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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 801 matches for " GI Mensah "
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Bacteriological quality of sachet water produced and sold in Teshie-Nungua suburbs of Accra, Ghana
KK Addo, GI Mensah, M Bekoe, C Bonsu, ML Akyeh
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: Access to good quality drinking water is a challenge in most towns and cities in Ghana and households have for years depended on other sources of water to supplement their activities. The introduction of sachet water to consumers was to provide safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public. Although this is a laudable idea, current trends seem to suggest that sachet drinking water could be a route of transmission of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality of sachet water popularly known as “pure water” produced and sold in the Teshie-Nungua suburbs of Accra, Ghana, one of the areas with perennial water shortage forcing inhabitants to depend on sachet water as a source of drinking water. Using simple random sampling procedures, 30 samples from 10 brands of sachet water were collected from hawkers/vendors in Teshie-Nungua (3 samples per brand). One sachet water sample was taken from each site every fortnight for six weeks in May-June 2007. The samples were analyzed using multiple tube method and biochemical assays. Results were recorded as Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform per 100ml of water. The bacteriological quality of the samples was assessed based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system for drinking water. Five (16.7 %) of the samples were Excellent, 5 (16.7%) were Satisfactory, 9 (30%) were Suspicious and 11 (36.7%) were Unsatisfactory using the MPN values recorded. Six samples were contaminated with faecal coliform and two of these, (P1 and P2) were from the same brand. Escherichia coli was also detected in the two samples (P1 and P2) out of three samples from the same brand. The level of contamination could be due to inadequate treatment of water samples by the producers, improper use of filters or post-production contamination. The findings suggest the need to enforce the laws that govern the operation of such production outfits as well as educating consumers on the need to purchase sachet water from manufacturers that have been licensed to produce water and whose product bears the stamp of the Food and Drugs Board of Ghana.
Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market
KK Addo, GI Mensah, B Donkor, C Bonsu, ML Akyeh
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among the middle and high income earners as it is generally perceived to be pure, clean and of good quality. This has led to the sale of different brands of bottled water on the Ghanaian market. Although disease outbreaks due to contaminated bottled water are rare, any contamination may pose a unique hazard because of the widespread distribution. Bacteriological contamination of bottled water can occur through the bottling process or as a result of storage for long periods at room temperatures or higher. Since bottled water may be consumed by a wide range of people including the elderly, children and pregnant women, its safety must always be assured. The bacteriological quality of the current 7 brands of bottled water on the Ghanaian market was tested over a period of 10 weeks. Ten different batches of each brand was randomly selected and purchased from the market making a total of 70 samples. Sampling was done weekly in July-September 2007 and bacteriological examination conducted by multiple tube fermentation method to detect the presence of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. Results obtained were analyzed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards and guidelines for drinking water. Using the Most Probable Number (MPN) Index for various combination of positive and negative results, an MPN value of less than two (<2) total and faecal coliform were recorded for all the 70 samples of bottled water. The results showed that the bacteriological quality of the seven brands of bottled water samples analyzed was within the acceptable limits set by WHO guidelines and therefore safe for human consumption. However, more extensive surveillance of the bottled water industries and stringent regulations should be developed and enforced to ensure that the standards recorded in this study are maintained.
The Valuation of Infrastructure Index Bonds  [PDF]
Joseph Atta-Mensah
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2015.54028

The paper examines a potential role of financing Africa’s infrastructure projects, particularly in Africa, with bonds indexed to the project. Using option-pricing techniques, the author shows that an infrastructure indexed bond is equivalent to a regular bond and a short position on a European put option. The results of the paper suggest that the value of the infrastructure indexed bond increases monotonically as the value of the project it is financing rises. In addition, the market value of the infrastructure-indexed bonds falls as the value of the project becomes more volatile. The rise in the dividend rate on the project is observed to have an adverse effect on the value of infrastructure-indexed bonds.

The Role of Collateral in Credit Markets  [PDF]
Joseph Atta-Mensah
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2015.54027

The author examines the role of collateral in an environment where lenders and borrowers possess identical information and similar beliefs about its future value. Using option-pricing techniques, he shows that a secured loan contract is equivalent to a regular bond and an embedded option to the borrower to default. The author finds that the lender will not advance to the borrower, a loan that exceeds the market value of the collateral, and that the supply of loans increases with a rise in the market value of the collateral. Increases in the volatility of the value of the collateral, interest rate, and dividend rate of the collateral independently depress the loan supply. The author also derives the cost of a third-party guarantee of a loan and an implied risk premium.

Poverty, Climate Change and Weather-Indexed Bonds  [PDF]
Joseph Atta-Mensah
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.62024
Abstract: Scientific evidence clearly shows that as a result of greenhouse emissions, the global climate is changing. Poor developing countries are at most risk because they are more dependent on agriculture; more vulnerable to coastal and water resource changes; and have less financial, technical and institutional capacity for adaptation. It is therefore important for these countries to come up with a comprehensive Action Plan on how to mitigate and adapt to climate change. This paper suggests that weather-indexed bonds could provide a potential vehicle for developing countries (LDCs) to raise money on the international capital markets to manage the risks associated to climate change. The issue of this type of bond could provide an opportunity for countries to hedge against the fluctuations in revenues derived from weather dependent assets. Furthermore, weather-linked risk management tools allow countries to examine a new set of risk-contingent structured financial products. This paper also examines a variety of models applicable to agriculture and the sovereign debt of developing agrarian nations including from the corporate side, weather-linked bonds, and from the producer side, weather-linked loans. These weather risk management tools are targeted towards mitigating both business and financial risk by reducing the contractual obligation of debt (principal and/or interest) depending on the intrinsic value of an attached weather option (e.g. excess heat or precipitation), which pays off, if a specific weather event occurs.
The Valuation of Corruption  [PDF]
Joseph Atta-Mensah
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.65051
Abstract: Unlike the current measures in the literature, where corruption is constructed as an index, this paper provides a formula for quantifying corruption. By using option pricing techniques, the paper shows that the monetary value of a corrupt activity is equivalent to a regular bond and an embedded European call option. This formula is very important because it could be used to gauge the level resources lost to corrupt activities, and also to determine the level of “tax” that could be levied at corrupt-government officials. Results in the paper show that a government committed to reducing corruption should institute measures that will reduce the level and the volatility of the price of the goods in the parallel markets. The paper also finds that a government could reduce corruption by cutting interest rates, which would spur growth and render corruption as an unprofitable exercise.
Theoretical Foundations of Africa’s Economic Transformation and Growth  [PDF]
Joseph Atta-Mensah
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.75078
Abstract: This paper provides the theoretical underpinnings of growth models to explain structural economic transformation in Africa. The paper suggests that endogenous growth model is the key for understanding long-run growth of economies through the accumulation of knowledge. Private and public investments in knowledge and Research and Development (R & D) have long-run effects on growth. Since small changes in the growth rate of an economy can cumulate into large changes in the standard of living over a generation or more, government policies can have a large impact on economic welfare. Furthermore, endogenous growth models provide a richer structure that can add insight into the mechanics of growth. The implications of the growth models examined in this paper are that for an African country to achieve economic transformation through an interrelated processes of structural change that accompany economic development, and growth has to be at sustainable high levels for a very long time. Furthermore, it is important African policymakers work hard to circumvent diminishing marginal productive of key factors of production. It is also important that adequate resources are invested by African government in research and development, allowing for technological progress, innovations and accumulation of knowledge. A combination of these factors is the necessary ingredient for sustainable high levels of growth. The endogenous growth models hold a lot of promise for the structural economic transformation of African economies. The paper offers policy advice for African countries attempting to transform and build resilient economies.
Demand for Money in a Stochastic Environment  [PDF]
Joseph Atta-Mensah
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2018.82017
Abstract: The author re-examines the demand-for-money theory in an intertemporal optimization model. The demand for real money balances is derived to be a function of real income and the rates of return of all financial assets traded in the economy. Unlike the traditional money-demand relation, however, where the elasticities are assumed to be constant, the coefficients of the explanatory variables are not constant and depend on the degree of an agent’s risk aversion, the volatilities of the price level and income, and the correlation of asset returns. The author shows that the response of households to increased volatilities in the financial markets, economic activity, and prices cannot be predicted, because a rise in general uncertainties has an ambiguous impact on the demand for money. This suggests that increased uncertainty is not very helpful for the planning decisions of households, because the optimal level of money holdings in the period of uncertainty cannot be ascertained.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis in Ghana: The role of laboratory training
KK Addo, D Yeboah-Manu, M Dan-Dzide, K Owusu-darko, P Caulley, GI Mensah, M Minamikawa, C Lienhardt, FA Bonsu, D Ofori-Adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: The laboratory is considered the cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control programme. International review of Ghana’s programme in the late nineties identified the laboratory services as the weakest component. Sputum smear microscopy (SSM) being the main method of diagnosing pulmonary TB in Ghana, the training objectives were to: (i) strengthen the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel on SSM (ii) impart necessary techniques in biosafety and (iii) introduce a Quality Assurance (QA) system in order to strengthen SSM services. Methods: Personnel were selected for training during a nationwide situation analysis of SSM centres in 2000/2001. Four training sessions on SSM/QA were held between 2001/2004. Results: A total of 80 personnel were trained: 10 regional TB coordinators and 70 laboratory personnel. The participants upon return to their respective regions also organized training within their districts. This approach resulted in another 100 district TB coordinators and 200 laboratory personnel being trained. Improvement in smear preparation, staining and reading ability of the participants were observed during the post-test and subsequent visit to their respective laboratories. The training has led to strengthening of TB laboratory services in the country and has contributed to increase in case detection from 10,745 in 2000 to 11,827 in 2004 and 14,022 in 2008. It was observed during the post-training follow-up and quarterly supervision visits that morale of the personnel was high. Conclusion: Continuous training and re-training of laboratory personnel on SSM and QA at regular intervals do play an important role for effective and efficient TB control programme.
Developing a Model for Controlling Internal Corrosion in Water Supply System  [PDF]
Byung-Gi Hwang
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.92013
Abstract: A model was developed to generate charts that fit the conditions as diverse temperatures and ionic strengths, and that estimate the diversified state of water. The chart can be used as a tool for controlling corrosive waters resulted in internal corrosion and the model producing charts composed of a number of sub modules, and each module incorporated parameters including acidity, alkalinity, pH, and calcium ion. Utilizing the chart water quality of the raw water in G water purification works was estimated to be unsaturated and Langelier index becomes -1.4 which means that the water is highly corrosive and calcium carbonate would not be precipitated. Thus, the water requires treatment as the injection of water stabilizing chemicals to promote an oversaturated (protective) condition. As a result of adding 5 mg/L of lime, it is possible to be precipitated with 5 mg/L, and the water becomes noncorrosive. In addition, when 5 mg/L of caustic soda is added as a conditioning chemical, it signifies to be precipitated with 9 mg/L, and the water also turns out to be largely noncorrosive. Both chemicals are possible to use for the water to be favorable for the formation of a protective film. Optimum injection rate for controlling corrosion can be found by repeating the procedures until the well-conditioned water criteria are satisfied.
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