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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3453 matches for " Fritz Francois "
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Colorectal cancer screening of high-risk populations: A national survey of physicians
Pascale M White, Malini Sahu, Michael A Poles, Fritz Francois
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-64
Abstract: The average knowledge score was 37 ± 18% among the 512 respondents. Gastroenterologists averaged higher scores compared to internists, and family physicians, p = 0.001. Only 28% of physicians correctly identified the screening initiation point for African-Americans while only 12% of physicians correctly identified the screening initiation point and interval for a patient with a family history of CRC. The most commonly cited barriers to referring high-risk patients for CRC screening were "patient refusal" and "lack of insurance reimbursement."There is a lack of knowledge amongst physicians of the screening guidelines for high-risk populations, based on family history and ethnicity. Educational programs to improve physician knowledge and to reduce perceived barriers to CRC screening are warranted to address health disparities in colorectal cancer.As the third leading cause of malignancy-related death in the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC) is expected to be responsible for over 50,000 deaths in 2011 [1,2]. While various CRC screening efforts have been implemented [3], notable disparities in screening prevalence exist among minorities, those with low incomes, lower education, as well as among individuals without health insurance [3].While some of the barriers that influence CRC screening rates include patient factors, as delineated above [4-6], there are also physician-related factors that should be considered, such as failure to recommend screening to patients [7-9]. The decision whether or not to adopt a screening strategy might be driven by both physician-perceived as well as real barriers such as patient co-morbidities, prior patient refusal of screening and lack of patient compliance, physician forgetfulness, time restrictions, and a lack of reminder systems and test tracking systems [10,11]. In addition, physician knowledge of current CRC screening guidelines may be an important contributing factor to screening referral practices.Primary care physician reco
Physical activity reduces risk for colon polyps in a multiethnic colorectal cancer screening population
Nelson F Sanchez, Bryan Stierman, Said Saab, Divya Mahajan, Howa Yeung, Fritz Francois
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-312
Abstract: We enrolled 982 patients: 558 Hispanic, 202 Asian,149 Black, and 69 White. Patients who reported exercising one or more hours weekly had a lower prevalence of any polyps (25.3% vs 33.2%, P?=?0.008) as well as adenomas (13.8 vs. 18.9%, P?=?0.03) compared to those who did not exercise. Black and Hispanic patients and those who were overweight or obese also had lower prevalence of polyps if they led an active lifestyle. Multivariate analysis revealed that age >55, male sex, and Black race/ethnicity were positively associated with the presence of adenomas, while a history of exercising one hour or more weekly was an independent negative predictor for the presence of adenomas anywhere in the colon (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.4 - 0.9, P?=?0.03).Exercising one hour per week was associated with a lower prevalence of polyps and adenomas when compared to those who exercised less or not at all. An active lifestyle provides benefits to groups who are at risk for colorectal cancer, such as Blacks. It also provides significant protection to overweight and obese individuals. Public health initiatives should promote physical activity as a cancer prevention tool in multiethnic populations.noneAs the second leading cause of overall cancer death in the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains an important preventable public health concern. In 2010 an estimated 142,570 new cases of CRC were diagnosed and there were 51,370 associated deaths [1]. There are notable racial/ethnic differences in the epidemiology of the disease. The National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Report determined a colorectal cancer incidence rate of 54.71/100,000 for Blacks versus 43.16 for Whites, 39.78 for Asians, and 35.84 for Hispanics [2]. Identifying modifiable factors that influence the epidemiology of colorectal cancer incidence among multiethnic groups might be informative for the development of public health strategies targeting the disease.Physical activity has bee
Climate Change Favors Grapevine Production in Temperate Zones  [PDF]
Bruno Koch, Fritz Oehl
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.93019
Abstract: Wine production has a long-standing history in Palatinate (Southwestern Germany), dating back to Roman times. Especially “Riesling”, but also several “Pinot” varieties gained major significance. Red wine varieties gained prominence over the last 20 years only, which may be a consequence of climate change. Our objective was to review temperature and rainfall data over the last 40 years, measured “on-winery” in Hainfeld and correlate these data with grapevine growth parameters: the development of bud break, flowering, veraison and harvest dates, yields and grape sugar concentrations of “Pinot Gris”, “Pinot Noir”, “Riesling”, “Silvaner” and “Müller-Thurgau”. Since the 1970s, bud break, flowering and veraison are 11 - 15, 18 - 22 and 16 - 22 days earlier; harvest dates are 25 - 40 days earlier. Sugar concentrations increased significantly, but yields decreased. Annual rainfall has not significantly risen, while the mean annual minimum and maximum air-temperatures rose by ~0.9°C, and by ~3.4°C, respectively, resulting in an average increase of the mean annual temperature of ~2.1°C. Remarkably, both mean monthly minimum and maximum temperatures rose especially in springtime, which should have been the driver for earlier bud break and flowering. A change in the climatic conditions, therefore, appears to be one of the key reasons for more favorable grapevine production in Palatinate, especially for “Pinot Noir”, which showed the highest increase in sugar concentrations. The Huglin-index, a measure for the suitability of growing specific grapevine varieties in given environments, increased from 1685 to 2063. According to this index, the climate change may be favorable already for growing grape varieties so far rarely grown in temperate zones, such as “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Syrah” and “Tempranillo” that are more suited to warmer, Mediterranean climates.
The effect of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin
Fritz Francois, Jatin Roper, Neal Joseph, Zhiheng Pei, Aditi Chhada, Joshua R Shak, Asalia de Perez, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Martin J Blaser
BMC Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-11-37
Abstract: Veterans referred for upper GI endoscopy were evaluated at baseline and ≥8 weeks after endoscopy, and H. pylori status and body weight were ascertained. During the first visit in all subjects, and during subsequent visits in the initially H. pylori-positive subjects and controls, blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h after a standard high protein meal, and levels of eight hormones determined.Of 92 enrolled subjects, 38 were H. pylori-negative, 44 H. pylori-positive, and 10 were indeterminate. Among 23 H. pylori-positive subjects who completed evaluation after treatment, 21 were eradicated, and 2 failed eradication. After a median of seven months following eradication, six hormones related to energy homeostasis showed no significant differences, but post-prandial acylated ghrelin levels were nearly six-fold higher than pre-eradication (p = 0.005), and median integrated leptin levels also increased (20%) significantly (p < 0.001). BMI significantly increased (5 ± 2%; p = 0.008) over 18 months in the initially H. pylori-positive individuals, but was not significantly changed in those who were H. pylori-negative or indeterminant at baseline.Circulating meal-associated leptin and ghrelin levels and BMI changed significantly after H. pylori eradication, providing direct evidence that H. pylori colonization is involved in ghrelin and leptin regulation, with consequent effects on body morphometry.The healthful regulation of energy homeostasis in humans, depends on centrally-acting hormones such as ghrelin and leptin [1,2]. Serum ghrelin concentrations increase during fasting, and decrease after eating [3]; ghrelin decreases energy expenditure and promotes weight gain [4]. In contrast, leptin produced primarily by adipocytes, reduces appetite and increases energy utilization [5]. The gastric epithelium expresses both ghrelin and leptin (and their receptors) [6,7]; inflammation can modify their production [8,9].Helicobacter pylori, which colonizes the human stom
Association between Selected Oral Pathogens and Gastric Precancerous Lesions
Christian R. Salazar, Jinghua Sun, Yihong Li, Fritz Francois, Patricia Corby, Guillermo Perez-Perez, Ananda Dasanayake, Zhiheng Pei, Yu Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051604
Abstract: We examined whether colonization of selected oral pathogens is associated with gastric precancerous lesions in a cross-sectional study. A total of 119 participants were included, of which 37 were cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia. An oral examination was performed to measure periodontal indices. Plaque and saliva samples were tested with real-time quantitative PCR for DNA levels of pathogens related to periodontal disease (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) and dental caries (Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus). There were no consistent associations between DNA levels of selected bacterial species and gastric precancerous lesions, although an elevated but non-significant odds ratio (OR) for gastric precancerous lesions was observed in relation to increasing colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 1.36 for one standard deviation increase, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.87–2.12), P. gingivalis (OR = 1.12, 0.67–1.88) and T. denticola (OR = 1.34, 0.83–2.12) measured in plaque. To assess the influence of specific long-term infection, stratified analyses by levels of periodontal indices were conducted. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly associated with gastric precancerous lesions (OR = 2.51, 1.13–5.56) among those with ≥ median of percent tooth sites with PD≥3 mm, compared with no association among those below the median (OR = 0.86, 0.43–1.72). A significantly stronger relationship was observed between the cumulative bacterial burden score of periodontal disease-related pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions among those with higher versus lower levels of periodontal disease indices (p-values for interactions: 0.03–0.06). Among individuals with periodontal disease, high levels of colonization of periodontal pathogens are associated with an increased risk of gastric precancerous lesions.
Re-Finding PL.AC.E. for Walking: Assessment of Key-Elements Using Questionnaire  [PDF]
Fritz Akhmad Nuzir, Bart Dewancker
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.34023
Abstract: Many studies had already been conducted to acknowledge the contribution of walking in sustainable urban development. After conducting a literature study, authors identified the 3 (three) keyelements and introduced them as PL.AC.E. (abbreviation of Profile, Activity, and Environment), of the pedestrian. The Pedestrian Profile was defined as a combination of the following key-attributes: age; financial income; physical condition; gender; mobility choice; employment and education; social cultural capital; pedestrian type; and public transportation usage. The Pedestrian Activity was defined from the key-attributes as follow: walking-related purposes; social interaction; walking intensity; walking habits; and transport modes interaction. Then the Pedestrian Environment was defined within key-attributes of: spatial planning; walk-ability; neighborhood livability; traffic safety; pedestrian facilities (hard elements); pedestrian facilities (soft elements); and environmental quality. In this study, authors would assess those key-elements by distributing a questionnaire to a group of freshmen of the Department of Architecture in the University of Kitakyushu, Japan as a trial experiment. Total 58 responses were recorded and then analyzed using correlations type statistical analysis. It was then concluded that there are indications that those key-elements could be addressed in the planning process of a walk-able urban environment. However in order to validate the result, authors would continue to further distribute the questionnaire to various respondents within different case study areas.
Bounds for Goal Achieving Probabilities of Mean-Variance Strategies with a No Bankruptcy Constraint  [PDF]
Alexandre Scott, Francois Watier
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.312A278

We establish, through solving semi-infinite programming problems, bounds on the probability of safely reaching a desired level of wealth on a finite horizon, when an investor starts with an optimal mean-variance financial investment strategy under a non-negative wealth restriction.

The Mathematical Foundations of General Relativity Revisited  [PDF]
Jean-Francois Pommaret
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.48A022

The purpose of this paper is to present for the first time an elementary summary of a few recent results obtained through the application of the formal theory of partial differential equations and Lie pseudogroups in order to revisit the mathematical foundations of general relativity. Other engineering examples (control theory, elasticity theory, electromagnetism) will also be considered in order to illustrate the three fundamental results that we shall provide successively. 1) VESSIOT VERSUS CARTAN: The quadratic terms appearing in the “Riemann tensor” according to the “Vessiot structure equations” must not be identified with the quadratic terms appearing in the well known “Cartan structure equations” for Lie groups. In particular, “curvature + torsion” (Cartan) must not be considered as a generalization of “curvature alone” (Vessiot). 2) JANET VERSUS SPENCER: The “Ricci tensor” only depends on the nonlinear transformations (called “elations” by Cartan in 1922) that describe the “difference” existing between the Weyl group (10 parameters of the Poincaré subgroup + 1 dilatation) and the conformal group of space-time (15 parameters). It can be defined without using the indices leading to the standard contraction or trace of the Riemann tensor. Meanwhile, we shall obtain the number of components of the Riemann and Weyl tensors without any combinatoric argument on the exchange of indices. Accordingly and contrary to the “Janet sequence”, the “Spencer sequence” for the conformal Killing system and its formal adjoint fully describe the Cosserat equations, Maxwell equations and Weyl equations but General Relativity is not coherent with this result. 3) ALGEBRA VERSUS GEOMETRY: Using the powerful methods of “Algebraic Analysis”, that is a mixture of homological agebra and differential geometry, we shall prove that, contrary to other equations of physics (Cauchy

The Mathematical Foundations of Gauge Theory Revisited  [PDF]
Jean-Francois Pommaret
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.55026

We start recalling with critical eyes the mathematical methods used in gauge theory and prove that they are not coherent with continuum mechanics, in particular the analytical mechanics of rigid bodies (despite using the same group theoretical methods) and the well known couplings existing between elasticity and electromagnetism (piezzo electricity, photo elasticity, streaming birefringence). The purpose of this paper is to avoid such contradictions by using new mathematical methods coming from the formal theory of systems of partial differential equations and Lie pseudo groups. These results finally allow unifying the previous independent tentatives done by the brothers E. and F. Cosserat in 1909 for elasticity or H. Weyl in 1918 for electromagnetism by using respectively the group of rigid motions of space or the conformal group of space-time. Meanwhile we explain why the Poincaré duality scheme existing between geometry and physics has to do with homological algebra and algebraic analysis. We insist on the fact that these results could not have been obtained before 1975 as the corresponding tools were not known before.

A Multinomial Theorem for Hermite Polynomials and Financial Applications  [PDF]
Francois Buet-Golfouse
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.66094
Abstract: Different aspects of mathematical finance benefit from the use Hermite polynomials, and this is particularly the case where risk drivers have a Gaussian distribution. They support quick analytical methods which are computationally less cumbersome than a full-fledged Monte Carlo framework, both for pricing and risk management purposes. In this paper, we review key properties of Hermite polynomials before moving on to a multinomial expansion formula for Hermite polynomials, which is proved using basic methods and corrects a formulation that appeared before in the financial literature. We then use it to give a trivial proof of the Mehler formula. Finally, we apply it to no arbitrage pricing in a multi-factor model and determine the empirical futures price law of any linear combination of the underlying factors.
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