresses the behavior of not prime numbers. With this equation it is possible to construct a fast iteration to verify if the not prime number is generated by a prime and with which parameters. The second method differs because it does not pass other times over a number that has been previously evaluated as not prime. This is possible for a recurrence of not prime number that is (mod 3) = 0. The complexity in this case is better than the first. The comparison is made most with Mathematics than by computer calculation as the number N should be very big to appreciate the difference between the two versions. Anyway the second version results better. The algorithms have been

Primality Test  [PDF]
Gabriele Martino
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2013.31009

In this paper we will give an algorithm that in the worst case solve the question about the primality of a number in \"\" but that gives better result if the number is not prime (constant operation). Firstly, we will introduce an equation on which are based not prime numbers. With this equation it is possible to deduce the prime number that generates a not prime number and to establish an equation in which if exists a certain integer the number is not prime and therefore vice versa to deduce if it is prime.

Solving a Traveling Salesman Problem with a Flower Structure  [PDF]
Gabriele Martino
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.27079

This works aims to give an answer to the problem P = NP? The result is positive with the criteria that solve the Traveling Salesman Problem in polynomial cost of the input size and a proof is given. This problem gets a solution because a polyhedron, with a cut flower looking, is introduced instead of graph (e.g. tree).

On the Fractal Design in Human Brain and Nervous Tissue  [PDF]
Gabriele A. Losa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.512165

Digital imaging techniques have enabled to gain insight into complex structure-functional processes involved in the neo-cortex maturation and in brain development, already recognized in anatomical and histological preparations. Despite such a refined technical progress most diagnostic records sound still elusive and unreliable because of use of conventional morphometric approaches based on a unique scale of measure, inadequate for investigating irregular cellular components and structures which shape nervous and brain tissues. Instead, these could be efficiently analyzed by adopting principles and methodologies derived from the Fractal Geometry. Through his masterpiece, The Fractal Geometry of Nature [1], Benoît Mandelbrot has provided a novel epistemological framework for interpreting the real life and the natural world as they are, preventing whatever approximation or subjective sight. Founded upon a body of well-defined laws and coherent principles, the Fractal Geometry is a powerful tool for recognizing and quantitatively describing a good many kinds of complex shapes, living forms, organized patterns, and morphologic features long range correlated with a broad network of functional interactions and metabolic processes that contribute to building up adaptive responses making life sustainable. Scale free dynamics characterized biological systems which develop through the iteration of single generators on different scales thus preserving proper self-similar traits. In the last decades several studies have contributed to showing how relevant may be the recognition of fractal properties for a better understanding of brain and nervous tissues either in healthy conditions or in altered and pathological states.

Immune evasion by Plasmodium falciparum parasites: converting a host protection mechanism for the parasite′s benefit  [PDF]
Bismarck Dinko, Gabriele Pradel
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2016.62011
Abstract: Immune evasion is a strategy used by pathogenic microbes to evade the host immune system in order to ensure successful propagation. Immune evasion is particularly important for the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadly disease malaria tropica. Because Plasmodium blood stage parasites require human erythrocytes for replication, their ability to evade attack by the human immune system is essential for parasite survival. In order to escape immunity-induced killing, the intraerythrocytic parasites have evolved a variety of evasion mechanisms, including expansion of plasmodial surface proteins, organ-specific sequestration of the infected red blood cells and acquisition of immune-regulatory proteins by the parasite. This review aims to highlight recent advances in the molecular understanding of the immune evasion strategies by P. falciparum, including antigenic variation, surface protein polymorphisms and invasion ligand diversification. The review will further discuss new findings on the regulatory mechanisms applied by P. falciparum to avoid lysis by the human complement as well as killing by immune factors of the mosquito vector.
Applications of Fractional Calculus to Newtonian Mechanics  [PDF]
Gabriele U. Varieschi
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2018.66105
Abstract: We investigate some basic applications of Fractional Calculus (FC) to Newtonian mechanics. After a brief review of FC, we consider a possible generalization of Newton’s second law of motion and apply it to the case of a body subject to a constant force. In our second application of FC to Newtonian gravity, we consider a generalized fractional gravitational potential and derive the related circular orbital velocities. This analysis might be used as a tool to model galactic rotation curves, in view of the dark matter problem. Both applications have a pedagogical value in connecting fractional calculus to standard mechanics and can be used as a starting point for a more advanced treatment of fractional mechanics.
Supercritical Water Technology Applied to the Purification of Waters Contaminated by Toxic Micro-Polluting Organic Compounds  [PDF]
Gabriele Di Giacomo, Luca Taglieri
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.47053
Abstract: Purification of water contaminated by toxic organic compounds at low and very low concentration is a quite interesting challenge from both the technical and the economical point of view. In fact, the direct destruction of organic compounds dissolved in very diluted aqueous solution is very costly and hardly achievable. To overcome this problems it was studied and developed a new water purification process which is made of three steps: a) removal of the diluted and toxic polluting compounds by adsorption on activated carbon beds operating at ambient P ant T; b) regeneration of the exhausted carbon bed with supercritical water in order to obtain a mixture of water and polluting compounds signifi-cantly more concentrated than the contaminated liquid water; c) destruction of the toxic compounds in a continuous Supercritical Water Oxidation Reactor. Step a) was studied at laboratory scale in order to obtain all the required information for modeling the adsorption operation; step b) was modeled by using literature experimental data and, step c) was validated at pilot plant scale. In all the above mentioned steps, phenol was used as representative of polluting compounds.
On Extremal Self-Dual Ternary Codes of Length 48
Gabriele Nebe
International Journal of Combinatorics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/154281
Abstract: All extremal ternary self-dual codes of length 48 that have some automorphism of prime order ≥5 are equivalent to one of the two known codes, the Pless code or the extended quadratic residue code.
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