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Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia
Andargachew Mulu, Afework Kassu, Kahsay Huruy, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Gashaw Yitayaw, Masayo Nakamori, Nguyen Van Nhien, Assegedech Bekele, Yared Wondimhun, Shigeru Yamamoto, Fusao Ota
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-569
Abstract: In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 423 pregnant women and from 55 healthy volunteers who visited the University of Gondar Hospital. Serum concentration of vitamin A was measured by high performance liquid chromatography.After controlling for total serum protein, albumin and demographic variables, the mean ± SD serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive pregnant women (0.96 ± 0.42 μmol/L) was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without HIV infection (1.10 ± 0.45 μmol/L, P < 0.05). Likewise, the level of serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive non-pregnant women (0.74 ± 0.39) was significantly lower than that in HIV negative non-pregnant women (1.18 ± 0.59 μmol/L, P < 0.004). VAD (serum retinol < 0.7 μmol/L) was observed in 18.4% and 17.7% of HIV infected and uninfected pregnant women, respectively. Forty six percent of non-pregnant women with HIV infection had VAD while only 28% controls were deficient for vitamin A (P = 0.002).The present study shows that VAD is a major public health problem among pregnant women in the tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Considering the possible implications of VAD during pregnancy, we recommend multivitamin (which has a lower level of vitamin A) supplementation in the care and management of pregnant women with or without HIV infection.Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to be a significant public health problem around the world and it is particularly serious among women of reproductive age in South-East Asia and Africa [1-4]. It has now become evident that VAD in women has negative consequences on their health status as well as on their infants [3,4]. The link between VAD morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases [5] and non-infectious diseases [6-8] has been known for several years.VAD in pregnant women is associated with night blindness, severe anaemia, wasting, malnutrition, and reproductive and infectious morbidity [9], and increased risk of mortality 1-2 years following delivery [4].
Calibration of GaAlAs Semiconductor Diode  [PDF]
S. B. Ota, Smita Ota
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.310184
Abstract: The forward voltage of GaAlAs semiconductor diode has been measured in the temperature range 50 K - 300 K and for current values between 10 nA and 450 μA. The forward voltage as a function of temperature is least-squares fitted and the coefficients are given. The 1st and 2nd order least-squares fitting has high temperature root between 400 K and 950 K. The presence of the high temperature root indicates that the fitted polynomials are of similar character. The high temperature root is found to increase for the least squares fitted polynomials corresponding to higher current values.
Nature of First-Order Transition in Planar Rotator Model with Modified Potential  [PDF]
Smita Ota, Snehadri Bihari Ota
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.41020

We have carried out micro-canonical Monte Carlosimulations of a planar rotator model in 30 × 30 lattice using periodic boundary conditions. The energy distribution of the rotator in the lattice shows features that can be associated with spin wave and vortex excitations. The results supplement the first-order transition observed in canonicalMonte Carlosimulation, due to vortex nucleation. We also see features that can be associated with the in-homogeneity of vortex charge in the critical region.

Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia
Bemnet Amare, Jemal Ali, Beyene Moges, Gizachew Yismaw, Yeshambel Belyhun, Simon Gebretsadik, Desalegn Woldeyohannes, Ketema Tafess, Ebba Abate, Mengistu Endris, Desalegn Tegabu, Andargachew Mulu, Fusao Ota, Bereket Fantahun, Afework Kassu
BMC Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-13-7
Abstract: A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction.A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1?±?2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n?=?80) and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n?=?20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z?=??0.198, P?>?0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy.The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the prevalence of allergy and their nutritional status, and parasite infection. Further research prospective observational and intervention studies are required to address the question of causality between nutritional factors, parasites, and allergy.According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 2 billion people are affected by helminthic infection worldwide [1]. These infections are responsible for high levels of morbidity and mo
Observation of Vortex Lattice Related Anomalies in Polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7-x Near the Superconducting Transition  [PDF]
S. B. Ota
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.310183
Abstract: The d.c. I-V characteristic of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7-x high temperature superconductors (HTSC) is measured near the transition temperature (Tc). The Tc was found to be 90 K with a width of 2 K. The voltage was measured at various current values and with reversing the current. A difference in voltage was found for forward and reverse current directions near Tc. The observed directionality of the I-V characteristic can be understood in terms of quantized magnetic flux by the self-field of the current and the proximity junctions in these materials. This can also be understood qualitatively as due to the d-wave superconductivity. The measured dc voltage showed increased noise near Tc which is possibly related to 1/f noise due to the motion of Abrikosov flux lines.
Vertebral Bone Drilling (Puncture) Attenuates the Acute Pain Due to Vertebral Compression Fractures  [PDF]
Koichi Ota, Sosi Iwasaki
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2014.42007

Purpose: The Investigational Vertebroplasty Efficacy and Safety Trial (INVEST), a randomized blinded controlled study of Vertebroplasty, demonstrated similar improvements in pain between blinded Vertebroplasty and sham-Vertebroplasty groups. The result from the RCT study suggested that the observed efficacy of the Vertebroplasty procedure, instead of representing the cement-mediated reduction in pain, may relate to the vertebral bone drilling per se. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of pain relief of vertebral bone drilling at the site of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in the acute phase. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients with painful osteoporotic compression fractures underwent the vertebral bone drilling. We assessed primary outcome measures in the NRS pain score and RDQ score at day 0 and 3 following the drilling. Comparisons were made by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The mean baseline NRS and RDQ score, and the mean NRS and RDQ score at day 3 were 7.3 ± 1.2, 15.7 ± 4.2, 4.6 ± 1.4, 7.3 ± 2.2, respectively. Among the patients, we detected significant improvements in NRS pain score and RDQ score at day 3 following the drilling compared with day 0 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Vertebral bone drilling at the site of painful vertebral compression fractures alleviated the intractable pain due to osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

Vertebral Bone Drilling (Puncture) Attenuates the Intractable Pain Due to Vertebral Fractures without Collapse  [PDF]
Koichi Ota, Hirosi Nagai
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2016.64012
Abstract: Purpose: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures with no sign of vertebral collapse on initial radiographs, which is so-called occult vertebral fractures (VFs), exist. Occult VFs have a high rate of missed diagnosis, and the treatment of these fractures has rarely been discussed in the literature. We evaluated the effects of vertebral bone drilling for the pain due to occults VFs. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients with painful osteoporotic occult VFs underwent the vertebral bone drilling. We evaluated the clinical outcome by comparing numerical rating scale (NRS) and activity of daily life (ADL) values between before and after the vertebral bone drilling. Comparisons were made by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The mean baseline NRS and ADL score, and the mean NRS and ALD score after the bone drilling were 8.4 ± 0.8, 2.2 ± 0.6, 2.4 ± 1.0, 4.6 ± 0.5, respectively. Among the patients, we detected significant improvements in NRS pain score and ADL score after the drilling compared with baseline score (p < 0.0002). Conclusion: Vertebral bone drilling at the site of painful vertebral compression fractures alleviated the intractable pain due to osteoporotic occult VFs.
Esmolol modulates inhibitory neurotransmission in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the rat
Yutaka Yasui, Eiji Masaki, Fusao Kato
BMC Anesthesiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2253-11-15
Abstract: Wistar rats (7-21 d, 17-50 g) were anesthetized with ketamine (100-150 mg/kg) or isoflurane (5%) and decapitated. Horizontal slices (400-μm thick) of the lower brainstem containing the substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the caudal part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5c), in which the nociceptive primary afferents form the first intracranial synapses, were made with a vibrating slicer. The miniature inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs and mEPSCs, respectively) were simultaneously recorded from visually identified SG neurons of the Sp5c in the presence of tetrodotoxin (1 μM). Additionally, mIPSCs were recorded during pharmacological isolation of GABA- and glycine-mediated mIPSCs with kynurenic acid (1 mM).Esmolol (500 μM) significantly and selectively increased the mIPSC frequency (to 214.2% ± 34.2% of the control, mean ± SEM, n = 35; P < 0.001), but not that of mEPSCs, without changing their amplitude. The increase in mIPSC frequency with esmolol was not affected by prior activation of β receptors with isoproterenol (100 μM) but it was significantly attenuated by removal of extracellular Ca2+.These data suggest that esmolol modulates inhibitory transmitter release in the Sp5c through a mechanism involving Ca2+-entry but in a β1-adrenoceptor-independent manner. The present results suggest that the facilitation of inhibitory transmitter release in the central nociceptive network underlies, at least in part, the antinociceptive effect of esmolol.Antagonists of the β adrenoceptors are frequently used in patients with cardiovascular diseases to avoid circulatory complications during various types of operations requiring anesthesia. Esmolol, a short-acting β1 antagonist, was recently reported to exert antinociceptive and anesthetic-sparing effects in animals and human subjects. For example, esmolol inhibits nociceptive responses following formalin injection in rats [1], reduces anesthetic requirements for skin incision during propofol/N2O and morphine a
Important Genes in the Pathogenesis of 5q- Syndrome and Their Connection with Ribosomal Stress and the Innate Immune System Pathway
Ota Fuchs
Leukemia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/179402
Abstract: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with interstitial deletion of a segment of the long arm of chromosome 5q [del(5q)] is characterized by bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia, atypical megakaryocytes, thrombocythemia, refractory anemia, and low risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with other types of MDS. The long arm of chromosome 5 contains two distinct commonly deleted regions (CDRs). The more distal CDR lies in 5q33.1 and contains 40 protein-coding genes and genes coding microRNAs (miR-143, miR-145). In 5q-syndrome one allele is deleted that accounts for haploinsufficiency of these genes. The mechanism of erythroid failure appears to involve the decreased expression of the ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14) gene and the upregulation of the p53 pathway by ribosomal stress. Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (Fli1) is one of the target genes of miR145. Increased Fli1 expression enables effective megakaryopoiesis in 5q-syndrome. 1. Introduction Approximately 15% of patients with MDS have abnormalities of chromosome 5 [1]. These abnormalities include interstitial deletion of a segment of the long arm of chromosome 5q [del(5q), 5q-syndrome], monosomy, and unbalanced translocations. 5q-syndrome as MDS category was defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) [2], and it is characterized by refractory macrocytic anemia with dyserythropoiesis, transfusion dependence, normal to elevated platelet counts, hypolobated and nonlobated megakaryocytes, female preponderance, a favourable prognosis, and low risk of progression to AML compared with other types of MDS [3–10]. Many research groups analysed chromosome 5q deletions in patients with 5q-syndrome. We will shortly describe these studies from historical point of view and not for relevance in the pathogenesis. Deletion of interferon regulatory factor-1 gene (IRF1) mapped to chromosome 5q31 was detected [11]. IRF1 is a putative tumor suppressor and a transcriptional activator of interferon and interferon-stimulated genes. IRF1 dosage experiments demonstrated that 2 patients with 5q-syndrome retained both copies of this gene [12]. Thus, IRF1 maps outside the common deleted segment of the 5q-chromosome, and the same result was obtained in the case of EGR1 (epidermal growth receptor 1) [13, 14]. Molecular mapping techniques defined the region of gene loss in two patients with the 5q-syndrome and uncharacteristically small 5q deletions (5q31–q33) [14]. The allelic loss of 10 genes localized to 5q23-qter [centromere-CSF2 (colony-stimulating factor 2/granulocyte-macrophage/)-EGR1 (early growth
A língua falada nas comunidades rurais nipo-brasileiras do estado de S o Paulo – considera es sobre koronia-go
Junko Ota
Synergies Brésil , 2009,
Abstract: Cet article veut présenter des données sur la langue japonaise parlée dans deux communautés rurales de l′état de S o Paulo. Pour ce faire, on se fonde sur les deux volets d′une recherche menée par l′Université d′Osaka et plusieurs universités brésiliennes en 2003. La collecte des données, qui fait partie du Projet Interface des Humanités du Centre de Programmes d′excellence de l′université d′Osaka, se proposait de receuillir dans plusieurs communautés nippo-brésiliennes des données linguistiques auprès de trois générations d′immigrés et de leurs descendants.
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