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well-known superfamily of transforming growth factors beta (TGF-b), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are
one of the most compelling cytokines for their major role in regulation of cell
growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues. This
subfamily was first described for its ability of potentiating bone formation,
but nowadays, the power of BMPs is well beyond the bone healing scope. Some of
the BMPs have been well studied and described in the literature, but the BMP9
is still worthy of attention. It has been shown by many authors that it is the
most potent osteogenic BMP. Moreover, it has been described as one of the
rare circulating BMPs. In this paper, we will review the recent literature on
BMP9 and the different avenues for future research in that field. Our primary
scope is to review its relation to bone formation and to elaborate on the
available literature on other systems.
The enhancement of trapping and the optimization of beam quality are two key issues of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA). The effect of a homogenous constant magnetic field B0, parallel to the direction of propagation of the pump pulse, is studied in the blowout regime via 2Dx3Dv Particle-In-Cell simulations. Electrons are injected into the wake using a counter-propagating low amplitude laser. Transverse currents are generated at the rim of the bubble, which results in the amplification of the B0 field at the rear of the bubble. Therefore the dynamics of the beam is modified, the main effect is the reduction of the transverse emittance when B0 is raised. Depending on beam loading effects the low energy tail, observed in the non-magnetized case, can be suppressed when B0 is applied, which provides a mono-energetic beam.
The influence of an external static field applied in the direction of propagation of a high intensity driving laser pulse on the electron trapping in laser wakefield acceleration is explored. It is shown that, in the case of self-injection, the electric charge accelerated can be enhanced in some physical situations.