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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5205 matches for " GIS "
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Advancing Theory? Landscape Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems
Di Hu
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2011, DOI: 10.5334/pia.381
Abstract: This paper will focus on how Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been applied in Landscape Archaeology from the late 1980s to the present. GIS, a tool for organising and analysing spatial information, has exploded in popularity, but we still lack a systematic overview of how it has contributed to archaeological theory, specifically Landscape Archaeology. This paper will examine whether and how GIS has advanced archaeological theory through a historical review of its application in archaeology.
Dr. Jyoti sarup,Manish K. Tiwari,Vardichand Khatediya
International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research , 2011,
Abstract: Present study was carried out to delineate groundwater prospect zones and identification of artificial recharge sites using Indian remote sensing satellite (IRS) 1D PAN geocoded data on 1:12,500 scale and Survey of India (SOI) topographical sheets. The information based on lithology, geomorphology, soil, land-use/ land-cover, structures/lineament, slope, drainage and hydrology were generated and integrated to prepare groundwater prospect and artificial recharge site map of the study area.Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to prepare database in the above layers, analysis of relationship and integrated map preparation. On the bases of hydrology and geomorphic characteristics, five categories on groundwater prospect zones are identified: Excellent, good, moderate poor and very poor. The analysis reveals that the river terraces and water bodies with alluvium has excellent (about 15% area), buried pediplain with black cotton soil have good potential (about 24% areas). These unite has highly favorable for ground water exploration and development. Deeply buried pediment with black cotton soil are marked under moderate ground water prospect zones (about 26% area), shallow buried pediment with Deccan basalt and dykes are grouped under poor ground water prospect zones (about 24% area), except along the fractures/lineaments. Residual hills, dykes, linear ridges and plateau, are group have very poor groundwater prospects (about 11% area). Four-artificial recharge sites ware identify out of witch the moderate and poor categories occupy more than 42% area and these are mainly plateau, ridges and buried pediment shallow. The most suitable artificial recharge sites occupy less area about 19% and mainly confined to buried pediplain and river terraces. The residual hill and linear ridge with steep slope (covering about 39% areas) have not suitable for artificial recharge sites. This vital information could be used effectively for identification of suitable location for groundwater potential and artificial recharged sites. The good interrelationship was found among the geological units, hydromorphological units and lineament density. The field data have further helped in quantifying various lithological and hydromorphological units with reference to their potential for groundwater occurrence.
Application of RS & GIS in Risk area assessment for mosquito borne diseases- A case study in a part of Gwalior City (M.P.)
Shyam Avtar Agarwal,Shailendra Singh Sikarwar,D.Sukumaran
International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research , 2012,
Abstract: With the increase of mosquito borne diseases in the recent past , there is an ever increasing demand on source available for the control program, so wise and prudent management of the resource is becoming increasingly important. Application of Remote Sensing & GIS may help the decision makers to take decision about control program for mosquito borne diseases like malaria, dengue, and elephantiasis at right place and in right direction. It became easier by identifying risk area identification. It also provides the architecture and analysis tool to perform spatio-temporal modeling of climate, environment, disease transmission, and other factors relevant to understanding the impacts and risks associated with vector borne disease (VBD). Main aim of the study is to identify risk area in study area. The study area selected is a small part of Gwalior city (M.P.) and lies between 26°13′N 78°11′E to 26.22°N 78.18°E coordinates. It has an average elevation of 197 meters (646 feet). In this study different sites are recognized as mosquito breeding sites and the location of the sites were taken by using GPS instrument. The Built up area is extracted from satellite image using classification techniques after that by using GIS analysis the risk area affected by those mosquito breeding sites is identified.
D Maemunah Dawy
Bumi Lestari , 2012,
Abstract: The purposes of this research are to know the land use pattern. To analyze the potency of land to determine the optimal land use pattern in relation, with the management of Sa’dan Watershed at Tana Toraja Regency, The research is carried out at at Sa’dan watershed of Tana Toraja Regency which include 24 villages. The methods used are qualitative and quantitative descriptive. The primary data is collected by survey or mapping method and questionnaire, meanwhile the secondary data is obtained from related departments. The colleted data are then analyzed by statistical and Geographical information System (GIS). The result of the analysis show that; 1) The condition of land use pattern at Sa’dan watershed has changed its function; 2) the degradation of land causing erosion is ampunt of 64.053,69 ton/ha/year; 3) the implementation for the change of land use pattern recommended is reducing the erosion quantity in each treatment, namely 281,19 ton/ha/year, 276,87 ton/ha/year, 4.201,66 ton/ha/year and 383,40 ton/ha/year in the first, second, third and fourt freatments. Based on the analysis result, some effort could be done in order to reduce the land degradation and the optimal land use were as follws; 1) the land use pattern should be changed: 2) the land conservation system should be implemented exaltly and quickly; and 3) the participation of the government, private sector, nongovernment social organozation, and society in relative to the management of Sa’dan W atershed of Tana Toraja Regency should be also involved.
A Holistic Approach for the Development and Implementation of Robust and Cost-Effective Enterprise WebGIS Business Solutions  [PDF]
Gurram Murali Krishna, Kinthada Nooka Ratnam, Pekala Ravi, Panuganti Sridhar
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2015.75038
Abstract: Recent advancements in internet mapping technology, efficient geospatial data management systems, and availability of different GIS API’s have revolutionized the way in which the geospatial data is being used, shared and represented through distributed systems for business applications. However, development of powerful, highly functional, yet cost- and time-effective enterprise WebGIS business systems requires a very robust and highly scalable architecture. The architecture should have the inherent characteristics of rapid development, a well-defined object library and at the same time it should comply with the existing geospatial interoperability standards defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). On the other hand, development of extendible distributed business GIS systems requires the presence of tailor-made inbuilt models available as modules which can be extended further by readily implementable user-interface templates supported by object modeling environment which allows for custom design and delivery of the processes and map output. There are various commercial and open source web mapping solutions which offer a great deal of flexibility and functionality. Nevertheless, they restrict the user community with certain limitations, in terms of functionality, cost or complexity. This necessitates, defining a new approach which efficiently caters the user requirements and not limiting them with aforementioned shortcomings. This paper aims to evaluate various architectural alternatives for delivering robustdistributed GIS business solutions and also attempts to give an account of an implementable instance of a WebGIS architecture which can cater the multi-user and multi-industry requirements.
Assessment of Groundwater Quality in the Gaza Strip, Palestine Using GIS Mapping  [PDF]
Basem Shomar, Sami Abu Fakher, Alfred Yahya
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.22011
Abstract: A Geographical Information System (GIS) tool was used to construct thematic maps for groundwater quality in the Gaza Strip. Environmental data were integrated and an overall picture about the spatial variation in the groundwater quality of the Gaza Strip was defined. The integrated spatial maps helped to refine information on land use, soil types, depth to groundwater table, environmental “hot spots”, and contaminant concentra-tions of the study area. The groundwater quality maps have been derived from the results of an eight-year monitoring program for major anions, cations and heavy metals. An environmental hot-spots map was de-rived from potential contaminating sources, showed direct and indirect influences on groundwater quality. The GIS maps showed not only contaminant distributions but also illustrated the need to improve the groundwater quality management methods. Several contaminants pose great problems in the water of Gaza. Integration of water data and GIS maps for all parameters revealed that there is probably no drinking water in Gaza according to the WHO standards. Moreover, the new maps of 2008 could be used as base-line for water planners and policy makers as well as guidelines for the Palestinian people to manage and protect their groundwater. Increased water demand from population and economic growth, environmental needs, land use changes, urbanization, groundwater mining, deterioration of water quality, pollution from local and diffuse sources, environmental hot-spots and impacts on public heath and ecosystems are all factors that can create a severe water quality crisis as well as water shortage problems.
Groundwater Origin and Its Hydrogeochemistry through GIS Maps in Linares Region, Mexico  [PDF]
René Alberto Dávila Pórcel, Héctor de León-Gómez
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.58A001

The North-East region of Mexican Republic has a semi-arid weather condition; this area covers partially Tamaulipas, Nuevo León and Coahuila states. Pablillo River Basin (PRB) is located close to Nuevo León south border and its catchment area involves Linares City (LC), Hualahuises City (HC) and Cerro-Prieto dam (CP). This reservoir captures drinking water to Monterrey Metropolitan Zone (MMZ) the major urban center on the north-east Mexican region. More than 50% of the potable water for LC comes from groundwater stockpiles. A combination of GIS maps and major ion chemistry analysis has been assessed, to know the origin, geochemical evolution, and hydraulic interconnection of groundwater. During 2008-2009, 46 groundwater samples were taken and analyzed around LC and HC. GIS technology was use to analyze the spatial distribution of the constituents of groundwater through thematic maps. The major ion analysis and its results suggest the presences of two aquifers; shallow porous aquifer on the top and fractured aquifer on the bottom. General water mineralization was discovered, including dissolution of halite, dolomites and carbonates through the aquifers. Water quality varies widely through the aquifers, and the general pathways go from southwest to northeast direction. The overexploitation of groundwater increases the water mixing of groundwater between shallow and deeper aquifers. Natural origin of groundwater and groundwater pollution by anthropogenic activities should be considered in the groundwater quality analysis for drinking water purpose.

RSSI Enhanced Microkernel-Based LBS Design  [PDF]
Tingyan Xing, Shang Zhang, Fan Zhang
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2014.62012

Geographical Information System (GIS) always plays an integral role in LBS systems. But it comes with technology problems, such as less flexible, low efficiency, no redundancy of existing geographic information of application configuration which has high entry cost. At same time, indoors positioning is attracting more and more attention from research domain where GPS-like systems do not work. By RSSI location fingerprint data that sampling from the actual WSN environment, this article analyzed RF signal propagation characteristics in indoor from the point of view of the indoor positioning, and analyzed some factors that may affect the positioning error, which provided a theoretical basis for the positioning algorithm design and positioning system deployment. The aim of this paper is also to present a lightweight, efficient and scalable microkernel plug-in geospatial information application system and its implementation method for GIS in LBS design and practice. In this paper a software model called Resource loading manager (RLM) is designed. Through the RLM efficient allocation of geographic information resources and security management could be achieved.

Spatial patterns of health clinic in Malaysia  [PDF]
H. Hazrin, Y. Fadhli, A. Tahir, J. Safurah, M. N. Kamaliah, M. Y. Noraini
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512287

Background: This manuscript aimed to map the spatial distributions of health clinics for public and private sectors in Malaysia. It would assist the stakeholders and responsible authorities in the planning for health service delivery. Methods: Data related to health clinic were gathered from stakeholders. The location of health facilities was geo-coded using a Global Positioning System (GPS) handheld. The average nearest neighbour was used to identify whether health clinics were spatially clustered or dispersed. Hot spot analysis was used to assess high density of health clinics to population ratio and average distance of health clinics distribution. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to analyse the requirement of health clinic in a sub-district based on population density and number of health clinics with significant level (p < 0.001). Results: The results of the average nearest neighbour analysis revealed that the distribution of public health clinics was dispersed (p < 0.001) with z-scores 3.95 while the distribution of private clinics was clustered (p < 0.001) with z-score ?29.26. Several locations especially urban area was also identified as high density in the sub-district. Conclusions: There is a significant difference in the spatial pattern of public health clinics and private clinics in Malaysia. The information can assist stakeholder and responsible authorities in planning health service delivery.


Study on GIS Intelligentization Transformation Technology and Solution

高群伟, 孙银山, 包联霜, 于维娟
Transmission and Distribution Engineering and Technology (TDET) , 2013, DOI: 10.12677/TDET.2013.24017
Abstract: GIS智能化改造是变电站智能化改造的重要内容,本文基于GIS智能化改造技术需求及遵循原则,阐述了GIS智能化相关技术、实现方案以及实施要点,为GIS智能化改造提供参考。
 The GIS intelligence reform is an important part of intelligence reform of substation. The text, based on technical requirement and the principles followed by GIS intelligence reform, shows intelligent GIS-related technology, implementation and executive point. And this provides a reference for GIS intelligence reform.
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