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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10210 matches for " Ga?tan Texier "
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Spatio-temporal Patterns and Landscape-Associated Risk of Buruli Ulcer in Akonolinga, Cameroon
Jordi Landier ,Jean Gaudart,Kevin Carolan,Danny Lo Seen,Jean-Fran?ois Guégan,Sara Eyangoh,Arnaud Fontanet,Gatan Texier
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003123
Abstract: Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is an extensively damaging skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, whose transmission mode is still unknown. The focal distribution of BU and the absence of interpersonal transmission suggest a major role of environmental factors, which remain unidentified. This study provides the first description of the spatio-temporal variations of BU in an endemic African region, in Akonolinga, Cameroon. We quantify landscape-associated risk of BU, and reveal local patterns of endemicity. Methodology/Principal Findings From January 2002 to May 2012, 787 new BU cases were recorded in 154 villages of the district of Akonolinga. Incidence per village ranged from 0 (n = 59 villages) to 10.4 cases/1000 person.years (py); median incidence was 0.4 cases/1,000py. Villages neighbouring the Nyong River flood plain near Akonolinga town were identified as the highest risk zone using the SPODT algorithm. We found a decreasing risk with increasing distance to the Nyong and identified 4 time phases with changes in spatial distribution. We classified the villages into 8 groups according to landscape characteristics using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering. We estimated the incidence ratio (IR) associated with each landscape using a generalised linear model. BU risk was highest in landscapes with abundant wetlands, especially cultivated ones (IR = 15.7, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 15.7[4.2–59.2]), and lowest in reference landscape where primary and secondary forest cover was abundant. In intermediate-risk landscapes, risk decreased with agriculture pressure (from IR[95%CI] = 7.9[2.2–28.8] to 2.0[0.6–6.6]). We identified landscapes where endemicity was stable and landscapes where incidence increased with time. Conclusion/Significance Our study on the largest series of BU cases recorded in a single endemic region illustrates the local evolution of BU and identifies the Nyong River as the major driver of BU incidence. Local differences along the river are explained by wetland abundance and human modification of the environment.
Grounding the Human Body Improves Facial Blood Flow Regulation: Results of a Randomized, Placebo Controlled Pilot Study  [PDF]
Gaétan Chevalier
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.45039

Earthing (grounding) refers to bringing the human body in direct contact with the negative electric charge of the earth’s surface by barefoot exposure outdoors or using special conductive indoor systems that are connected to the Earth. To determine if earthing improves facial blood circulation/flow, a double-blind study was designed with forty subjects either grounded or sham-grounded (27 grounded subjects and 13 sham-grounded subjects acting as controls) for at least one hour in a comfortable recliner chair equipped with conductive mat, pillow, and patches. The grounding systems were either grounded or sham-grounded via a wire to the ground port (third hole) of a power outlet. A Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging camera was used to continuously record changes in facial blood flow non-invasively. Facial blood flow regulation clearly improved among grounded— but not sham-grounded—subjects. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that even one-hour contact with the earth restores blood flow regulation to the face suggesting enhanced skin tissue repair and improved facial appearance with possible implications for overall health. Further studies, using larger comparison groups, longer monitoring times, and more measuring methods, are warranted in order to confirm the novel influence of the Earth as a protector of skin health and appearance.

Grounding the Human Body during Yoga Exercise with a Grounded Yoga Mat Reduces Blood Viscosity  [PDF]
Richard Brown, Gaétan Chevalier
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.54019
Abstract: Objective: Research continues to show that being connected to the earth can increase the potential of the body to scavenge free radicals. This study examined the effect of just one hour of grounding on blood viscosity while subjects participated in gentle yoga exercises designed to initiate minor inflammation. Design: In this double blind model, twenty-eight (28) subjects met at the Bowerman Sports Medicine Clinic on the campus of the University of Oregon and were grounded to the earth via contact with a grounded yoga mat or were sham-grounded. Ten yoga exercises were repeated five times over a one-hour period. Blood was taken pre and post exercise and analyzed for blood viscosity using a scanning capillary viscometer. Results: Subjects connected to the earth significantly reduced their post exercise systolic blood viscosity (p = 0.03) and diastolic blood viscosity (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Grounding has the ability to affect exercise induced inflammation, thereby reducing blood viscosity.
Low Birth Weight in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants: Observations in Urban Settings in Cameroon
Casimir Ledoux Sofeu, Josiane Warszawski, Francis Ateba Ndongo, Ida Calixte Penda, Suzie Tetang Ndiang, Georgette Guemkam, Nicaise Makwet, Félicité Owona, Anfumbom Kfutwah, Patrice Tchendjou, Gatan Texier, Maurice Tchuente, Albert Faye, Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem, The ANRS-PEDIACAM study group
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093554
Abstract: Background The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG) among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. Methods The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007–2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (?2SD). Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. Results Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6–6.0), and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0–8.1) and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4–0.8) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3–2.7) and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0–2.0) were identified as other contributors to SGAG. Conclusion Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are symptomatic, to minimize additional risk factors for SGAG.
Topography and Land Cover of Watersheds Predicts the Distribution of the Environmental Pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans in Aquatic Insects
Kevin Carolan ,Andres Garchitorena,Gabriel E. García-Pe?a,Aaron Morris,Jordi Landier,Arnaud Fontanet,Philippe Le Gall,Gatan Texier,Laurent Marsollier,Rodolphe E. Gozlan,Sara Eyangoh,Danny Lo Seen,Jean-Francois Guégan
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003298
Abstract: Background An understanding of the factors driving the distribution of pathogens is useful in preventing disease. Often we achieve this understanding at a local microhabitat scale; however the larger scale processes are often neglected. This can result in misleading inferences about the distribution of the pathogen, inhibiting our ability to manage the disease. One such disease is Buruli ulcer, an emerging neglected tropical disease afflicting many thousands in Africa, caused by the environmental pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Herein, we aim to describe the larger scale landscape process describing the distribution of M. ulcerans. Methodology Following extensive sampling of the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates in Cameroon, we select the 5 dominant insect Orders, and conduct an ecological niche model to describe how the distribution of M. ulcerans positive insects changes according to land cover and topography. We then explore the generalizability of the results by testing them against an independent dataset collected in a second endemic region, French Guiana. Principal Findings We find that the distribution of the bacterium in Cameroon is accurately described by the land cover and topography of the watershed, that there are notable seasonal differences in distribution, and that the Cameroon model does not predict the distribution of M. ulcerans in French Guiana. Conclusions/Significance Future studies of M. ulcerans would benefit from consideration of local structure of the local stream network in future sampling, and further work is needed on the reasons for notable differences in the distribution of this species from one region to another. This work represents a first step in the identification of large-scale environmental drivers of this species, for the purposes of disease risk mapping.
One-Hour Contact with the Earth’s Surface (Grounding) Improves Inflammation and Blood Flow—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Pilot Study  [PDF]
Gaétan Chevalier, Gregory Melvin, Tiffany Barsotti
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.78119
Abstract: Earthing (grounding) refers to the human body being in contact with the surface of the Earth by barefoot exposure outdoors or using special indoor systems connected to the Earth. Previous studies have showed multiple beneficial effects as a result of such contact, including better sleep, normalization of cortisol, reduced inflammation, pain and stress, and better blood flow. To determine if Earthing for one hour improves facial blood circulation, forty middle-aged volunteers were divided into a grounded group and a sham-grounded group according to a double-blind procedure. They were asked to sit in a comfortable recliner chair equipped with a grounding mat, pillow and patches. The grounding systems were either grounded or sham-grounded via a wire to the ground port of a power outlet. An infrared imaging camera was used to measure changes in blood flow and temperature. Thermal imaging showed clearly improved circulation of fluids (including blood) throughout the torso, which in turn, translates into enhanced delivery of blood to the head and improved blood circulation in the face as well. The results of this innovative study demonstrate that even one-hour contact with the Earth appears to promote significantly autonomic nervous system control of body fluids and peripheral blood flow that may improve blood circulation in the torso and face, facial tissue repair, skin health and vitality and optimize facial appearance (face anterior view p = 0.002; face lateral views p = 0.017; full anterior torso view p = 0.002). Further study using larger comparison groups and following subjects for a longer period of time (longitudinal study) is warranted.
Criatividade e pensamento crítico
Tremblay, Gatan;
Intercom: Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Comunica??o , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1809-58442011000100013
Abstract: in this short paper, based on an analysis of recent academic and political discourses on creativity, is develops a theoretical reflexion on the necessary dialectical articulation of creative and critical thinking in communication studies. in a first step, are questions the assumptions aiming to build a new social and economic paradigm based on creativity. it doubts, in particular, richard florida's theoretical and methodological hypotheses regarding the emergence of a creative class. in a second step, is showing how it is easy for politicians to promote creativity as a positive value making it a corner stone in the development of the information society. as a conclusion, it is showing that the renovation of critical thinking as a necessary complement of the promotion of creative process in communication studies.
Seeding Event: Creating and Developing Spaces of Entrepreneurial Freedom
Gatan Mourmant
Grounded Theory Review : an International Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This paper addresses the question of initiating, fostering and growing a vibrant economy by developing Spaces of Entrepreneurial Freedom (SoEF). Establishing and developing the SoEF is explained by a seeding event which is the core category of this grounded theory. In short, a seeding event leads to the patching of a potential, structural “hole”, which may prove valuable to an entrepreneurial network. Seeding events are started by an initiator who will recognize a network opportunity and exploit it. After event designing, the initiators implement the event through bold experimentation and using an adaptive structure. If the event is considered successful, the next stages are refining, growing, templating and finally replicating; these stages may occur one after the other or simultaneously. Through the development of SoEF, we suggest that entrepreneurs, governments, universities, large companies, and other players in the business world can improve the development of entrepreneurship at their respective levels.
Industries culturelles, économie créative et société de l’information
Gatan Tremblay
Global Media Journal : Canadian Edition , 2008,
Abstract: Après avoir rappelé les grandes lignes de la théorie des industries culturelles, l’auteur relie le “nouveau modèle” de l’économie créative aux diverses tentatives pour nommer et interpréter les changements qui affectent les sociétés industrialisées depuis la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, de la société post-industrielle de Daniel Bell et d’Alain Touraine à la société de la connaissance de l’UNESCO. Il procède ensuite à l’examen critique des définitions et des évaluations des industries créatives. Il explique comment ces dernières reposent sur un usage et une interprétation de données statistiques fort contestables. Il discute les résultats surprenants, voire aberrants, auxquels en arrivent les auteurs du rapport de la Conférence des Nations Unies sur le Commerce et le Développement (CNUCED) dans leur tentative de mesurer la taille de l’économie créative sur l’ensemble de la planète. Enfin, il tente d’interpréter les motifs sous-jacents à la promotion de cette nouvelle version de l’idéologie de la société de l’information. Si les données disponibles montrent que l’art et la culture ne comptent que pour une valeur relativement faible des industries créatives, ils sont au c ur de l’opération idéologique. L’évocation de la créativité permet de jeter des ponts en direction des activités culturelles, dont l’intégration donne du lustre et de la légitimité à l’ensemble. Surtout, l’arrimage aux industries culturelles permet de se réclamer des mêmes spécificités économiques que l’analyse a permis de dégager au cours des quatre dernières décennies et de revendiquer la même protection, les mêmes interventions que les pouvoirs publics ont déployées au fil des ans dans les secteurs artistiques et culturels.
Quelques conditions pour une sémiotique de la cartographie
Mappemonde , 1986,
Abstract: La cartographie, satisfaisant aux cinq conditions empruntées à Hjelmslev et étudiées ici en détail pour rendre compte de sa structure, fonctionne bien comme un langage. On peut donc l'aborder selon les méthodes de la sémiologie.
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