We study local linear non-axisymmetric perturbations in
fully stratified 3D astrophysical disks. Radial stratification is set to be
described by power law, while vertical stratification is set to be exponential.
We analyze the linear perturbations in local shearing sheet frame and derive
WKB dispersion equation. We show that stratification laws of the disk matter
define not only the thermal stability of the disk, but also the efficiency of
the potential vorticity production by rotationg convective turbulence in
astrophysical disks. Taken developed convective turbulence we assume nonlinear
tendencies set by linear spectrum and show that vortices are unlikely to be generated
in rigid rotation flows. In contrast, differential rotation yields much higher
vortex production rate that depends on the disk thickness, distance from the
central object and the spectral characteristics of the developed thermal
turbulence. It seems that measurements of the temperature and density
distribution in accretion disks may indicate the efficiency of the turbulence
development and largely define the luminosity characteristic of accreting
flows.

Abstract:
We investigate mode coupling in a two dimensional compressible disc with radial stratification and differential rotation. We employ the global radial scaling of linear perturbations and study the linear modes in the local shearing sheet approximation. We employ a three-mode formalism and study the vorticity (W), entropy (S) and compressional (P) modes and their coupling properties. The system exhibits asymmetric three-mode coupling: these include mutual coupling of S and P-modes, S and W-modes, and asymmetric coupling between the W and P-modes. P-mode perturbations are able to generate potential vorticity through indirect three-mode coupling. This process indicates that compressional perturbations can lead to the development of vortical structures and influence the dynamics of radially stratified hydrodynamic accretion and protoplanetary discs.

Abstract:
We investigate linear dynamics of non-axisymmetric perturbations in incompressible, vertically stratified Keplerian discs with a weak vertical magnetic field in the shearing box approximation. Perturbations are decomposed into shearing waves whose evolution is followed via numerical integration of the linearized ideal MHD equations. There are two basic modes in the system -- inertia-gravity waves and magnetic mode, which displays the magnetorotational instability (MRI). As distinct from previous studies, we introduce `eigenvariables' characterizing each (counter-propagating) component of the inertia-gravity and magnetic modes, which are governed by a set of four first order coupled ordinary differential equations. This allowed us to identify a new process of linear coupling of the two above non-axisymmetric modes due to the disc's differential rotation. We did a comparative analysis of the dynamics of non-axisymmetric and axisymmetric magnetic mode perturbations. It is shown that the growth of optimal and close-to-optimal non-axisymmetric harmonics of this mode, having transient nature, can prevail over the exponential growth of axisymmetric ones (i.e., over the axisymmetric MRI) during dynamical time. A possible implication of this result for axisymmetric channel solutions is discussed. Specifically, the formation of the channel may be affected/impeded by non-axisymmetric modes already at the early linear stage leading to its untimely disruption -- the outcome strongly depends on the amplitude and spectrum of initial perturbation. So, this competition may result in an uncertainty in the magnetic mode's non-linear dynamics. It is also shown that a maximum non-axisymmetric growth is at vertical wavelengths close to the scale-height for which compressibility effects are important. This indirectly suggests that compressibility plays a role in the dynamics of the non-axisymmetric MRI.

Abstract:
In this paper we report on the nonresonant conversion of convectively unstable linear gravity modes into acoustic oscillation modes in shear flows. The convectively unstable linear gravity modes can excite acoustic modes with similar wave-numbers. The frequencies of the excited oscillations may be qualitatively higher than the temporal variation scales of the source flow, while the frequency spectra of the generated oscillations should be intrinsically correlated to the velocity field of the source flow. We anticipate that this nonresonant phenomenon can significantly contribute to the production of sound waves in the solar convection zone.

Abstract:
The electrostatic perturbations in an unmagnetized, non-isothermal ($T_i{\ll}T_e$) electron-ion plasma shear flow are considered. New physical effects, arising due to the non-normality of linear dynamics, are described. It is shown that the velocity shear induces the extraction of the mean flow energy by the acoustic perturbations (ion-sound waves). The influence of the medium dispersion, rising due to the violation of quasineutrality for perturbations, is examined. It is shown that in the course of the evolution ion-sound waves turn into ion plasma oscillations. New class of nonperiodic, electrostatic perturbations (with vortical motion of ion component), characterized by the intense energy exchange with the mean flow, is also described.

Abstract:
Our goal is to gain new insights into the physics of wave overreflection phenomenon in MHD nonuniform/shear flows changing the existing trend/approach of the phenomenon study. The performed analysis allows to separate from each other different physical processes, grasp their interplay and, by this way, construct the basic physics of the overreflection in incompressible MHD flows with linear shear of mean velocity, ${\bf U}_0=(Sy,0,0)$, that contain two different types of Alfv${\rm \acute{e}}$n waves. These waves are reduced to pseudo- and shear shear-Alfv${\rm \acute{e}}$n waves when wavenumber along $Z$-axis equals zero (i.e., when $k_z=0$). Therefore, for simplicity, we labelled these waves as: P-Alfv${\rm \acute{e}}$n and S-Alfv${\rm \acute{e}}$n waves (P-AWs and S-AWs). We show that: (1) the linear coupling of counter-propagating waves determines the overreflection, (2) counter-propagating P-AWs are coupled with each other, while counter-propagating S-AWs are not coupled with each other, but are asymmetrically coupled with P-AWs; S-AWs do not participate in the linear dynamics of P-AWs, (3) the transient growth of S-AWs is somewhat smaller compared with that of P-AWs, (4) the linear transient processes are highly anisotropic in wave number space, (5) the waves with small streamwise wavenumbers exhibit stronger transient growth and become more balanced, (6) maximal transient growth (and overreflection) of the wave energy occurs in the two-dimensional case -- at zero spanwise wavenumber. To the end, we analyze nonlinear consequences of the described anisotropic linear dynamics -- they should lead to an anisotropy of nonlinear cascade processes significantly changing their essence, pointing to a need of revisiting the existing concepts of cascade processes in MHD shear flows.

Abstract:
We find and investigate via numerical simulations self-sustained two-dimensional turbulence in a magnetohydrodynamic flow with a maximally simple configuration: plane, noninflectional (with a constant shear of velocity) and threaded by a parallel uniform background magnetic field. This flow is spectrally stable, so the turbulence is subcritical by nature and hence it can be energetically supported just by transient growth mechanism due to shear flow nonnormality. This mechanism appears to be essentially anisotropic in spectral (wavenumber) plane and operates mainly for spatial Fourier harmonics with streamwise wavenumbers less than a ratio of flow shear to the Alfv\'{e}n speed, $k_y < S/u_A$ (i.e., the Alfv\'{e}n frequency is lower than the shear rate). We focused on the analysis of the character of nonlinear processes and underlying self-sustaining scheme of the turbulence, i.e., on the interplay between linear transient growth and nonlinear processes, in spectral plane. Our study, being concerned with a new type of the energy-injecting process for turbulence -- the transient growth, represents an alternative to the main trends of MHD turbulence research. We find similarity of the nonlinear dynamics to the related dynamics in hydrodynamic flows -- to the \emph{bypass} concept of subcritical turbulence. The essence of the analyzed nonlinear MHD processes appears to be a transverse redistribution of kinetic and magnetic spectral energies in wavenumber plane [as occurs in the related hydrodynamic flow, see Horton et al., Phys. Rev. E {\bf 81}, 066304 (2010)] and differs fundamentally from the existing concepts of (anisotropic direct and inverse) cascade processes in MHD shear flows.

Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of hydrodynamic shear turbulence in non-magnetized Keplerian disks. We wish to draw attention to a route to hydrodynamic turbulence which seems to be little known by the astrophysical community, but which has been intensively discussed among fluid dynamicists during the past decade. In this so-called `bypass' concept for the onset of turbulence, perturbations undergo a transient growth, and they may reach an amplitude that is sufficiently large to allow positive feedback through nonlinear interactions. This transient growth is linear in nature, and thus it differs in principle from the well-known nonlinear instability. We describe the type of perturbations that according to this process are the most likely to lead to turbulence, namely non-axisymmetric vortex mode perturbations in the two dimensional limit. We show that the apparently inhibiting action of the Coriolis force on the dynamics of such vortical perturbations is substantially diminished due to the pressure perturbations, contrary to current opinion. We stress the similarity of the turbulent processes in Keplerian disks and in Cartesian flows and conclude that the prevalent skepticism of the astrophysical community on the occurrence of hydrodynamic shear turbulence in such disks is not founded.

Abstract:
Special features of surface gravity waves in deep fluid flow with constant vertical shear of velocity is studied. It is found that the mean flow velocity shear leads to non-trivial modification of surface gravity wave modes dispersive characteristics. Moreover, the shear induces generation of surface gravity waves by internal vortex mode perturbations. The performed analytical and numerical study provides, that surface gravity waves are effectively generated by the internal perturbations at high shear rates. The generation is different for the waves propagating in the different directions. Generation of surface gravity waves propagating along the main flow considerably exceeds the generation of surface gravity waves in the opposite direction for relatively small shear rates, whereas the later wave is generated more effectively for the high shear rates. From the mathematical point of view the wave generation is caused by non self-adjointness of the linear operators that describe the shear flow.

Abstract:
This article reviews the development of the S&P 500 volatility index and uses market information to develop algorithms which aid in clarifying some of the salient points in the determination of an index value. Understanding the pertinent points provides insight into the interpretation and limitations of the usefulness of the VIX and other VIX-type contracts.