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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1579 matches for " GO Adjei "
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Pharmacogenetics in Ghana: Reviewing the evidence
W Kudzi, GO Adjei, D Ofori-Adjei, ANO Dodoo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Different clinical response of different patients to the same medicine has been recognised and documented since the 1950’s. Variability in response of individuals to standard doses of drug therapy is important in clinical practice and can lead to therapeutic failures or adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenetics seeks to identify individual genetic differences (polymorphisms) in drug absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion that can affect the activity of a particular drug with the view of improving efficacy and reducing toxicity. Although knowledge of pharmacogenetics is being translated into clinical practice in the developed world, its applicability in the developing countries is low. Several factors account for this including the fact that there is very little pharmacogenetic information available in many indigenous African populations including Ghanaians. A number of genes including Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, MDR1 and TPMT have been genotyped in the Ghanaian population since the completion of the Human genome project. There is however, an urgent need to increase pharmacogenetic research in Ghana to increase availability of data. Introducing Pharmacogenetics into the curriculum of Medical and Pharmacy training institutions will influence translating knowledge of pharmacogenetics into clinical practice. This will also equip health professionals with the skill to integrate genetic information into public health decision making.
Empirical Modeling of Annual Fishery Landings  [PDF]
Eric Adjei Lawer
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.74018
Abstract: Forecasting plays an essential role in policy formulation and implementation especially in the management of fisheries resources. In this paper, various techniques of forecasting using time series analysis were evaluated on annual fishery production data. In addition to the Box-Jenkins approach, other methods such as the feed forward neural network and exponential smoothing approaches were also examined. A parsimonious model for each forecasting approach was then selected using penalized likelihoods. The chosen models were then evaluated based on their ability to produce accurate forecasts. Implications of the findings as discussed revealed that no particular method was ideal for modeling all landings. Hence when forecasting fishery landings, it is recommended that different structural approaches be compared before selecting an appropriate one for use.
Impacts of Changing Climate on Maize Production in the Transitional Zone of Ghana  [PDF]
Victor Adjei, Rosina Kyerematen
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2018.73028
Abstract: This study sought to assess the challenges and opportunities that come with climate change and variability impacts on maize farming in the Nkoranza South Municipality in the Transitional Zone of Ghana. The mixed method approach (qualitative and quantitative) was used in collecting the data. Rainfall data obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet) indicated that the dry cell between the major and minor rainy seasons was getting wetter and the two seasons were gradually merging whereas the first and last quarters of the year were getting drier over the last couple of decades. The situation over the last five years (2010-2015) had worsened as the amount of total rainfall had reduced by 22% compared to the 30 year period between 1960 and 1982. The results of the study showed that farmers had perceived changes in climate in the form of decreasing rainfall, rising air temperatures and seasonal changes in rainfall pattern which were affecting their maize farming operations. The major setbacks within the area were deficit in rainy days and intermittent erratic rainfall affecting maize production. The major opportunity available to farmers in the face of changing climate in this agroecological zone was cashew production. About 76.8% of the respondents had diversified into cashew farming as a result of rainfall failure and strong resistance of the cashew trees to changing and variable climate.
Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana
E Adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women. Objective: To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Method: The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents. Results: Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty –three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1 %) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. Conclusion: In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy.
Clinical Pharmacy: A Theoretical Framework for Practice
Michael Adjei
INNOVATIONS in Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract:
Verification of Hypothesis of “Six Patterns of Paid Vacation Use”: An Exploration of Six Patterns of Paid Vacation Usage and Number of Days Taken  [PDF]
Go Igusa
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2014.23013
Abstract: In this study a survey using questionnaires was conducted to understand the actual condition of the relationship between methods for taking paid vacation and its usage rate; to focus on verifying the relationship quantitatively by empirical analysis; and to present a plan to promote paid vacation usage. The simple tabulation did not reveal a distinct difference in the number of days taken as paid vacation among the usage methods; however, by making the other conditions constant, the number of days taken as paid vacation by those adopting a share method was significantly high. In other words, by recommending the share method at a workplace, it is possible that the paid vacation usage condition improves considerably. In order for this method to operate effectively, the paper proposed that “efforts to utilize human resources” is necessary so that personnel who can replace the work of employees taking paid vacation are prepared.
A Survey Study on the Causes of Annual Paid Leave Being Left Untaken by Japanese Physicians from the Perspective of Hospital Managers  [PDF]
Go Igusa
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2014.24017
Abstract: This paper focuses on the issue of annual paid leave that is left untaken by physicians in a difficult working environment from the perspective of hospital managers and clarifies the reasons why physicians cannot (will not) take leave through interviews with these managers and main causes of this through qualitative analysis. The results show that the main causes of annual paid leave being left untaken are “the lack of substitute physicians due to management constraints” and “physician’s ethics and overwork” which are different from the results of conventional research into annual paid leave. While also exposing the issue of supply and demand such as the uneven distribution of physicians, this paper raises the necessity of human resources management for physicians such as reconstructing the supply and demand coordination framework by improving the medical services payment system for physicians in order to make sure that demand for physician labour is met and to build and maintain a system for the provision of safe and secure healthcare in the future.
Economic Analysis on Attributes of Workers and Method to Take Annual Paid Vacation  [PDF]
Go Igusa
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2015.33014
Abstract: This paper focuses on what type of laborers chooses which of the six types of uses of paid vacations. In this paper, we conduct a multinomial logistic regression analysis with the “six types of uses of paid vacations” which are “share method”, “progressive method”, “regressive method”, “self-pay method (advance)”, “self-pay method (arrears)”, and “self-pay method (work at home)” as object variables. As a result, many of the independent variables did not influence which type was chosen, but interesting variables “information is not shared” and “those around me take paid vacation” were influential, revealing that different types of choices are made depending on how participants work.
Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) to Different Rates of Palm Bunch Ash Application in the Semi-deciduous Forest Agro-ecological Zone of Ghana
S. Adjei-Nsiah
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/870948
Abstract: The effects of palm bunch ash (PBA) and mineral fertilizer application on grain yield and nutrient uptake in maize and soil chemical properties were studied in both the major and minor rainy seasons in the semi-deciduous forest agro-ecological zone of Ghana. In both the major and minor rainy seasons, the response of maize to four levels (0, 2, 4, and 6 tons per hectare) of palm bunch ash and 200 kg per hectare of NPK (15-15-15) application was evaluated using randomised complete block design. Results of the study showed that application of palm bunch ash significantly ( ) increased soil pH, soil phosphorus, and exchangeable cations. Maize grain yield varied significantly ( ) among the different treatments in both the major and minor rainy seasons. The highest maize grain yield of 4530 and 6120?kg? was obtained at PBA application rate of 2 tons for the major and minor rainy seasons, respectively. 1. Introduction Empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the major waste products generated from processing fresh fruit bunch (FFB) in palm fruit processing mills. About 22% of FFB processed into oil end up as EFB [1]. Currently, Ghana produces about 1,900,000 metric tons of FFB annually [2] which, when processed into oil, generate 418,000 MT of EFB annually. In the large industrial estates, EFB is either incinerated in the mills as a means of getting rid of these wastes’ as well as, providing energy for the boilers in FFB sterilization. However, the small-scale mills which process about 60% of the total FFB produced in the country [3] burn the EFB as a means of disposing them, resulting in heaps of ash dotted around small-scale mills in the major oil palm producing areas in Ghana. There is currently no large-scale use for palm bunch ash in Ghana, although it could be used for the manufacture of local soap due to its high potassium content. The palm bunch ash (PBA) produced by burning EFB, which constitutes about 6.5% by weight of the EFB, contains 30–40% K2O [1] and could thus be used as source of potassium fertilizer. Most soils in the forest part of southern Ghana where oil palm is cultivated are acidic due to the nature of the parent material, high rainfall regime, intensity, and associated leaching of nutrients which requires sustainable liming. Preliminary analysis of bunch ash of different ages from processing mills in Kade (unpublished results) indicates that besides K, palm bunch ash has high pH and contains varying amounts of other nutrients such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg). These properties of palm bunch ash make it suitable as a
Role of Pigeonpea Cultivation on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability in Ghana
S. Adjei-Nsiah
International Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/702506
Abstract: The productivity of the smallholder farming system in Ghana is under threat due to soil fertility decline. Mineral fertilizer is sparingly being used by smallholder farmers because of prohibitive cost. Grain legumes such as pigeonpea can play a complementary or alternative role as a source of organic fertilizer due to its ability to enhance soil fertility. Despite its importance, the potential of pigeonpea as a soil fertility improvement crop has not been exploited to any appreciable extent and the amount of land cultivated to pigeonpea in Ghana is vey negligible. This paper synthesizes recent studies that have been carried out on pigeonpea in Ghana and discusses the role of pigeonpea cultivation in soil fertility management and its implication for farming system sustainability. The paper shows that recent field studies conducted in both the semi-deciduous forest and the forest/savanna transitional agro-ecological zones of Ghana indicate that pigeonpea/maize rotations can increase maize yield by 75–200%. Barrier to widespread adoption of pigeonpea include land tenure, market, and accessibility to early maturing and high yielding varieties. The paper concludes among other things that in order to promote the cultivation of pigeonpea in Ghana, there is the need to introduce varieties that combine early maturity with high yields and other desirable traits based on farmers preferences. 1. Introduction Agricultural productivity in the smallholder farming systems in Ghana is under threat due to declining soil fertility. In the past, smallholder farmers in Ghana relied on the extended bush fallow system for maintaining the productivity of their farmlands [1]. This system allowed restoration of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), the most limiting nutrients. However, over the years, the population growth-induced scarcity of suitable farmland has led to the shortening of the fallow period making it difficult to manage soil fertility in smallholder farming systems. The problem is compounded by the increasing cost of inputs at the farm level due to structural adjustment programmes that have removed subsidies and increased supply costs due to the deterioration conditions of rural infrastructure [2]. For instance, in 2002, whereas a metric tonne of urea cost about US$90 FOB (free on board) in Europe [3], the same quantity cost a Ghanaian farmer about US$308 at the farm level [4]. Most farmers, especially the smallholder farmers, do not have access to formal credit and therefore cannot afford to buy mineral fertilizers even when it has been demonstrated to be profitable
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