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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 186 matches for " Fredrick Okono "
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Evaluating Human Resource Capacity for Crop Breeding in National Programs in Africa and South and Southeast Asia  [PDF]
Ndeye Ndack Diop, Fredrick Okono, Jean-Marcel Ribaut
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.410A011

Plant breeders must keep abreast of the rapid evolution of new technologies, and also implement information management strategies that efficaciously handle the ever growing amount of data required for efficient integrated breeding. Updated training for breeders is critical to build relevant human resource capacity, particularly in developing countries whose breeding programs suffer a lack of staff with diverse expertise. The CGIAR Generation Challenge Programme is leading such a capacity-building initiative. A survey was conducted among course nominees to establish a baseline of breeder level of education, knowledge and skills in analyzing data and their involvement in molecular breeding programs. The breeders were mainly from three regions: West and Central Africa, East and Southern Africa, and South and Southeast Asia, and also included a few participants from North Africa. Many of the breeders from all the regions held or were working towards a PhD. Gender balance was low, principally in West and Central Africa, where less than 15% of the breeders were women. Between 57% and 73% of the breeders surveyed in the different regions were involved in molecular breeding projects at regional or international level. The Use of multiple software tools by individual breeders for data analysis was low for breeders from all the regions, with most using 1 - 3 packages. A lack of high data-analysis capacity will be a problem in an era where integration of genomics and phenotypic data in breeding programs is essential to efficiently deliver improved cultivars.

Causes of Cracks on Structures in Ngara-Tanzania  [PDF]
Fikiri Fredrick Magafu, Wu Li
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.212121
Abstract: Development of macro and micro cracks on plastered walls and floors have been studied at different sites under site investigation whereby building inspections, construction history, engineering properties of soil and building surroundings assessment were conducted. We did revision of structural calculations and laboratory experiment to find out the source of cracks. Micro and macro cracks have no structural problems on the structure so long as the developed cracks are within the serviceability limit state [1]. There are two main causes of cracks in the structure that are structural and nonstructural sources [2]. The first task was to identify whether the source of cracks are structural or non structural. During site investigation the modes of crack formation, depth and length of crack, crack patterns and direction were studied at different sites in Ngara. Theoretical calculations of crack width and particles size distribution of sand from three main sources were analyzed after performing both sieve analysis and decantation tests. In depth site investigation, literature review and laboratory tests result showed that the causes of cracks are nonstructural and all three reliable sources of sand in Ngara contain more quantities of fines than that specified in BS 882. This paper is looking for the causes of cracks on structures and recommending further research on new idea of using simple technology and low cost methods that is affordable by both the government of Tanzania and local community of Ngara to overcome the problem of structures that develop micro and macro cracks.
Utilization of Local Available Materials to Stabilize Native Soil (Earth Roads) in Tanzania—Case Study Ngara  [PDF]
Fikiri Fredrick Magafu, Wu Li
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.27068
Abstract: The native soil behavior of unpaved low volume roads and their mode of failure were studied to establish proper method of stabilizing native soils using local available materials. The use of lime and its positive effect to modify and stabilize Ngara soil in Tanzania is presented in this paper. There are many methods of stabilizing soil to gain required engineering specifications. These methods range from mechanical to chemical stabilization. Most of these methods are relatively expensive to be implemeted by slowly developing nations and the best way is to use locally available materials with relatively cheap costs affordable by their internal funds. Tanzania is a country having abundantly amount of Lime. Ngara native soil roads (unpaved rural roads) was studied under preliminary investigation and found to have higher plasticity, tendency of swelling and shrinking, low bearing capacity when wet, compressive strength of soil to have higher sensitivity to moisture and lower shear strength when wet. These soil behaviors deny road access to about 32 million people in Tanzania (80% of population) during rainy season. The detailed investigations is still going on at China university of Geosciences but other results from similar researches show that Ngara soils can be stabilized by lime and gain the required engineering properties.
Biochemical and endocrine aspects of oxytocin production by the mammalian corpus luteum
Fredrick Stormshak
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-1-92
Abstract: Ott and Scott [1] are believed to be the first investigators to unknowingly demonstrate that the corpus luteum is a rich source of oxytocin. These researchers reported that an aqueous extract of the corpus luteum when injected into a goat, stimulated immediate milk flow.Forty-three years elapsed before Du Vigneaud et al. [2] reported the amino acid sequence of oxytocin and nearly another 30 years passed before Wathes and Swann [3] demonstrated by radioimmunoassay and chromatography that the ovine and human corpus luteum contained oxytocin. In subsequent years, presence of luteal oxytocin was reported for the cow [4], cynomolgus monkey [5], goat [6], baboon [7] and sow [8]. Although corpora lutea of the sow have been shown to contain oxytocin it is the uterus of this species that produces the majority of oxytocin of reproductive tract origin [9,10]. Similarly, in the rat [11] and apparently the mare [12] the uterus, and not the ovary, is the primary source of oxytocin.Although oxytocin has been found to be synthesized by the corpus luteum of a number of mammalian species it is the presence of this nanopeptide in the corpora lutea of ruminants that has received considerable study. Focused interest on luteal oxytocin in these animals for the most part reflects research conducted to elucidate its role in processes of luteal regression. Therefore, the remaining aspects of this review on luteal oxytocin will encompass primarily research conducted on the ruminant.To appreciate the unique facets of luteal oxytocin biosynthesis it is essential to recognize that initial expression of the oxytocin gene begins in the preovulatory follicle. Evidence for the existence of oxytocin in the preovulatory follicles of the cow and ewe was first reported by Wathes et al. [13,14]. Subsequently, Voss and Fortune [15] measured in vitro oxytocin production by granulosa cells isolated from bovine preovulatory follicles during the early, mid- and late follicular phase. Granulosa cells isolated
Political economy of the Kenyan media - towards a culture of active citizen journalism
Fredrick Ogenga
Global Media Journal : African Edition , 2011, DOI: 10.5789/4-2-3
Abstract: This paper utilises Hall’s (1977) ‘encoding-decoding’ theory in the context of critical political economy theories of the media and cultural studies to explain the political, economic and cultural factors that influence media operation and content both at a macro and micro level. While political economy provides the setting in which the Kenyan media operates, cultural studies show how media content is not only shaped by the political and economic environments comprising those in power positions. Audiences are also actively engaged in the process of meaning construction. Considering Hall’s (1977) encoding-decoding theory, the audiences can reject, negotiate or accept media content based on their own value systems and cultural orientation. Meaning, therefore, becomes a product of continual struggle between different discourses and power cannot be located in a top down manner as to who influences meaning as seen in a propaganda model. This is due to the fact that texts are diffused in different locations in society. The 2008 Kenya Communication Bill is utilised as an example to trace briefly the political and historical developments of policy issues that have influenced the Kenyan media. The Bill, furthermore, indicates how a weak socio-economic, political and cultural environment is marred by ineffectual policies meant to safeguard and guarantee the freedom of the press as an extension of individual freedom of expression as enshrined in the Kenyan constitution. This weak policy context has ensured the Kenyan media remains subject to easy political manipulation and control. However, the paper concludes by showing how citizen journalism is growing out of a regulated mainstream media through internet technology.
Multiphase theory of Lennard-Jones nanofluids and the vaporization and condensation of nanodroplets
Fredrick Michael
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Recently there has been growing interest in nanofluids and nanodroplet engineering and applications. In this paper we derive a theory of Lennard-Jones fluids in multiphase dynamics from the information theoretic approach in analogy to the fully quantum mechanical theory of phase transitions. We derive least biased distributions of the particles and some analytic solutions are obtained.
Notes On The Klein-Gordon Equation
Fredrick Michael
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: In this article, we derive the scalar parametrized Klein-Gordon equation from the formal information theory framework. The least biased probability distribution is obtained, and the scalar equation is recast in terms of a Fokker-Planck equation in terms of the imaginary time, or a Schroedinger equation for the proper time. This method yields the Green's function parametrized by an evolution parameter. The derivation can then allow the use of potentials as constraints along with the Hamiltonian or moments of the evolution. The information theoretic, analogously the maximum entropy method, also allows one to examine the possibility of utilizing generalized and non-extensive statistics in the derivation. This approach yields non-linear evolution in the parametrized Klein-Gordon partial differential equations. Furthermore, we examine the Klein-Gordon equation in curved space-time, and we compare our results to the results of Schwinger and Dewitt obtained from path integral approaches.
Exact Coupling Of Event Horizons In Curved Spacetime Heterostructures. Application To Black-Hole Physics
Fredrick Michael
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Recently we have discussed the generalized parametrized Klein-Gordon equation for curved spacetime. We have also discussed its derivation from several approaches, the direct Feynman parametrization, the state function entropy or equivalently the information theory approach, and the stochastic differential equation approach. We have even suggested a generalization of the statistics of the entropy to the generalized entropies and derived the particular nonextensive statistics parametrized Klein-Gordon equation, and discussed its nonlinear FPE replacement of the complicated Gibbs-Boltzmann statistics entropy derived analog with complicated nonlinear potential or drift and diffusion coefficients. In this article we apply these previously derived results to the quantum transport in abruptly coupled curved space-time heterostructures, applied here specifically to Black-Hole event horizon coupling to normal curved space-time. We derive the coupling self energy, and the Garcia-Molliner surface Green's functions from which we can calculate the surface area and entropy. We then derive the nonequilibrium transport equations for the radiation from the Black-Hole. We discuss the theory application to Worm Holes and quantum analogues.
Non Super-Cell SuperConductivity Of High Tc Materials
Fredrick Michael
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Recently we have described materials interface transport coupling rigorously utilizing NEGF nonequilibrium Green's functions, and have discussed the Hamiltonian terms that from Green's theorem and boundary conditions can be rewritten as Self Energy. We derive the application of our theory to the high $Tc$ Superconducting materials interfaces that are the composition of the high temperature superconducting materials. The derivation models a non super-cell geometry of plaquettes that will describe the superconducting 2D material in abrupt coupling with the material of insulating or normal conducting composition.
Nonlinear Bloch-Torrey Equation
Fredrick Michael
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Recently, there has been an examination of the nonexponential relaxation profiles of the NMR signal. The exponential relaxation from Bloch-Torrey equations with constant diffusion coefficients are known to be an approximation, and research has been in areas that would reproduce non-exponential relaxation. These would be from statistical models, phenomenological models, and microscopic models including a recent fractional derivative approach. In this letter we derive a nonlinear Bloch-Torrey partial differential equation that has equivalently a non-constant diffusion coefficient and a linear probability and for which the solution is of a q-parametrized power-law distribution of the nonextensive Tsallis statistics.
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