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Reconstruction of the Lacustrine Delta and Lake Level Change Analyzing Subsurface Geology and Geomorphology: Changes That Occurred during the Holocene in the Oguraike Reclaimed Land Area, Southern Kyoto, Japan  [PDF]
Yuka Ito, Fujio Masuda
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2012.23021
Abstract: A paleo-lacustrine delta in Kyoto, Japan was reconstructed on the basis of subsurface geological and geomorphological analysis, and paleo-lake level changes were estimated from the structure of the delta. These analyses of the study region, i.e., the Oguraike reclaimed land area provided evidence that Lake Ogura existed until about 60 years ago in southern Kyoto, Japan. The Uji river delta was provided influents to this lake until ca. 400 years ago, as is indicated by an upward-coarsening delta succession of about 2 - 4 m thickness. The lake level could also have changed in the past as a result of a change in altitude of the delta-front (foreset) and delta-plain boundary, which probably reflects the lake surface elevation. About 400 years ago, the Paleo-Uji River was separated from Ogura Lake because a levee was constructed along the river for building a castle and for constructing a waterway for transportation. As a result of this construction, the lake level that was more than 13.0 m in elevation was reduced by 1.5 m. In a more ancient times, the lake level experienced two stages—one in which the elevation was more than 13.5 m, and one in which the elevation was reduced to less than 10 m. These changes in the lake level are represented by a flat surface with four steps and small cliff of height ca. 0.5 - 2 m (relative elevation) separating them, recognized at the southern lakeshore. The observation of strata along with the archaeological survey in the north of Ogura Lake reveals that the lake level was decreased ca. 800 - 680 years ago. The lake level was at its highest during two periods, the first from before the 8th century to the end of the 8th century and the second from the 14th century to 400 years ago.
Construction of Subsurface Geological Structures Using a Drilling Database: A Case Study for an Intra-Arc Basin, the Osaka Plain, Southwest Japan  [PDF]
Minao Sakurai, Fujio Masuda
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32006

Subsurface geological cross sections of 0 - 200 m depth were constructed using a dense drilling database of the Osaka Plain in the intra-arc Osaka Basin of the Japan island arc, an active plate margin. The cross sections revealed the subsurface geological structures and the geometry of folding and faulting in the basin. The comparison between the constructed subsurface cross sections and the seismic sections of the basement and basin fills at a depth of 1500 - 2000 m showed that the basement and shallow subsurface structures are similar; however, the shallow cross sections were of higher resolution than the deep seismic profiles.

Temporal and Spatial Variations of Accommodation and Sediment Accumulation during Transgressive to Highstand Stages as Reconstructed from a Latest Pleistocene to Holocene Sequence in the Intra-Arc Osaka Basin, Japan  [PDF]
Fujio Masuda, Natsumi Itomoto
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.51003
Abstract: Temporal and spatial variations in accommodation (i.e., paleo-water depth) and sediment accumulation (amount of deposition) in the intra-arc Osaka Basin, Japan, were reconstructed from the post-glacial transgression through the sea-level highstand, a total of 9000 years. At the beginning of the marine transgressive stage (about 11,000 cal y BP), paleo-water depths were shallow and the sediment accumulation was large. The area occupied by Osaka Bay gradually extended and sediment deposition decreased from 11,000 to 6000 cal y BP. During the period of maximum transgression (6000 - 5000 cal y BP), an inner bay, Kawachi Bay with a water depth of 5 - 10 m, was expanded in the inland eastern Osaka area, and paleo-water depths reached a maximum and depositional rates reached a minimum. During the subsequent highstand and small regression (about 5000 cal y BP to the present), however, deposition increased rapidly as a result of river delta and shoreline progradations. Regional differences were observed in accommodation and accumulation between the outer bay area and the inner bay area. During both the transgressive and regressive stages, deposition decreased in the inner bay area. In contrast, in the outer bay area and in the basin overall, deposition was high during the first part of the transgressive stage but it decreased during the maximum transgression, before reaching a maximum during the subsequent highstand and regression. During the regressive stage, fluvial delta progradation led to the formation of a thick sequence of delta body sediments. Sediment accumulation was 30% - 40% higher during the regressive stage than that during the transgressive stage.
A Comparison of Implications in Orthomodular Quantum Logic—Morphological Analysis of Quantum Logic
Mitsuhiko Fujio
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/259541
Abstract: Morphological operators are generalized to lattices as adjunction pairs (Serra, 1984; Ronse, 1990; Heijmans and Ronse, 1990; Heijmans, 1994). In particular, morphology for set lattices is applied to analyze logics through Kripke semantics (Bloch, 2002; Fujio and Bloch, 2004; Fujio, 2006). For example, a pair of morphological operators as an adjunction gives rise to a temporalization of normal modal logic (Fujio and Bloch, 2004; Fujio, 2006). Also, constructions of models for intuitionistic logic or linear logics can be described in terms of morphological interior and/or closure operators (Fujio and Bloch, 2004). This shows that morphological analysis can be applied to various non-classical logics. On the other hand, quantum logics are algebraically formalized as orhomodular or modular ortho-complemented lattices (Birkhoff and von Neumann, 1936; Maeda, 1980; Chiara and Giuntini, 2002), and shown to allow Kripke semantics (Chiara and Giuntini, 2002). This suggests the possibility of morphological analysis for quantum logics. In this article, to show an efficiency of morphological analysis for quantum logic, we consider the implication problem in quantum logics (Chiara and Giuntini, 2002). We will give a comparison of the 5 polynomial implication connectives available in quantum logics. 1. Mathematical Morphology Mathematical morphology is a method of non-linear signal processing using simple set-theoretic operations, which has the feasibility of extracting the characteristic properties of shapes [1, 2]. In this paper we will adopt the formulation thereof generalized on lattices [3–7]. We identify a binary relation and the correspondence from to . Namely, for . We call the relation with and exchanged, the transpose of and denote it by . 1.1. Dilation and Erosion Let , be partially ordered sets. If for any family of which has a supremum in , the image has the supremum in and holds, then we call the mapping a dilation from to . Similarly, by changing supremum by infimum, we may introduce an erosion. We call dilation and erosion morphological operations. For two elements of , we have , , the morphological operations are monotone. Example 1.1 (morphology of set lattices [7]). Given sets and , consider the lattices of their power sets , . Let be a binary relation in . Then the mappings and defined by are a dilation and an erosion, respectively. From the transpose we may similarly define the dilation and erosion , . The importance of this example lies in the fact that all morphological operations between set lattices are expressed in this form, whence it follows
TOPICAL REVIEW: Precipitate design for creep strengthening of 9% Cr tempered martensitic steel for ultra-supercritical power plants
Fujio Abe
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials , 2008,
Abstract: It is crucial for the carbon concentration of 9% Cr steel to be reduced to a very low level, so as to promote the formation of MX nitrides rich in vanadium as very fine and thermally stable particles to enable prolonged periods of exposure at elevated temperatures and also to eliminate Cr-rich carbides M23C6. Sub-boundary hardening, which is inversely proportional to the width of laths and blocks, is shown to be the most important strengthening mechanism for creep and is enhanced by the fine dispersion of precipitates along boundaries. The suppression of particle coarsening during creep and the maintenance of a homogeneous distribution of M23C6 carbides near prior austenite grain boundaries, which precipitate during tempering and are less fine, are effective for preventing the long-term degradation of creep strength and for improving long-term creep strength. This can be achieved by the addition of boron. The steels considered in this paper exhibit higher creep strength at 650 °C than existing high-strength steels used for thick section boiler components.
High-brightness ultra-cold metastable neon-beam
Fujio Shimizu
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: This paper presents detailed characteristics of an ultra-cold bright metastable neon atomic beam which we have been using for atom-interferometric applications. The basis of the device is an atomic beam released from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) which is operated with a high intensity trapping laser, high magnetic quadrupole field, and large laser detuining. Mainly due to the complex structure of three dimensional magnetic field and laser beams, a bright small spot of atoms is formed near the center of the quadrupole magnetic field under an appropriate operating condition. We obtained the minimum trap diameter of 50 micron meter, the atomic density nearly 10^{13}cm^{-3}, and the atomic temperature slightly less than the Doppler limited temperature of 200 micro-K. By releasing trapped atoms we obtained an bright cold atomic beam which is not far from the collision limited atomic density.
Associations between the HLA-A polymorphism and the clinical manifestations of Behcet's disease
Eun Ha Kang, Jeong Yeon Kim, Fujio Takeuchi, Joon Wan Kim, Kichul Shin, Eun Young Lee, Yun Jong Lee, Eun Bong Lee, Myoung Hee Park, Yeong Wook Song
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3292
Abstract: Genotyping for the HLA-A locus was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Luminex typing method in 223 BD patients and 1,398 healthy controls.The phenotypic frequencies of HLA-A*02:07 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.03, P = 0.002), A*26:01 (OR = 1.85, P = 0.008), and A*30:04 (OR = 2.51, P = 0.006) tended to be higher in BD patients than in normal controls, but the frequency of A*33:03 (OR = 0.59, P = 0.003) tended to be lower in BD patients. A meta-analysis adopting our and the Japanese data confirmed the associations of HLA-A*02:07, A*26:01, and A*33:03 with BD. Furthermore, the frequencies of the HLA-A*02:07, A*26:01, and A*30:04 were significantly higher in patients with skin lesions (OR = 2.37, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012) and arthritis (OR = 2.32, P = 0.002, Pc = 0.048), with uveitis (OR = 3.01, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012), and with vascular lesions (OR = 9.80, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012) and a positive pathergy test (OR = 4.10, P = 0.002, Pc = 0.048), respectively, than in controls. In HLA-B*51 non-carriers, these associations were also significant, being much stronger between HLA-A*26:01 and uveitis (OR = 4.19, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012) and between HLA-A*30:04 and vascular lesions (OR = 13.97, P < 0.00005, Pc < 0.0012). In addition, HLA-A*30:04 was associated with genital ulcers in HLA-B*51 non-carriers (OR = 3.89, P = 0.002, Pc = 0.048).HLA-A*02:07, A*26:01, and A*30:04 were associated with increased risk for BD, while HLA-A*33:03 with decreased risk. HLA-A*02:07, A*26:01, and A*30:04 were associated with skin lesions and arthritis, with uveitis, and with vascular lesions, genital ulcers, and a positive pathergy test, respectively.Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease characterized by oro-genital ulcers, cutaneous inflammation, and uveitis. In addition to its typical muco-cutaneous and ocular manifestations, BD targets the musculoskeletal, vascular, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems [1]. Although the etiology of BD remains unclear, strong famili
Biological Evaluation of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Using Thermoresponsive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Grafted Hyaluronan  [PDF]
Kazuaki Muramatsu, Mika Ide, Fujio Miyawaki
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.31001
Abstract: In order to contribute to the development of minimally invasive surgery techniques for autologous chondrocyte implantation, a novel self-assembling biomaterial consisting of thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted hyaluronan (PNIPAAm-g-HA) has been synthesized as an injectable scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and cytocompatibility of PNIPAAm-g-HA to normal chondrocytes by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and histochemical staining in preliminary in vitro and in vitro experiments. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed homogeneous distribution of cells in the PNIPAAm-g-HA hydrogel in 3-dimensional in vitro cultivation. Alcian blue staining also indicated that abundant extracellular matrix formation, including acidic glycosaminoglycans, occurred in tissue-engineered cartilage over time in vitro. Cartilage-related gene expression patterns, which were tested in rabbit normal chondrocytes embedded in the hydrogel, were almost maintained for 4 weeks. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) stimulation enhanced the expression of SRY-related HMG box-containing gene 9 (Sox9) and type X collagen genes suggesting promotion of chondrogenic differentiation. Histochemical evaluation showed neocartilage formation following subcutaneous implantation of the chondrocyte-gel mixture in nude mice. Furthermore, TGF-β1 stimulation promoted production and maturation of the extracellular matrix of the in situ tissue engineered hyaline cartilage. These data suggested that PNIPAAm-g-HA could be a promising biomaterial, i.e., a self-assembling and injectable scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.
Appearance of classical Mixmaster Universe from the No-Boundary Quantum State
Kazuya Fujio,Toshifumi Futamase
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.023504
Abstract: We investigate the appearance of the classical anisotropic universe from the no-boundary quantum state according to the prescription proposed by Hartle, Hawking and Hertog. Our model is homogeneous, anisotropic, closed universes with a minimally coupled scalar field and cosmological constant. We found that there are an ensemble of classical Lorentzian histories with anisotropies and experience inflationary expansion at late time, and the probability of histories with anisotropies are lower than isotropic histories. Thus the no-boundary condition may be able to explain the emergence of our universe. If the classical late time histories are extended back, some become singular by the existence of initial anisotropies with large accelerations. However we do not find any chaotic behavior of anisotropies near the initial singularity.
The Multicenter Study of a New Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Anti-Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases in Myositis and Interstitial Pneumonia
Ran Nakashima, Yoshitaka Imura, Yuji Hosono, Minae Seto, Akihiro Murakami, Kizuku Watanabe, Tomohiro Handa, Michiaki Mishima, Michito Hirakata, Tsutomu Takeuchi, Keishi Fujio, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Hitoshi Kohsaka, Yoshinari Takasaki, Noriyuki Enomoto, Takafumi Suda, Kingo Chida, Shu Hisata, Toshihiro Nukiwa, Tsuneyo Mimori
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085062
Abstract: Objective Autoantibodies to aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are useful in the diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) with interstitial pneumonia (IP). We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system using a mixture of recombinant ARS antigens and tested its utility in a multicenter study. Methods: We prepared six recombinant ARSs: GST-Jo-1, His-PL-12, His-EJ and GST-KS expressed in Escherichia coli, and His-PL-7 and His-OJ expressed in Hi-5 cells. After confirming their antigenic activity, with the exception of His-OJ, we developed our ELISA system in which the five recombinant ARSs (without His-OJ) were mixed. Efficiency was confirmed using the sera from 526 Japanese patients with connective tissue disease (CTD) (IIM n = 250, systemic lupus erythematosus n = 91, systemic sclerosis n = 70, rheumatoid arthritis n = 75, Sj?gren’s syndrome n = 27 and other diseases n = 13), 168 with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and 30 healthy controls collected from eight institutes. IIPs were classified into two groups; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 38) and non-IPF (n = 130). Results were compared with those of RNA immunoprecipitation. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were 97.1% and 99.8%, respectively when compared with the RNA immunoprecipitation assay. Anti-ARS antibodies were detected in 30.8% of IIM, 2.5% of non-myositis CTD, and 10.7% of IIP (5.3% of IPF and 12.3% of non-IPF). Anti-ARS-positive non-IPF patients were younger and more frequently treated with glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressants than anti-ARS-negative patients. Conclusion: A newly established ELISA detected anti-ARS antibodies as efficiently as RNA immunoprecipitation. This system will enable easier and wider use in the detection of anti-ARS antibodies in patients with IIM and IIP.
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