Abstract:
A new alkali metallo-organic single crystal of Lithium Sodium Acid Phthlate (LiNaP) complex has been synthesized from aqueous solution in the equimolar ratio 3:1:2. Transparent and bulk single crystals of dimension 9 × 4 ×2 mm^{3} have been grown from the conventional slow-cooling technique. The crystal structure of the compound has been solved from single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound 2[C_{8}H_{4}O_{3}]^{4-}Li^{3+}Na^{+} crystallizes in triclinic system with a space group of Pī having cell dimensions a = 7.5451(2) ? b = 9.8422(3) ? c = 25.2209(7) ? α = 80.299(2); β = 89.204(2); γ = 82.7770(10). FTIR measurement was carried out fo? LiNaP to study the vibrational structure of the compound. The various functional groups present in the molecule and the role of H-bonds in stabilizing the crystal structure of the compound have been explained. Optical absorption properties were studied for the grown crystal using UV-Vis-NIR spectrum. Thermal measurements were carried out for LiNaP to determine the thermal strength as well as to ascertain the hydrated nature of the crystal. Third order nonliner optical studies have also studied by Z-scan techniques. Nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refractive index were found out and the third order bulk susceptibility of compound was also estimated. The results of all studies have been discussed in detail.

Essential plant nutrients contained in residues and wastes generated during biofuel processing can be recovered for further production of bioenergy biomass. The objective of this study was to determine the relative agronomic efficiency of “processed” biofuel residual (PBR). Liquid biofuel residual was “processed” by precipitating phosphate and ammonium in the residual with magnesium into a struvite-like material. Then, in a series of greenhouse experiments, we evaluated the fertility potential of PBR, using sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), as a test bioenergy crop. We compared the agronomic effectiveness of PBR to inorganic commercial fertilizers, biosolids, and poultry manure as nutrient sources. The sources were either applied alone or in combination with supplemental essential plant nutrients (S, K, Mg, and micronutrients). In each of the greenhouse experiments, the crop was grown for 12 wk on soil of minimal native fertility. After each harvest, sufficient water was applied to the soil in each pot over a 6-wk period to yield ~2 L (~one pore volume) of leachate to assess potential total N and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) losses. Dry matter yields from the PBR treatment applied alone were significantly greater than yields from inorganic fertilizers, biosolids, and poultry manure treatments applied alone, and similar to yields obtained when the supplemental essential plant nutrients were added to the inorganic fertilizer, biosolids, and manure treatments. Leachate N and SRP concentrations from the PBR treatment were significantly lower than in the treatments with inorganic fertilizers, poultry manure, and biosolids. We conclude that PBR can substitute for inorganic fertilizers and other organic sources of plant nutrients to produce bioenergy biomass cheaply, without causing offsite N and P losses in vulnerable soils.

Abstract:
This paper presents a reliable power flow technique based on equivalent node current injections, which are computed from the specified load powers, and line voltage drops for radial distribution systems. The equations of node current injections are solved iteratively for line voltage drops. The approach exploits the features of both node based and branch based distribution power flow approaches. It is simple and uses a sparse constant jacobian matrixthat needs to be factorized only once in the iterative process. The test results of 15, 29 and 69 node systems indicate that the proposed method is efficient, robust, accurate and has great potential for on-line applications.

Abstract:
A planar magnetoinductive (MI) waveguide loaded rectangular microstrip patch antenna is presented and discussed. The MI waveguide consists of two planar metamaterial split squared ring resonators (SSRRs) placed in between two microstrip lines. The backward wave propagation takes place through this structure. The rectangular microstrip patch antenna is magnetically coupled to the MI waveguide. The unloaded rectangular microstrip patch antenna resonates at 37.10 GHz. When loaded with planar MI waveguide, its resonant frequency is reduced to 9.38 GHz with the bandwidth and gain of 44% and 4.16 dBi respectively. In loaded condition, the dimension of antenna is 12.50 mm × 3.70 mm (0.390 λ × 0.115 λ). The appreciable bandwidth is achieved in such a small size antenna. The pass band frequency of MI waveguide is predicted by using the theoretical model of dispersion equation. The effective medium theory is used to verify the metamaterial characteristics of SSRR. The simulated results and theoretical calculations are also presented. The results show that the proposed method can be used to design compact and high bandwidth microstrip patch antennas.

Abstract:
This study presents a Contingency Constrained Economic Load Dispatch (CCELD) using proposed Particle Swarm Optimization embedded with Evolutionary Programming (PSO-EP), conventional Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Evolutionary Programming (EP) techniques such as Classical EP (CEP), Fast-EP (FEP) and Mean of Classical and Fast EP (MFEP) to alleviate line overloading. Power system security enhancement deals with the task of taking remedial action against possible network overloads in the system following the occurrences of contingencies. Line overload can be removed by means of generation re-dispatching. The proposed approach employs conventional Particle Swarm Optimization embedded with Evolutionary Programming (PSO-EP) techniques. So that positive features of both techniques are exploited. The proposed method combines the advantages of different EP and PSO techniques to solve the ELD problem with contingency constraints. The solution obtained is quite encouraging and it has stable convergence characteristics. The CCELD problem is a twin-objective function viz. minimization of fuel cost and minimization of severity index. This proposed PSO-EP based CCELD approach generates higher quality solution in terms of optimal cost, minimum severity index than the other methods. Simulation results on IEEE 30 and 118 bus test systems are presented and compared with the results of other approaches.

Abstract:
We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to distinguish between relevant causally connected earthquakes. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski (2004). A network of earthquakes is constructed, which is time ordered and with links between the more correlated ones. Data pertaining to the California region has been used in the study. Recurrences to earthquakes are identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are analyzed subsequently to extract information about the complex dynamics. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence lengths helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes. The out-degree of the network shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws are also obtained with recurrence time distribution agreeing with the Omori law.

Abstract:
We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to distinguish between relevant causally connected earthquakes. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski (2004). A network of earthquakes is constructed, which is time ordered and with links between the more correlated ones. Recurrences to earthquakes are identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions, viz. California, Japan and Himalayas, are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. This is in agreement with the Omori law for aftershocks and extends it to spatial recurrences. The crossover to the second power law regime can be taken to be signalling the end of aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

Abstract:
In the crystal structure of the title compound, C2H8N+·C7H5O3 , the anions and cations are linked by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds into layers parallel to the ac plane.

Abstract:
A difference equation is a relation between the differences of a function at one or more general values of the independent variable. These equations usually describe the evolution of certain phenomena over the course of time. The present paper deals with the existence and uniqueness of solutions of fractional difference equations. 1. Introduction Fractional calculus has gained importance during the past three decades due to its applicability in diverse fields of science and engineering. The notions of fractional calculus may be traced back to the works of Euler, but the idea of fractional difference is very recent. Diaz and Osler [1] defined the fractional difference by the rather natural approach of allowing the index of differencing, in the standard expression for the th difference, to be any real or complex number. Later, Hirota [2] defined the fractional order difference operator where is any real number, using Taylor’s series. Nagai [3] adopted another definition for fractional order difference operator by modifying Hirota’s [2] definition. Recently, Deekshitulu and Mohan [4] modified the definition of Nagai [3] for in such a way that the expression for does not involve any difference operator. The study of theory of fractional differential equations was initiated and existence and uniqueness of solutions for different types of fractional differential equations have been established recently [5]. Much of literature is not available on fractional integrodifferential equations also, though theory of integrodifferential equations [6] has been almost all developed parallel to theory of differential equations. Very little progress has been made to develop the theory of fractional order difference equations. The main aim of this paper is to establish theorems on existence and uniqueness of solutions of various classes of fractional order difference equations. Further we define autonomous and nonautonomous fractional order difference equations and find their solutions. 2. Preliminaries Throughout the present paper, we use the following notations: be the set of natural numbers including zero. for . Let . Then for all and , , and , that is, empty sums and products are taken to be 0 and 1, respectively. If and are in , then for this function , the backward difference operator is defined as . Now we introduce some basic definitions and results concerning nabla discrete fractional calculus. Definition 2.1. The extended binomial coefficient , ( ) is defined by Definition 2.2 (see [7]). For any complex numbers and , let be defined as follows: Remark 2.3. For any