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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 382899 matches for " G. R. William Wint "
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Global Data for Ecology and Epidemiology: A Novel Algorithm for Temporal Fourier Processing MODIS Data
J?rn P. W. Scharlemann, David Benz, Simon I. Hay, Bethan V. Purse, Andrew J. Tatem, G. R. William Wint, David J. Rogers
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001408
Abstract: Background Remotely-sensed environmental data from earth-orbiting satellites are increasingly used to model the distribution and abundance of both plant and animal species, especially those of economic or conservation importance. Time series of data from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on-board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites offer the potential to capture environmental thermal and vegetation seasonality, through temporal Fourier analysis, more accurately than was previously possible using the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor data. MODIS data are composited over 8- or 16-day time intervals that pose unique problems for temporal Fourier analysis. Applying standard techniques to MODIS data can introduce errors of up to 30% in the estimation of the amplitudes and phases of the Fourier harmonics. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a novel spline-based algorithm that overcomes the processing problems of composited MODIS data. The algorithm is tested on artificial data generated using randomly selected values of both amplitudes and phases, and provides an accurate estimate of the input variables under all conditions. The algorithm was then applied to produce layers that capture the seasonality in MODIS data for the period from 2001 to 2005. Conclusions/Significance Global temporal Fourier processed images of 1 km MODIS data for Middle Infrared Reflectance, day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are presented for ecological and epidemiological applications. The finer spatial and temporal resolution, combined with the greater geolocational and spectral accuracy of the MODIS instruments, compared with previous multi-temporal data sets, mean that these data may be used with greater confidence in species' distribution modelling.
Mapping the Global Distribution of Livestock
Timothy P. Robinson, G. R. William Wint, Giulia Conchedda, Thomas P. Van Boeckel, Valentina Ercoli, Elisa Palamara, Giuseppina Cinardi, Laura D'Aietti, Simon I. Hay, Marius Gilbert
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096084
Abstract: Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.
Phonon anomaly at the charge ordering transition in 1T-TaS2
L. V. Gasparov,K. G. Brown,A. C. Wint,D. B. Tanner,H. Berger,R. Gaal,L. Forro,G. Margaritondo
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.094301
Abstract: The infrared reflectance of the transition metal chalcogenide 1T-TaS2 has been measured at temperatures from 30K to 360K over 30-45,000cm^-1 (4meV-5.5eV). The optical conductivity was obtained by Kramers-Kronig analysis. At 360K only modest traces of the phonon lines are noticeable. The phonon modes are followed by a pseudogap-like increase of the optical conductivity, with direct optical transitions observed at frequencies above 1eV. As the temperature decreases, the low frequency conductivity also decreases, phonon modes become more pronounced and pseudogap develops into a gap at 800cm^-1 (100meV). We observe an anomalous frequency dependence of the 208cm^-1 infrared-active phonon mode. This mode demonstrates softening as the temperature decreases below the 180K metal-to-insulator transition. The same mode demonstrates strong hysteresis of the frequency and linewidth changes, similar in its temperature behavior to the hysteresis in the dc-resistivity. We discuss a possible relation of the observed softening of the mode to the structural changes associated with the metal-to-insulator transition.
Ecology and life history of an Amazon floodplain cichlid: the discus fish Symphysodon (Perciformes: Cichlidae)
Crampton, William G. R.;
Neotropical Ichthyology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1679-62252008000400008
Abstract: the discus fishes of the genus symphysodon are popular ornamental cichlids that occur in floodplain lakes and flooded forests of the lowland amazon basin. these habitats are characterized by extreme seasonal fluctuations in the availability of food, shelter and dissolved oxygen, and also the densities of predators and parasites. most aspects of discus biology are influenced by these fluctuating conditions. this paper reports an autoecological study of the western amazonian discus s. haraldi (until recently classified as s. aequifasciatus). this species feeds predominantly on algal periphyton, fine organic detritus, plant matter, and small aquatic invertebrates. at high water it forages alone or in small groups in flooded forests. at low water it forms large aggregations in fallen tree crowns along lake margins. breeding occurs at the beginning of the flood season, ensuring that the progeny are well grown before the next low water period. symphysodon haraldi is an iteroparous partial spawner, reaches reproductive maturity within a year, and undertakes parental care of its eggs and larvae. the timing of spawning events, and/or the rate of brood survival, may be influenced by fluctuations in the flood level, resulting in a non-unimodal distribution of size classes for the subsequent 1+ cohort.
Jesus and the law revisited
William R.G. Loader
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i1.824
Abstract: This article revisited the issue of Jesus’ attitude towards the Torah on the basis of a critical discussion of the most recent extensive treatment of the theme by Meier in his A marginal Jew: Rethinking the historical Jesus: Volume four: Law and love (2009). It engaged Meier’s contribution in the light of contemporary research, concluding that, whilst Meier provided an erudite analysis, his thesis that Jesus’ teaching on divorce and oaths revoked Mosaic law did not convince, for it did not adequately consider the extent to which the contemporary interpretation of the Torah could encompass such radicalisation. How to cite this article: Loader, W.R.G, 2011, ‘Jesus and the law revisited’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(1), Art. #824, 6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i1.824
Climate Change and Public Health Policy: Translating the Science
Marieta Braks,Rijk van Ginkel,William Wint,Luigi Sedda,Hein Sprong
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph110100013
Abstract: Public health authorities are required to prepare for future threats and need predictions of the likely impact of climate change on public health risks. They may get overwhelmed by the volume of heterogeneous information in scientific articles and risk relying purely on the public opinion articles which focus mainly on global warming trends, and leave out many other relevant factors. In the current paper, we discuss various scientific approaches investigating climate change and its possible impact on public health and discuss their different roles and functions in unraveling the complexity of the subject. It is not our objective to review the available literature or to make predictions for certain diseases or countries, but rather to evaluate the applicability of scientific research articles on climate change to evidence-based public health decisions. In the context of mosquito borne diseases, we identify common pitfalls to watch out for when assessing scientific research on the impact of climate change on human health. We aim to provide guidance through the plethora of scientific papers and views on the impact of climate change on human health to those new to the subject, as well as to remind public health experts of its multifactorial and multidisciplinary character.
A Novel N-Terminal Domain May Dictate the Glucose Response of Mondo Proteins
Lisa G. McFerrin, William R. Atchley
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034803
Abstract: Glucose is a fundamental energy source for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The balance between glucose utilization and storage is integral for proper energy homeostasis, and defects are associated with several diseases, e.g. type II diabetes. In vertebrates, the transcription factor ChREBP is a major component in glucose metabolism, while its ortholog MondoA is involved in glucose uptake. Both MondoA and ChREBP contain five Mondo conserved regions (MCRI-V) that affect their cellular localization and transactivation ability. While phosphorylation has been shown to affect ChREBP function, the mechanisms controlling glucose response of both ChREBP and MondoA remain elusive. By incorporating sequence analysis techniques, structure predictions, and functional annotations, we synthesized data surrounding Mondo family proteins into a cohesive, accurate, and general model involving the MCRs and two additional domains that determine ChREBP and MondoA glucose response. Paramount, we identified a conserved motif within the transactivation region of Mondo family proteins and propose that this motif interacts with the phosphorylated form of glucose. In addition, we discovered a putative nuclear receptor box in non-vertebrate Mondo and vertebrate ChREBP sequences that reveals a potentially novel interaction with nuclear receptors. These interactions are likely involved in altering ChREBP and MondoA conformation to form an active complex and induce transcription of genes involved in glucose metabolism and lipogenesis.
A portable bio-amplifier for electric fish research: design and construction
Wells, Jonathan K.;Crampton, William G. R.;
Neotropical Ichthyology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1679-62252006000200018
Abstract: the weak electric organ discharges (eods) of gymnotiform knife fishes can be readily amplified with a wideband amplifier connected to submerged electrodes. the output from such an amplifier can then be monitored with audio speakers or digitized for subsequent analysis. commercially available devices are expensive and usually require mains electrical power. here we provide design notes and instructions for the construction and calibration of a cheap, portable, battery-powered, ac-coupled wideband bio-amplifier. this device was designed to allow electric fishes to be located in the field, and also to permit the relatively noise-free acquisition of eod waveforms from specimens held in temporary captivity. this contribution is intended to encourage students of neotropical ichthyology to explore electric signaling in gymnotiform fishes.
A new squamate lizard from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group), S?o Paulo State, Brazil
Nava, William R.;Martinelli, Agustín G.;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652011000100017
Abstract: the record of non-mosasaur squamates (reptilia, squamata) is sparse in the cretaceus fossil record of brazil and include six putative reports, three from the aptian-albian of the araripe basin (tijubina pontei bonfim-júnior and marques, olindalacerta brasiliensis evans and yabumoto, and a lizard indet.) and three from the upper cretaceous of the bauru group (pristiguana brasiliensis estes and price, anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., and squamata gen. et sp. indet.). in this contribution, a new genus and species of lizard, brasiliguana prudentis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on an isolated left maxilla with teeth. the material was discovered in an outcrop of the upper cretaceous adamantina formation (bauru group) located in the proximity of presidente prudente municipality, s?o paulo state, brazil. the new taxon is considered a basal non-priscagamidae+acrodonta iguanian based on the presence of a weakly inclined anterior margin of the maxillary nasal process and maxillary tooth shape and tooth implantation similar to that of iguanians rather than of other lizard groups (e.g. teiids). this finding significantly increases the squamate lizard diversity of south america, which is still poorly understood and sparsely represented in the fossil record.
Fitting together: copulatory linking in some Neotropical Chrysomeloidea
Wills Flowers,R; Eberhard,William G;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: copulatory linking of male and female genitalic structures in 11 neotropical species of chrysomelidae and one species of megalopodidae was studied by freezing and then dissecting pairs of beetles in copula. in megalopus armatus (megalopodidae) the male has a long endophallus with complex membranous protuberances and a terminal flagellum that probably reaches the spermatheca. in the subfamily eumolpinae the females have telescoping ovipositors through which the male endophalli pass, reaching to or near the mouth of the spermathecal duct. a long thin flagellum is probably inserted into the spermathecal duct. the male endophalli are braced inside the female using various structures, including two pairs of lateral appendages and apical appendages (both lateral pairs sclerotized in colaspis sanjoseana and only the basal pair in brachypnoea irazuensis), a pair of membranous swellings (in metaxyonycha amasia), and apical microspicules on the endophallus (in xanthonia). in the subfamily galerucinae, males of metrioidea and diabrotica (tribe galerucini) have relatively short endophalli ornamented with sclerotized hooks, spines and needles. in metrioidea elongata the long needle-like endophallic spines of the male were erected inside the female and penetrated the wall of her bursa. in the tribe alticini, the male endophallus is very short and does not enter the female in two species, alagoasa gemmata and walterianella sp. instead, the apical parts of the female bursae were everted, and were clamped by sclerites of the male median lobe. the male genitalia of plectrotetra hirsuta reached deep into the female, to the median oviduct, far beyond the mouth of the spermathecal duct. both rigid and membranous structures meshed in complex ways. when these observations are combined with published descriptions of mating in other chrysomelidae, the great diversity of copulatory morphology in these families comes into sharper focus. rev. biol. trop. 54 (3): 829-842. epub 2006 sept. 29.
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