Abstract:
Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin.

Abstract:
Objective The 2010 WHO antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have resulted in increased tenofovir use. Little is known about tenofovir-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in HIV-infected Vietnamese with mean body weight of 55 kg. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in this country. Design Cross-sectional study was performed. Methods Clinical data on HIV-infected Vietnamese cohort were collected twice a year. To evaluate the prevalence of CKD, serum creatinine was measured in 771 patients in October 2011 and April 2012. CKD was defined as creatinine clearance less than 60 ml/min at both time points. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with CKD Results Tenofovir use increased in Vietnam from 11.9% in April 2011 to 40.3% in April 2012. CKD was diagnosed in 7.3%, of which 7% was considered moderate and 0.3% was severe. Multivariate analysis of October-2011 data identified age per year-increase (OR: 1.229, 95%CI, 1.170-1.291), body weight per 1 kg-decrement (1.286, 1.193-1.386), and tenofovir use (2.715, 1.028-7.168) as risk factors for CKD. Conclusions Older age, low body weight and tenofovir use were independent risk factors for CKD in Vietnam. Further longitudinal study is required to evaluate the impact of TDF on renal function in Vietnam and other countries with small-body weight patients.

Abstract:
The deconfining chiral transition in finite-temperature QCD is studied on the lattice using Wilson quarks. After discussing the nature of chiral limit with Wilson quarks, we first study the case of two degenerate quarks $N_F=2$, and find that the transition is smooth in the chiral limit on both $N_t=4$ and 6 lattices. For $N_F=3$, on the other hand, clear two state signals are observed for $m_q \simm{<} 140$ MeV on $\nt=4$ lattices. For a more realistic case of $N_F=2+1$, i.e.\ two degenerate u and d-quarks and a heavier s-quark, we study the cases $m_s \simeq 150$ and 400 MeV with $m_u = m_d \simeq 0$: In contrast to a previous result with staggered quarks, clear two state signals are observed for both cases, suggesting a first order QCD phase transition in the real world.

Abstract:
In these lectures, we introduce finite temperature QCD on the lattice to non-experts of the subject. We first formulate lattice QCD both at zero and finite temperatures. Then a section is devoted to the topic of improved lattice actions which are becoming an essential ingredient of precision studies of QCD on the lattice. We then discuss about finite temperature SU(3) gauge theory, i.e. QCD without dynamical quarks (quenched QCD). Finally, we report recent status of studies in full QCD taking into account the effects of dynamical quarks.

Abstract:
The effect of the strange quark in the finite temperature phase transition of QCD is studied on the lattice. Using the one-plaquette gauge action and the Wilson quark action, the transition in the chiral limit is shown to be continuous for the case of degenerate two flavors, $N_F=2$, while it is of first order for $N_F \geq 3$. For a more realistic case of massless up and down quarks and a light strange quark, $N_F=2+1$, clear two state signals are observed both for $m_s \simeq 150$ and 400 MeV. In contrast to a previous result with staggered quarks, this suggests a first order transition in the real world. In order to see the implication of these results to the continuum limit, we started to study these issues using improved actions. First results using a RG improved gauge action combined with the standard Wilson quark is presented for the case of $N_F=2$: With this action the finite temperature transition is shown to be continuous in the chiral limit confirming the result of the standard action. Furthermore, not like the case of the standard action where lattice artifacts make the transition once very strong at intermediate values of the hopping parameter $K$ on $N_t=4$ and 6 lattices, a smooth crossover is found for the improved action when we increase $1/K-1/K_c$, in accord with a naive expectation about the fate of second order chiral transition at finite $m_q$.

Abstract:
I review the present status of nonperturbative studies on the nature of the finite temperature QCD transition on the lattice, with the special attention to the determination of the order of the transition. [Talk given at the International Symposium on {\it Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies in the Universe}, Jan.\ 18 -- 20, 1996, Atami, Japan.]

Abstract:
The finite temperature QCD phase transition is studied on the lattice with degenerate two flavors of Wilson quarks. Motivated by reported strange behaviors with the standard action on lattices with the temporal extention $N_t=4$ and 6, a renormalization group improved gauge action is applied. On an $N_t=4$ lattice, the strange behaviors observed with the standard action are removed with our improved action. The finite temperature transition is continuous in the chiral limit and it becomes quite smooth in all observables we studied when we increase the quark mass by increasing $\beta$ along the crossover line.

Abstract:
I summarize recent lattice results on QCD at finite temperatures and densities. Studies on the nature of the QCD transition at the physical point, continuum extra polations of thermodynamic quantities, and new calculations of hadronic spectral functions applying the maximum entropy method are discussed. Recent advances in finite density QCD are also reviewed.

Abstract:
I report on some recent developments in nonperturbative studies of finite temperature QCD with dynamical quarks on the lattice. I discuss new studies of improved lattice actions and their application to finite temperature QCD. I also summarize the status of lattice investigations about the order of the finite temperature QCD transition for the case of two flavors of degenerate light quarks, using both staggered and Wilson lattice fermions.